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anticipate him, and to become the assailant. | but conferred upon him the English barony Accordingly, on the 25th of April, 1781, he of Rawdon, which gave him a seat in the chose the hour of noon to make the attempt, upper house of parliament. About this when it was least expected. By this rapid time he contracted that intimacy with the maneuvre, he reached Hobkirk Hill before Prince of Wales which lasted through life. Green had any suspicion of the movement. His intercourse with the Duke of York was The American not only fancied himself somewhat later; but this friendship, like the secure by his superiority of force, but by former, never suffered any interruption. the local advantage he possessed in having In May, 1789, his lordship acted as a large swamp, which protected him on the second to his Royal Highness in the duel only assailable side of the hill. Lord Raw which he fought with Colonel Lenox. This, don approached with narrow line of considering the station his lordship held front; and the enemy's piquets being driven about the person of the king, was a very in, the alarm immediately spread through hazardous undertaking; but a high, and the American camp. Green perceived the even chivalrous sense of honour, was in him danger of his situation, and with the utmost paramount to all other worldly motives. promptitude decided upon the means most In October of this year, Lord Rawdon, likely to repel the assailants. Finding that by the death of his maternal uncle, the Earl the British advanced in a narrow front, he of Huntingdon, came into possession of the commenced a heavy fire of grape-shot from bulk of that nobleman's' fortune. This his batteries, and, under their protection, was a very seasonable acquisition, as by his charged down the hill. Lord Rawdon was great liberality he had involved himself in equally on the alert, and instantly extended considerable pecuniary difficulties. His the whole of his line, by which evolution mother at the same time succeeded to the he completely disconcerted the plan of the barony of Hastings, and to the other baenemy, and gained a decisive victory. ronies in fee possessed by her father, but This success enabled him to concentrate his the title of Huntingdon remained thirty army, and being joined by some reinforce- years in abeyance. In June, 1793, his ments, he drove the republicans to a con- lordship succeeded to the earldom of Moira siderable distance; but soon after, the cap- by the death of his father; and shortly ture of Lord Cornwallis at York Town, and after, he was raised to the rank of majorthe declining state of the royal cause, ren- general, when he was appointed to the dered it necessary to remove the troops to command of an army intended to coCharleston. While here, an American pri- | operate with the royalists in Brittany. soner, named Haynes, voluntarily took the Before the preparations, however, could oaths of allegiance, and was set at liberty. be completed, the design was rendered In violation of this solemn obligation, he abortive, by the suppression of the insursecretly obtained a colonel's commission in rection, and the triumph of the French the rebel service, and then began to practise republicans. In the following summer, the arts of corruption on the British soldiers. Lord Moira performed a great military His treachery was discovered, and he suf- exploit, by reinforcing the Duke of York fered the punishment which, by the law of with ten thousand men, when his Royal nations, he had incurred. Lord Rawdon, Highness was nearly cut off by a superior though neither on the court-martial, nor force, in his retreat through Brabant to concerned in the prosecution, was violently Antwerp. Having accomplished this obattacked in and out of parliament for this ject, and saved the British army, his lordact of justice. The Duke of Richmond ship returned to England; where for a long made a specific charge against his lordship time he held a military, but merely nominal, in his absence, and, what was worse, on command at Southampton. In 1803, he anonymous authority. When Lord Raw- was removed to the more efficient situation don arrived in England, in 1782, he called of commander-in-chief of the forces in the duke to account for this unwarrantable Scotland ; at which time he obtained the attack; but a meeting on the ground was rank of general. happily prevented by the submission of his On the 12th of July, in the following grace, and his consenting to make an apo- year, he married Flora Muir Campbell, logy in the upper house, which he did in a countess of Loudoun. The ceremony was manner more creditable to the offended performed by the Bishop of London, at the party than to himself.
