Ionospheric Precursors of Earthquakes

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Springer Science & Business Media, 31 авг. 2004 г. - Всего страниц: 315
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Using the kind permission given to me by my co-author, this short preface will be written in my name. I want to devote this book to San Juan city in Argentina. It is not only due to the fact that the city was twice completely destroyed after the devastating ear- quakes in 1941 and 1977, but also because my stay there completely changed my life. Changes included changing my career from the field of space plasma physics to Earth sciences and geophysics, and changes in my personal life giving me h- piness and compliance in my present family. Going back to the subject of the book, it should be noted that the history of the question asked by the book is very complicated and intricate. Starting in the 1930s from the observation of seismogenic electric fields, the area of seismo-ionospheric coupling became an area of fighting and conflicts, hopes and frustrations. Spe- lation and misunderstanding on the interdisciplinary borders made this field for many years (even up to now) taboo for so-called "serious scientists". But due to the courageous efforts of several groups in Russia and the former USSR states such as Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, Japan, later France and Taiwan, Greece and Italy the situation started to improve.
 

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Содержание

Chapter 1 The Basic Components of Seismolonospheric Coupling
1
12 Seismology
2
121 Physical Background of Earthquake Prediction
8
122 Radon Emanation as a Precursory Phenomenon
10
123 Other Geochemical Precursors
13
125 Earthquake Preparation Zone
15
126 Concluding Remarks
18
131 Ionosphere Formation
19
42 Wave Channel
131
422 Wave Propagation and Penetration into the Ionosphere
132
423 AGW Effects on the Ionosphere
134
424 Limitations and Contradictions
135
43 Electric Field Channel
139
432 Calculation of the Electric Field in the ERegion Cylindrical Source
140
433 Calculation of the Electric Field in the ERegion Elongated Source
143
434 Effects of the Anomalous Electric Field in the ERegion
145

