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certainly polishes the manners. i are descended from them, and are Some have ascribed to it miracu- thought to have degenerated, tho Jous power upon the moral consti- French will soon call us a come tution, rendering the foolish wise, munity of hucksters. The notion

and the avaricious munificent. But often entertained of us is, that, • the authority of Horace in all when incited by prospect of gain,

questions more difficult than this, nothing is too dangerous for us to in all questions where knowledge attempt, nothing too infamous for of human nature will influence us to perform. Hence to defraud the decision, is absolute. Coelum, a trader from America is deemed non animum, mutant, qui trans mare more a trial of skill, than a violation currunt. The vicious disposition of the laws of morality. is never changed by change of place ; nor will he ever become SIR JOHN DENHAM. profound, who is originally shal

O could I fow like thee, and make thy low, though he pass even the lim

stream its of the fame of Tully, the wa- My great example, as it is iny theme ! ters of the Tigris, or the cliffs of Though deep, yet clear ; though genCaucasus. Men of inferiour minds tle, yet not dull; may often be rendered serviceable Strong without rage ; without o’erflow. by sober discipline, at home, whose

ing, full. only acquisition from travel will of this famous passage, to which be to make their folly vivacious, Dryden has nothing equal, and and their ignorance loud and con. Pope nothing superiour, Dr. Johnceited. The incongruous vulgar, son has an excellent criticism, conities of England and France, of cluding in this remarkable lanItaly and Germany unite in many, guage...“ It has beauty peculiar to like the colours of Harlequin's itself, and must be numbered a. coat, whose dissimilarity is the mong those felicities, which canmore conspicuous from their jux- not be produced at will by wit and taposition.

labour, but must arise unexpectedThere seems to have been little -ly in some hour propitious to po- , system among our countrymen in etry.” The “ strength of Denvisiting foreign regions. More “ham” was long reverenced by our have gone for business than for poets; and I should unwillingly behealth, and more for health than lieve, that his simplicity of lanfor informacion. Few have been guage, which always accompanies able to boast more than the least energy of thought, is the reason of valuable half of the experience of his being less regarded, than forUlysses, Qui mores hominum mul- merly. Pope's “ Windsor Forest" torum vidit et urbes. We have is an imitation of “Cooper's Hill;" sent abroad many gentlemen, but yet, although the whole compass they have sometimes on the conti. of English descriptive poetry ofnent of Europe been desirous to fers no rival to the picture of the pass for Englishmen; tecause A- Thames in about forty lines of the merican travellers are too often our latter, Pope has ten readers, where sailors brutal and vicious, or factors Denham has one. indigent and illiterate. The Eng- Translation, which now comlish have been contemptuously de- poscs so large a part of our litera. nominated by their old enemies a ture, had been long confined in the Bation of shopkeepers; and, as we disgraceful shackles of literal ex.

actness, No faithful interpreter in lick morals. The means a England, spurning the fear of his within every man's reach of pedagogue, had yet dared to fol- taining a prize, superiour to low the dictate of reason and the reward of talents, or remunerata advice of Horace, Nec verbum verbo of many years industry. Manya curabis reddere, before Denham apprentice is tempted to pie pointed the way. He gives the from his master's counter, many perfect eulogy of a perfect trans- a chambermaid improves oppe. Jator in a single line, " True to his tunities for stealing with impunim, sense, but truer to his fame." and many a labourer cheats by

No poet, ancient or modern, family of their bread, to adventum whose subject was not chosen ex, upon the ocean of chance in op pressly to afford moral and reli- of immense profit, which will be gious instruction, has $0 many der such practices unnecessary a ethical axioms ; and his advice is future. All private lotteries are better on politicks, than any other forbidden under heavy penalties theme. The mention of Magna and if publick ones only rende Charta leads him into the causes the evil of gaming more extensive of the civil wars, and he may be why are they allowed ? It is the considered as prophesying in al- meanest way a legislature crer most every line. His master pursues of laying a tax. Hundreds Charles had good reason, soon af- of gambling houses are licensed ter, to think,

in Paris and pay large gratuities Who gives constrain'd, but his own fear to the corrupt government, that reviles,

encourages ihem ; thousands of Not thank'd, but scorn'd; nor are they the strumpets also are employed gifts, but spoils.