house of Lady Perth, in Grosvenor Square, Lord Rawdon's conduct in America was and the Prince of Wales gave away the so brilliant, that the king not only made bride. him, immediately after his return, one of As his lordship had uniformly acted with his aides-du-camp, with the rank of colonel, I the opposition, except in the single case of the prosecution of Mr. Hastings, the change | Calcutta and that boundary? Nothing but of ministry, occasioned by the death of states bound by a sense of common interest Mr. Pitt, naturally brought him into a high with you, or a comparatively small proporofficial situation as a member of the cabinet. tion of ill-disposed population, rendered Accordingly, he was made master-general incapable of raising a standard against of the ordnance, and constable of the you." Tower. He then of course gave up the On the 7th of December, 1816, his command in Scotland, when the lord-pro- lordship having obtained the royal permisvost and the inhabitants of Edinburgh pre- sion to assume the maternal name, was sented him with the following address :- created Viscount Loudoun, Earl of Rawdon,
“We recollect with gratitude, that when and Marquis of Hastings, and on the 6th the nation was threatened with a powerful of February following, he received the and dangerous invasion, your lordship's thanks of parliament for his conduct in the presence commanded our confidence, and Nepaul war. renewed our vigour; your military talents In 1822, the marquis returned to Engcollected all our resources, and concentrated land: but instead of that repose which bis our strength; and under your lordship, this advanced life and services required, he country rose at once to a state of proud was nominated governor of Malta. This defiance,-justifying every expectation ex- was owing to the great embarrassment in cited by your high military character and which he had involved himself before he renown; while your lordship’s mild and went to India, and from which, even his conciliating virtues added to our respect establishment there could not extricate him and gratitude, sentiments of the warmest without having recourse to expedients at personal esteem and atfection."
which his high sense of honour revolted. The administration, of which his lordship At Malta his mind was continually emformed a part, was of short duration, and ployed, as it ever had been, for the publie he again retired into private life. In 1808, benefit. It was evident, however, that his by the death of his mother, he succeeded to constitution failed; and at length a fall the ancient English baronies which had from his horse produced distressing effects descended to her, and also to landed pro- on the hernia from which he had long perty of about six thousand a year. "On suffered. Being reduced to a state of great the death of Mr. Perceval, in May, 1812, weakness, he resolved to seek relief in the Lord Moira was employed to form an milder climate of Naples : but he had extended administration ; but when Earl scarcely arrived in that bay, when he exGrey and Lord Grenville insisted on kaving pired, on board the Revenge, November the appointment of all the offices in the 28th, 1826. In a letter found amongst his royal household, his lordship resisted the papers, he requested that his right band demand as disrespectfal, and the negocia- might be cut off, and preserved until the tion terminated. About this time he in- death of the marchioness, and then interred curred considerable odium by the zeal which in the same coffin. The hand was accordhe had shown, on the investigation into the ingly amputated, and is kept for that purconduct of the Princess of Wales; but, for pose. It was a great consolation to the the uniform attachment which he had shown marquis to have the sight of his lady, and to his august Friend, he was rewarded with four of his children, round his bed at the the order of the Garter, and soon after moment of his departure. His remains nominated to the government of Bengal. were conveyed back to Malta for interment, His conduct in that important station gained but the family landed at Naples, and from him great applause; particularly for his thence pursued their melancholy way to vigorous prosecution and successful termi- England. nation of the Nepaul war. Its original The marquis of Hastings was distinguished object was merely the suppression of the through life by his benevolence and patrioPindarries, an association, whose principle tism. In parliament he was an able and was the plunder of all the neighbouring nervous speaker, without ever descending powers; but it terminated in adding greatly to invective or personality. Among his to the territories of the East India Company. exertions in the cause of humanity, may be As governor-general, in his address to the mentioned the zeal with which he endea. inhabitants of Calcutta, he observes, “Un-voured to relieve the distresses of poor doubtedly your sway has been prodigiously debtors. He was warmly attached to Freeextended by the late operations. The Indus masonry, and as long as the Prince of Wales is now in effect your frontier; and, on the was Grand Master of that institution, his conditions of the arrangement, I thank lordship acted as his deputy. He had by Heaven that it is so. What is there between his lady :-1. Flora Elizabeth, born at Edin
ON THE NECESSITY OF AN ATONEMENT.