132 DRegion
20
133 ERegion
21
134 FRegion
22
135 F2Layer
23
136 Vertical Ionospheric Sounding
24
137 The Global Structure of the Earths Ionosphere
27
138 Ionospheric Regular Variations
30
139 Effects of Magnetic Storms in the Ionosphere
32
1310 DaytoDay Ionosphere Variability
35
1311 Concluding Remarks
36
141 Ionizing Radiation Effect on the Atmosphere
38
142 Sources of Ionization of the Earths Atmosphere
39
143 The Primary Processes of Atmospheric Air Ionization
40
144 The Secondary Processes and Ion Clusters Formation
42
15 The Global Electric Circuit and Atmospheric Electricity
43
152 Electrode Effect
45
153 Variability in the Boundary NearGround Atmospheric Layers
46
154 Concluding Remarks
47
Ionospheric Precursors of Earthquakes as they are seen from the Ground and from Space
49
21 Good Friday 1964
50
211 Geophysical Conditions Around the Time of the Alaska Earthquake in 1964
53
212 Ground and Space Portraits of the Alaska Earthquake Precursor
54
22 Ionospheric Precursors Registered by Ground Based Ionosondes
60
221 Ionospheric Precursors Visualization
61
222 The Diversity of the Ionospheric Precursors Shape
63
23 Precursory Effects in the DLayer
65
24 ELayer Reaction to the Earthquake Preparation
67
25 The FLayer Upper Ionosphere and Magnetosphere
71
252 Vertical ReDistribution of Electron Concentration Before Earthquakes
73
253 ShortPeriod Variations in the Ionosphere Before Earthquakes
75
2541 Electromagnetic Fields and Noises
76
2542 Variations of Local Plasma Parameters Before Earthquakes
78
2543 Particle Precipitations Associated with Earthquakes Registered by the Satellites
81
26 Optical Emissions Associated with Earthquakes
83
261 Earthquake Lights
84
262 Optical Emissions Registered in the Ionosphere
86
27 Conclusion
88
Near Ground and Troposphere Plasmachemistry and Electric Field
89
32 Atmospheric Plasma
92
33 Atmosphere Ionization
93
34 The Characteristics of Radiative Sources
94
342 Beta Emission
95
344 Radon
96
35 Ionized Atmosphere Models
97
352 The Model of the HighEnergy Particle Track in the Lower Atmosphere
99
353 Numeric Modeling of the Molecular Processes within the Track
100
354 The Model Application Criterion
103
355 The Low Degree of Ionization the Model of Stable Ions Formation in the Low Layers of the Atmosphere
105
356 Analysis of the Most Probable IonMolecular Reactions of the Lower Atmosphere
106
357 Analysis of Processes of the Main Negative Ions Formation in the Lower Atmosphere
107
358 Analysis of Processes of the Main Positive Ions Formation in the Lower Atmosphere
109
359 Numeric Solution of the Kinetic Equations
112
36 On the Conception of Neutral Ion Clusters in Air
115
37 Electric Field Generation
120
371 Electrode Effect
121
372 Electric Field Reversals
124
373 Active Experiments
126
Physics of SeismoIonospheric Coupling
129
435 Formation of Sporadic Layers in the ERegion
146
436 Electric Field Effects in the FRegion
149
437 Effects in the F2Region from Large Tectonic Faults
152
438 Generation of Acoustic Gravity Waves in the Ionosphere and their Possible Effects
156
439 Electric Field Effect in Upper Ionosphere and Magnetosphere
159
4310 From the Magnetosphere to the DRegion
163
4311 Ion Mass Changes in the Ionosphere as a Precursory Effect
165
44 The Model Generalization
166
441 Block Diagram of the SeismoIonospheric Coupling Model
169
Main Phenomenological Features of Ionospheric Precursors of Earthquakes
173
52 When the Ionosphere Starts to feel Earthquake Preparation
174
522 Temporal Parameters of Ionospheric Precursors
175
523 Spatial Distribution of Ionospheric Precursors
181
524 Local Ionospheric Plasma Parameter Variations Before Earthquakes
186
525 Magnetic Disturbances and Earthquakes Precursors
190
526 Altitude Changes in the Ionosphere Before Earthquakes
195
527 Periodic Variations Within the Ionosphere
196
53 Statistical Parameters of the SeismoIonospheric Variations in the FLayer
197
54 ELayer Precursors
201
55 Conclusions
203
Are we Ready for Prediction? The Practical Applications
207
62 One Point Measurements Precursor Mask
208
63 Two or More Ionosondes Available
213
64 Ionospheric Mapping with Several Stations
218
65 The Complex Analysis Irpinia Earthquake 23111980
220
66 The GroundBased and Satellite Systems of Electromagnetic and Ionospheric Precursors Monitoring
229
6612 Russian Ground Based Systems
231
6613 Taiwanese iSTEP Project
232
6615 PREVENTION Project Mexico
233
6621 COMPASS Satellite Russia
234
6623 DEMETER Satellite France
235
6625 Japanese ELMOS Project
236
6626 The SSTL Small Satellite for Earthquake Prediction
237
6627 Russian Satellite Constellation Vulkan
238
6628 Italian ESPERIA Mission
242
67 How to use Ionospheric Precursors in Real Prediction?
243
672 When?
244
68 Conclusion
245
69 The Possible Ideal System for the Ionospheric Precursors Monitoring and ShortTerm Earthquake Prediction
246
Ultimate Results Unexplained Phenomena Future Tasks
249
712 Experimental Setup
251
713 Results of Measurements
253
714 Interpretation
255
715 Discussion of the Molecular Mechanism of HPEmission
261
72 On the Nature of the VLF Emission Registered on the Ground Surface Before Strong Earthquakes
264
73 Biological Effects of Anomalous Electric Field
265
731 Conclusion
267
74 Anomalous Neutron Fluxes Possibly Related to Earthquakes
268
742 Results of Measurements
269
75 SolarTerrestrial Relations and Earthquakes
270
751 Exotic Cases of the Relationship Between the Magnetic Storms and Seismic Activity
275
76 Latent Heat Flux Thermal Effects and the Ionosphere
277
77 Future Tasks
284
772 Precursors Recognition and Regional Studies
286
773 Interaction with Other Kinds of Precursory Phenomena
287
References
289
Subject Index
313
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Стр. 299 - Larkina VI, Migulin VV, Molchanov OA, Khar'kov IP, Inchin AS, Schvetcova VB (1989) Some statistical results on very low frequency radiowave emissions in the upper ionosphere over earthquake zones. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 57: 100-109 Larkina VI, Migulin VV, Sergeeva NG, Senin BV (2001) A Comparative Analysis of Electromagnetic Effects above Tectonic Fracture Zones.
Стр. 299 - Kossobokov, VG, Keilis-Borok, VI, Turcotte, DL, and Malamud, BD (2000) Implications of a statistical physics approach for earthquake hazard assessment and forecasting, Pure Appl. Geophys. 157, 2323-2349.
Стр. 308 - SUGISAKI, R., ANNO, H., ADACHI, M. and Ui, H. (1980), Geochemical features of gases and rocks along active faults, Geochem. J. 14, 101-112. SUGISAKI, R., IDO, M., TAKEDA, H., ISOBE, Y., HAYASHI, Y., NAKAMURA, N., SATAKE, H.
Стр. 304 - Khegai, VV (1997) Radon and metallic aerosols emanation before strong earthquakes and their role in atmosphere and ionosphere modification, Adv. Space Res. 20, 2 1 73-2 1 76.

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