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patience, fortitude, heroism, mag- ally an example of the combination
nanimity, and others of a similar of the original forms of govern* nature. But all these flourish, like ment, that it lasted long and insur
palm trees, in a savage communi- ed tranquillity, but that it was not ty, and when unaccompanied by formed to advance the comforts,the those qualities or virtues, which pleasures, and the refinements of soexist in a state of refinement, are ciety,and that therefore it did not de-, decisive evidences of a common- serve the commendation of Tacitus. wealth barbarous, warlike,and mis. This hypothesis may be praised erable.
as more ingenious, than exact, As, therefore, Polybius and Ma- and the discussion may be con: chiavel have considered the consti- sidered, as more pleasant, than tution of Sparta, as a testimonial of important. But I have never seen the actual union of the advantages any notice of the difference between of the simple forms of government the historians I have mentioned, into one system, and as Tacitus and therefore if my conjectures are virtually differs from this opinion, false, they may easily be pardoned. by insinuating, that such an union With regard to the importance of has never existed, I cannot other the subject, different readers may wise reconcile these great authori. form different opinions, but I am ties, but by supposing that the for- disposed to believe that it is always mer had reference principally to a matter of much concern to rethe constitution itself, and that the concile the jarring sentiments of latter deduced its nature from the great minds on interesting topicks, misery of the people, and disregard for it is surely unpleasant to observe ed the mere form of the institution, the mighty guides of the world opBoth were right in their several posed to each other, because their opinions, and the conclusion must dissension enfeebles their power, be, that the system of Lycurgus, while their union gives energy to fortified by the code of civil laws truth and authority to reason. and municipal regulations, was re
• LIFE OF RICHARD BENTLEY, D. D. Late Regius Professor of Divinity, and Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, Eng.
[Continued from page 348.]
PLATO, de Legib. IV. IN the following year a pam- its author Bentley had slighted, phlet appeared, intituled, “ Qua- or treated contemptuously. Ker, lerna Epistola. Prima et secunda in return, ad Richardum Bentleium ; Tertia
“ Cries havock, and lets slip the dog's ad illustrissimum Ezekielum Sfran
of war !! hemium, quarta ad Lud. Frid. Bonetum.” The writer of these and while his resentment was letters was Ker, who had not long warm published this quaternary before published " Selectarum de of Epistles. Lingua Latina Observationem, li. The first of these, which are bri duo." This performance and addressed to Bentley, contains obo"
Vol. 3. No. 8. 3D
jections to the Latinity of some of both these admirable pieces passages in his dedication and of criticism we have already spokpreface to Horace. The purport en. We cannot, however, quit of the second is similar, and exhi- them, without expressing some bits remarks on theDr.'s treatment regret, that the corrections of Heof himself and of former criticks. sychius, which he mentions in In these compositions there is this Letter to Dr. Mill, were never some just criticism, but it is ming written and published. What led with too much ill-nature, and additional dignity would the splenthe author's resentment is too ap- did edition of this valuable Lexicon parent. The Latinity is, perhapss, have acquired, when it appeared correct, coldly correct : but the some years ago, at Leyden, under letters merit no commendation for the auspices of Alberti and Ruhnsprightliness of wit, or elegance of kenius, if the corrections of Bentlanguage.
ley had been added to the remarks Bentley, in all probability, paid of so many learned annotators. little regard to these publications, His vigorous mind was peculiarly or to their authors. Whatever adapted to such a task, both on acmight be his private sentiments, count of his penetration and his he felt the dignity of his charac- boldness. He knew the depth of ter, and the strength of his abilities his own erudition, and seldom paid too forcibly, to think an answer or any regard to the cavils of inferiour a defence necessary.