burgh, in 1806 : 2. Francis George | mercy, that it could not independently Augustus, born in London, 1807, and who exist. If there were no justice, there could died next day : 3. George Augustus Fran-be, strictly speaking, no mercy. A deity cis, now Marquis of Hastings, born in St. devoid of justice would be regardless of James's Place, in 1808: 4. Sophia Fre- the moral conduct of his creatures ; and derica Christina, born in 1809: 5. Selina therefore would feel no concern, on the Constantina, born in 1810: 6. Adelaide ground of right and wrong, at least, to give Augusta Lavinia, born in 1812.
them a law for the regulation of their lives. When the Marquis retired from the Now, if there were no law, there could be government of India, the Company pre- no transgression; if no transgression, no sented him with sixty thousand pounds. guilt; if no guilt, no desert of punishment, Notwithstanding this, he died so very poor, and therefore no exercise of mercy. Mercy that the same liberal body voted forty without justice, then, would lose its proper thousand pounds more to the present character, and degenerate into a moral inMarquis, in consideration of his father's difference, which would lead to an indul. services.
gent connivance at sin, and strongly indicate a defect of holiness, without which there could be neither justice nor
mercy. Between the character of God, and the On the other hand, a deity destitute of nature of his government, there is a close mercy, adopting a mode of procedure corand striking relation. In every transac- responding with his nature, would conduct tion, and in all the provisions for particular his government on the principles of inex. cases in that government, we recognize the orable and unmitigated justice, and unimanifestation of some perfection, or per- formly punish transgressors according to fections, of bis nature. Not only are his their guilt. various measures referrible to his different From this view of the attributes referred perfections, but the very necessity for their to, it appears, that not one of them, if existadoption is clearly deducible from the na- ing and operating singly, would select a ture of the perfections to which they are mode of government in which the Chrisrespectively to be referred.
Of this re
tian atonement would be needed. One of mark, the gospel atonement furnishes am- them would require no atonement of any ple illustration and proof.
description, the others would require every The necessity of an atonement arises sinner to atone for his own crimes, by enfrom the moral condition of men, and the during the penalty deserved. But if we relations subsisting between the holiness, form our views on this subject from the justice, and mercy of God. If any of representations of scripture, if we consider these attributes were absent from the divine the divine perfections as existing and operatnature, his character and government might ing in union and harmony, we shall perbe perfectly consistent with each other, with- ceive that the atonement of Christ is as out such an expedient.
necessary in the case which actually exists, If holiness were annihilated, justice, I as it would be needless in the cases supapprehend, would not remain. Among posed. men, it is true, the practice of justice may Were we to examine all the conceivable sometimes be found where holiness can systems of divine administration in which have had perhaps no share in producing it. the atonement might be consistently disThe probity and fidelity which appear in pensed with, we should find, I presume, the transactions of some persons, whose that every one of them would imply the dispositions in other respects are evidently extinction, or at least the dormancy, of some depraved, may be in reality a kind of of the divine perfections. Perhaps the dissimulation produced by motives of whole of those conceivable systems are, as worldly interest and honour, while the to their effect, resolvable into some of the genuine principles of justice have no place following. Either, 1st, to take no cogniin their hearts. But this can never be the zance of human actions at all; or, 2ndly, case with God. No motives derived from which is nearly the same, to pardon indisobjects unconnected with his own nature criminately all offenders, on the ground of can ever influence him. His justice is the prerogative; or, 3dly, to subject every love of what is morally right for its own criminal to inevitable punishment; or, sake, originating in the rectitude, or holi. 4thly, arbitrarily to punish some, and forness, of his nature.