as spies, and Talleyrand would The futility of the royalartifices. never diminish their numbers of and the insanity and violence of the

their utility. But I hope the pery popular party, are finely illustrated. verse policy of France will deve

be adopted here. When a calm river, rais’d by sudden rains,

AMERICAN LITERATURE Or snows dissolv'd, o'erflows th' ad. joining plains,

A taste for the belles lettres is The husbandmen with high-raigd banks rapidly spreading in our country. secure

We have indeed few profound Their greedy hopes, and this he can scholars in any branch of science ; endure ;

but, so far as it subserves the genBut if with bays and dams they strive to force

eral amusement of life, so far as His channel to a new, or narrow course,

it enlivens conversation and lesNo longer then within his banks he sens the tædium vitæ, reading is dwells,

not less attended to in America, First to a torrent, then a deluge swells; than in any other part of the Stronger and tiercer by restraint he

world. I believe, that, fifty years roars, And knows no bound, but makes his power

ago, England had never seen a his shores,

miscellany or a review, so well

conducted, as our Anthology, bow: LOTTERIES.

ever superiour such publications To all lotteries I am opposed, may now be in that kingdom, as it seems certain, they must have Shakespeare's Merchant of View an injurious effect upon the pub- nice was altered by George Gratis

ville, and called the Jew of Ver ceived without jealousy, and obeynice. The English nation tolera- ed without repugnance. Though ted this disgraceful substitution, only called * to dress a sofa with til near the middle of the last cen- the flowers of verse," he has haptury, and the prologue was spoken pily deviated to adorn every subby the ghosts of Shakespeare and ject of general interest. It is a Dryden, who ascended from be- perpetual episode. His wit is of. neath the stage, crowned with ten epigrammatick, like that of łaurel. The prologue-writer com- Young, without his severity. The plimented the taste of the commu- reflections, with which he connity by making the representative cludes the description of the imof the great dramatick bard speak mense palace of ice, built by the thus :

empress of Russia, I have heard These scenes in their rough native

cited by a lady, as a fine instance dress were mine ;

of simplicity, though glowing with But now, improved, with nobler lustre antitheses.

shine. The first rude sketches Shakespeare's Alas ! 'twas but a mortifying stroke pencil drew,

Of undesign'd severity, that glanc'd But all the shining master-strokes are (Made by a monarch) on her own estate, new.

On human grandeur and the courts of This play, ye criticks, shall your fury kings. stand,

'Twas transient in its nature, as in show Adorn’d and rescued by a faultless 'Twas durable ; as worthless, as it hend


Intrinsically precious; to the foot

Treacherous and false ; it smil'd, and.

it was cold. is the most popular poet in our language. His favourable recep Cowper's version of Homer will tion is owing to no adventitious only serve as a beacon to warn fucircumstances, which frequently ture adventurers. It can only be raise into general celebrity writers, read by those, who, acquainted with that will never afterwards be re- the original, wish to observe, how, membered. His is the language in transfusing every thing with exof nature, delivered more faithful- actness from the ancients, nothing ly, than were ever the responses will be gained by the moderns. of the oracle by the priestess of The effulgence of the Grecian Delphos. “From grave to gay, bard,“ dark with excessive bright," from lively to severe," all are overpowered the mortal vision of charmed with Cowper. Yet he Cowper. He offers us only the indulges in no personal satire, and inanimate skeleton, the bones and why does he please the censorious? the muscles of Homer, in their He despises the artifices of fashion, terrifick nakedness, and for this and why is he the favourite of the we were to surrender the breathing dissipated, and the thoughtless ? image from the hands of Pope, No one, of any mental refinement, arrayed in his appropriate robes, is so corrupt, so remote from the and glowing with the lumen pur simplicity of reason and of truth, purcum of eternal youth. as not to peruse the Task with delight. His moral lectures are le

To the Editors of the Anthology. GENTLENEN, Having lately examined the ancient laws of this State, relative to the constitution

and rights of churches in the town of Boston, and reduced them into a digest, I submit it to you for insertion, provided you shall not deem it incompatible with the object of your useful miscellany.