criticks. These attacks did not seem to About this time appeared a influence his literary pursuits, or book, intituled “ A Discourse of damp the ardour of his genius. Freethinking, occasioned by the In the course of this year he pub- Rise and Growth of a Sect, called lished a new edition of his emen. Free-Thinkers." The dangerous dations on Menander and Phile- tendency of this work, which was mon, without altering the name of generally read, determined Bent. Phileleutherus Lipsiensis. He o- ley to answer it publickly, under tnitted Burman's preface, and ad. his assumed name of Phileleuded to these remarks, his Letter therus Lipsiensis. He addressed to Dr. Mill, which had been pub- his reply to Dr. Hare, although lished in the year 1691, at the end Collins, the author of the book, of the Chronography of Malela.* had been his pupil. The title
was, “ Remarks upon a late Dis8 We say perhaps, for we have not course of Free-thinking; in a letter read them with sufficient attention to to F. H., D. D. by Phileleutherus enable us to speak decisively, * In this new edition of his Epistola
Lipsiensis." Critica, which was his first and, per
In the address he compliments haps, his most learned work, the wri. Hare upon the care and secrecy ter of this life observes, that he did not correct the few trilling ta copaj z 128 Sed hæc levia fortasse. In the additions, which had escaped him, in the original at the end of this Epistle, the referen. edition. Among these may be number. ces are very improperly made to the ed: P. 47. lw for tw. P. 48, in the pages of the old, instead of the new reference to Atheneus, Lib. XIV. for edition. They should have been mcor. Lib. X. P. 52. Urudecima Ionis fabula, porated into the text, or at least the re. should be decima, as he has only men- ferences should have been altered. It tioned nine in his disquisitions on lo, the is a strange instance of carelessness, Chian. P. 80, Evnestator is called Com- and especially, as in the title he says, paratiuum instead of Superlatitum. Editio altera emendatior.
with which he conveyed his anno- Before the expiration of the tations on Menander to the press, year, therefore, appeared the sewhich encouraged him to send him cond part of this critique on Col. these remarks on Collins.
lins, with another letter to his Dr. Salter* has informed us, friend H. H., in which he assures that Bentley is not serious, when him, that his request was his only he compliments Hare for his taci. inducement to pursue the subject, turnity and secrecy with respect as he had many weighty reasons to the emendations of Menander.' which urged him to remain silent. He has not, however, declared his This publication did not complete authority for such an assertion, his original design, but contains a and if it was conjecture, there critical examination of the transseems no foundation upon which lations which he gives of his to build such a suspicion. It does quotations from the ancients. not appear, that the delay of the But Collins did not require so papers was occasioned by any mis- acute an examiner to refute his take of Hare, or that he ever be- erroneous assertions. Bentley trayed the secret. At this time, displays his usual penetration, but though they afterwards quarrelled, the subject sinks beneath him : he almost idolized the Master of “ The former part of the book Trinity-College ; Sciopius scarce. (he says in his introductory letter) ly venerated Scaliger in a higher contained matters of consequence, degree. Why then should Bent- and gave some play to the answer• ley pay him any ironical compli- er ; but the latter is a dull heap ments ?
of citations, not worked, nor ceThese Remarks deserve the mented together, mere sand within highest commendation, whether out lime ; and who would meddle we consider the design or the exe- with such dry, mouldering stuff, cution. Those powers of ratioci. that with the best handling can nation, that lively wit, that quick- never take a polish? To produce ness of imagination, and that pene- a good reply, the first writer must trating acuteness, which shone so contribute something : if he is conspicuously in the dissertation quite low and flat, his antagonist on Phalaris, were now again dis- cannot rise high ; if he is barren played. Ignorance and perversion and jejune, the other cannot flou. were never more thoroughly ex. rish; if he is obscure and dark, posed.
the other can never shine." These Remarks, and the intro- Such is the description which ductory letter, afforded Dr. Hare Bentley gives of his situation, an opportunity of publickly demon- when he wrote these remarks. strating his regard for Bentley ; Yet this second part is equal to and in the course of the year he ad- the former, in point of critical sadressed a pamphlet to him, intitu
gacity,and sarcastick ridicule. Nor led “ The Clergyman's Thanks is it in any degree inferiour with to Phileleutherus Lipsiensis, &c." respect to learning, as far as Col: in which he urged the author to lins gave scope for a display of his continue and complete his re: wonderful erudition. marks:
These two parts were univers * In his additional notes to the new
sally read and admired. Even his edition of Bentley's Dissertation on
enemies were silent. No caviller
enemies Phalaris, p. 418.