give others, without regard to the degrees Again, if justice in the divine Being were of their criminality; or, 5thly, to punish extinct, such is the relative character of the most flagitious, and pardon the rest ;
or, 6thly, to pardon transgressors only in and it would be to them a question of no case of repentance and reformation. importance, whether in future they were
As to the first of these instances, I ap. righteous or wicked. prehend, not the boldest denier of the atone- In the next instance, it is true, we perment will be disposed to give it to a place ceive something like an approximation to in his creed.
just and rational government. To hold up As the second scheme is, in tendency, as monuments of justice the deeply crimithe same as the first, it is liable to similar nal, would in some degree be calculated to objections. Both of them exclude the jus- awe the wicked. And to spare the less tice of the divine Being from all share in guilty, would bear some resemblance to that his dispensations; and neither of them is exercise of regal prerogative by which a calculated either to bring glory to God, human governor averts the penal stroke or to prevent wickedness, anarchy, and from those whose crimes have been attendwretchedness among meu. What strongered by extenuating circumstances. inducement to crime could be offered to still this system is far from possessing the men, than the assurance that no penalty perfection to be expected from infinite could be incurred.
wisdom. It is here implied, that there is To punish the whole offending race, in human crimes, on account of their without affording them any opportunity of number or enormity, a difference of deescape, according to the third instance, merit. Some are supposed to be venial, would as effectually exclude the mercy of others unpardonable. God from his government as the two for- Now this distinction must be defined mer would his justice and holiness. A according to some established rule; and measure like this would give a most repul- this rule must either be published to mansive and appalling display of the divine kind, or be kept a secret in the mind of the character. And as the subjects of such a Deity. If it were published to mankind, governor could have no inducements to
they would have no restraint whatever from love him, their obedience, if they tendered the commission of what might be called any, would be extorted from fear, instead minor sins. They would know, that to a of Aowing spontaneously from the nobler certain extent they might sin with impunity; principle of love.
and, till the measure of their iniquity were Nor will the fourth instance, though full, they would feel no apprehension of exhibiting, in its general aspect, a mixture danger. But their presumption of safety of justice and mercy, be exempted, when would induce them to indulge in habits impartially considered, from a charge as which would give an increasing acceleration severe as those preferred against the pre- to their progress in vice, till, by a kind of ceding systems. For though, in the arbi- necessity of their own imposing, they would, trary and irrespective punishment of some, in ten thousand instances, be carried beyond and forgiveness of others, justice and mercy the bounds of safety before they were aware. reference to mankind as a whole race, yet a secret in the mind of the Deity, mankind their exercise would never be combined in would consequently judge of their state any single act, nor in reference to any sin- according to the most probable rule which gle individual. The treatment of one part themselves could devise. Accustomed to of mankind would be all justice, and of estimate everything comparatively, men the other part all mercy. To the honour would compare themselves with others. In of the divine rectitude, it is said in proportion, therefore, as public morals descripture, that God is no respecter of per- generated, the standard of character would sons. This impartiality forms certainly an be altered in favour of vice; and no man important branch of his justice; and hence would think himself wicked, so long as he the hypothesis which supposes this prin- conceived that others more wicked could ciple thus excluded from the conduct of be found. That universal selfish prejudice the deity, supposes that at least a partial too, which ever exerts its influence to soften violation of justice is exhibited in the a person's verdict upon his own character, whole of his government. Besides, what would whisper peace under all circumends worthy of his wisdom could be an- stances. swered by such a method. It would have We come now to consider the last of the no tendency whatever either to promote cases supposed, which is certainly more virtue, or prevent vice. The fate of the plausible than any of the rest ; and, as it is sufferers depending not upon their own the only one, perhaps, for which any senactions, but upon the mere will of their sible and well-informed person will contend, Maker, their lives could not be exemplary; I it demands a more serious consideration.