TO constitute a body corporate, may claim corporate rights both it is not necessary that there should from prescription and by implica. be a formal act of incorporation. tion froin acts of the colony, provFor if any body of men are, by the ince, and commonwealth. They supreme authority of the state, re- have names, by which they are cognized as such, it will be a vira distinguished from each other, they tual act of incorporation. In the may raise monies, they may sue early settlement of this common- and be sued, and they may do all wealth, so unrefined were the in- legal acts, which may be done by habitants in their legal notions, other artificial persons. that districts were constituted and In these communities there are invested with municipal rights by several distinct corporate bodies, a single order of the governour each known in law, and having its and assistants of the colony, that peculiar rights and duties; viz. they should be called by certain 1. The Church. 2. The Minister. names. There is no other act of 3. The Deacons, and, in episcopal incorporation for the towns of Bos- churches, Church Wardens. And ton, Salem, Ipswich, and most 4. the Proprietors of Pews. others in the commonwealth. In 1. The Church. By a law of considering the rights of the chur- the colony,* passed in 1641, it is ches in Boston, we shall have oc- declared, that “ all the people of casion to notice the above princi. God within the jurisdiction, who ple, as none of them have, unul are not in a church way, and be very lately, been incorporated into orthodox in judgment, and not distinct religious communities by scandalous in life, shall have lib. special acts of the government. erty to gather themselves into a

The congregations in Boston church estate, provided they do it are invested with rights and im- in a christian way." But it adds, munities, which have descended " that the General Court will not entire through successive genera- approve of any such companies of tions. Now where a body of men men, as shall join in any pretended do possess certain rights, which way of church-fellowship, unless they can, under a general name they shall acquaint three or more and in their united capacity, le magistrates dwelling next, and the gally maintain, which rights have elders of the ncighbour churches, descended to them, but will not where they intend to join, and die with them ; they are corpora. have their approbation therein." tions, “ maintaining a perpetual In the same law it is enacted, succession and enjoying a kind of legal immortality." As for the Laws and Liberties of the Colony origin of these communities, they of Massachusetts, 43,

<< that every church hath free lib. charges of the elders, when they erty of election and ordination of were employed by the order of the all her officers from time to time, General Court. It is to this cirprovided they be able, pious, and cumstance, that we must attribute orthodox. By the expression “the the incorporating of so many of church,” is here meant, according the provisions of the Levitical law to a definition thereof contained in into the jurisprudence of the early a law passed in 1660,* such as are period of the state. in full communion only." The In the choice of the ministers, teaching officer is intended, “ the the church were originally the minister to all the people where sole electors ; but for more than the church is planted.” All in a century past, it has been an eshabitants, who were not in full tablished rule in the town of Boso communion, were excluded from ton, and in the other towns of the any right in the choice, and if any commonwealth, that all who conone such should presume to act tribute to their support, shall have therein, he was accounted a dis- a voice in their election. By a law turber of the peace, and might be passed in the Land 5 of W.and M., punished by the court of the shire, it is declared, that whenever a by admonition, security for good church is destitute of a minister, behaviour, fine, or imprisonment, such church is invested with pow. according to the aggravation of er to choose one. If the major the offence. The church is in- part of such of the inhabitants, as vested with liberty to admit, res usually attend publick worship, and commend, dismiss, expel, or dis- are qualified by law to vote in town pose of its officers and members affairs, with whom likewise the for due cause : to assemble when members of the church may vote, it pleases, and to exercise all the shall concur with the act of the ordinances of God, according to church, and the person elected the scriptures : to deal with its shall accept thereof, he becomes members, who are in the hands of the minister, to whose support all justice, but not to retard its course: the inhabitants and rateable estates and even with the civil magistrate, are obliged to contribute. In case “ in case of apparent and just of- of a disagreement between the fence given in his place," but not church and the inhabitants, the to degrade him from his office or former may call in the help of a dignity in the commonwealth. council, consisting of the elders

The government of the colony and messengers of three or five consisted, in those early periods, neighbouring churches. This of a spiritual and a temporal pow- council is empowered to hear, exer. It was usual to consult with amine, and consider the exceptions the elders of the churches in af- and allegatious made against the fairs of a civil naturent relating to election of the churches.* If they the institution of law's, and the should approve of the choice, and conduct of publick affairs. And the person elected should declare in 1642, it was ordered, that the his acceptance, he becanie the minpublick treasurer should defray the ister of the society to all intents,

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