In this instance, we must confess, there offered to the penitent without the adoption is, in several respects, an accordance with, of any method in which the demands of what we believe to be, truth. That repen- justice are sufficiently recognized and as. tance is necessary, and that none but the serted, may it not also be so far relaxed, that penitent can be pardoned, are doctrines ultimately even the impenitent may, either perfectly scriptural, and fully calculated to entirely or in part, escape the punishment suppress every false hope of salvation in denounced against them? The moral inthose who are not heartily renouncing sin. fluence of a system from which such inferBut though this is, perhaps, the best system ences are deducible must be too feeble to which human wisdom could devise, it is promote the obedience, the order, and hapnot, we conceive, the best that is possible; piness of mankind. since it is not the system which appears to
From all these defects, the system embe revealed in the gospel. Between the bracing the atonement is free. While mercy system last supposed, and the system of the is exercised to the sinner, in this system, gospel, let us, however, institute an impar- justice is preserved inviolate, as far as its tial comparison, and then it will at once be moral influence in the divine government seen on which side the excellence lies, and is concerned. The importance of obediwhether of the two appears most worthy of ence, and the heinousness of sin, are exhithe ever blessed God.
bited in the most striking and influential While the former system shews mercy, it manner. The violation of God's law is does not sufficiently support the dignity, never forgiven without a full recognition, the awfulness, and the claims of justice. both on the part of God and men, of the Repentance is the only condition required, indispensable requirements of justice. In on the part of any being, in order to the addition to repentance towards God, the sinner's forgiveness. It must therefore be gospel requires faith in our Lord Jesus considered as being either an equivalent to Christ. This is an act emphatically exfull obedience, or an atonement for crime; pressive of the great obligations of man, if not, the claims of justice, as to the time the deep demerit of his sin, and the terrible spent in wickedness, are totally set aside. degree of misery he has justly incurred. If, in opposition to this assumption, it should The humble penitent comes to the throne be said, that the Divine Being acts simply of grace, and, with his eyes streaming with in reference to the general welfare of his tears of godly sorrow for his past conduct, creatures, and that, therefore, if that object he pours forth his confessions and supplicabe accomplished, it is mere trifling to talk lions to God. He beholds the Lamb of about the claims of this or that perfection; God that taketh away the sins of the world, we reply, the requirement of repentance and O how the sight affects his heart. He only, as the condition of pardoi, is not sees the well-beloved Son of God, by his calculated to answer the end proposed. Father's gracious appointment, and his own Never will the mind be influenced to moral voluntary choice, made a sacrifice for sinpropriety, on wbich happiness is allowed ners, and his mind fills with self-abhorto depend, unless it be deeply impressed rence for his sin, with awe at the justice, with the importance of obedience, and the and astonishment at the love, of the Supreme evil of transgression. But in this system Being. The sorrows of the Saviour through there is nothing to produce such an impres- life, his agony in the garden, and his torsion. What real importance can there be tures and death upon Calvary, when conin obedience, if a total defalcation in the nected with the immaculate purity and discharge of duty for a long series of years, illustrious dignity of the sufferer, assume an can be passed by without notice, if the infinite and awful significancy. He views defaulter only repent? Or what can there them as being not only the meritorious be odious in the nature, or very dreadful in cause of the sinner's salvation, but also as a the consequences of sin, if all the evil can representation in specimen of the dreadful be averted by repentance? Besides, how misery which, but for the Saviour's intercan even the Divine veracity be raised above position, would inevitably have proved his suspicion, if God, in the very act of justify- fate. He, therefore, while pleading for ing the ungodly, be not unequivocally de- mercy, lays his hand of faith upon this clared to be just? Might not the sinner vicarious sufferer, and confesses that his reason with himself thus ? Surely the prin- sins have deserved a punishment as great ciples of justice in general must be, in the as that sustained by his substitute, with all estimation of God, as important and indis- the augmentation derived from the infinite pensable as the principles of truth, which dignity and worthiness of his person. While form but a part of justice. If then justice contemplating the peculiar death of Christ, has been so far relaxed that pardon is discoveries the most interesting, and calcu