dared to attack this admirable per, formance. . Collins forfeited his attacks which Bentley did not bear reputation for learning and abili- in silence. When these petty ties, and his book, which had been scribblers criticised his classical held up as a model, sunk into ob- erudition, he felt conscious of his scurity. Eight editions of these superiority. This pamphlet. Remarks have been published, however, was too scurrilous not to and he began a third part, at the provoke notice, and in 1717 he desire of Queen Caroline, when published an answer, intituled : she was Princess of Wales. Of á Reflections on the scandalous this only two half sheets were aspersions cast on the Clergy by printed, and not much more was the Author of the Remarks on Dr. written ; for Bentley wrote his Bentley's Sermon on Popery, &c." remarks sheet by sheet, as the In the year before this; 1716, copy was wanted by the printer. two letters were addressed to him, .. During his dispute with the Uni- respecting an edition of the Greek versity, in 1717, he gave up this Testament, for which he had long design of finishing his observa- been collecting materials. These tions ; nor could he ever be per- were published with the Doctor's suaded to resume the subject. answers in which the publick were At the same time he declared, informed, that the Doctor did not with great indignation, that those propose using any manuscript in in whose favour he wrote, were as this edition which was not a thou. : bad as those he wrote against. sand years old ; and at the same
The few pages which are pub- time added, that he had twenty of lished of this third part contain this age in his library. remarks upon some passages from The following year produced a . Lucan, which Collins had quoted, new antagonist. Mr. Johnson, a about Cato. It is much to be la- schoolmaster, at Nottingham, atmented, that he never finished this tacked with great virulence, and piece of criticism, for however considerable ability, Dr. Bentley's * trifling was the value of the book, edition of Horace.t there is such a sprightliness, and This publication was delayed wit in his manner of confuting by Johnson's illness, but howeverhis antagonist, that entertains, out of date it might appear, he while it convinces.
tells us in a long preface, that he On the fifth of November, 1715, was determined to publish it, beDr. Bentley preached a sermon* cause the authors of the former upon Popery, before the Univer remarks on the Doctor's Horace sity. This deep discourse is re- had not mentioned the most glar. plete with erudition, and was cal. ing errors. culated for the learned body before At the end of the preface, he whom it was delivered. It, how- has collected Bentley's egotisma, ever, afforded an opportunity of on the passages in which he has beginning a new assault to some mentioned himself; and' after of his enemies; who soon after published some remarks on the + This is the title of his critique,
“ Aristarchus Anti-Bentleianus qua. sermon. This was one of the few
draginta sex Bentleii errores super Q.
Horatii Flacci odarum libro primo spis• This sermon was afterwards pub. sos, nonnullos, et erubescendos': item lished, with his sixth edition of Boyle's per notas Universas in Latinitate, lapsus Lectures, at Cambridge, 1735.
fædissimos nonaginta ostendens."
them his reflections on other wri- carry off the richest spoils, and ters. Among the former he has enjoy the treasures which were inserted several, which have no acquired by his labours : title to a place in such a collec
-Six taugæ sacconelo, rodado cxeoxxy.f tion ; and many of the latter are.
• In Serm. II. Lib. 2, v. 120, as just, as they are severe. To follow this writer through
Bentley corrects the punctuation all his animadversions would nei
of a passage, in which he supposes ther be useful nor entertaining.
that Horace refers to an inedited Like most other commentators, he
epigram of Philodemus. Above appears to be sometimes right, and
forty years after, the epigram : frequently wrong, in his criticisms
was published by Reiske, in the " on Horace. He was a good scho
Anthology of Cephalas, and cons...
firmed his conjecture. lar, but an execrable critick. He
doubts whether the Roman poet had not taste enough to discover
conceived the meaning of the the value of many of Bentley's conjectural corrections, though
epigrammatist ; he, howevr, gives. his extensive reading enabled him
the lines, with our critick's emen. . . to point out several of the great
dation, which affords a splen
did instance of his acumen, that critick's errors In addition to the emendations
can never be praised too highly, or, which we have already transcrib
too frequently. Bụt let us pro
ceed. ed, we must add one or two more :
Some of Johnson's remarks on Horat. Ars Poet. 121.- .
the Latinity of Bentley's notes are Honoratum si forte reponis Achillem, just and acute. They display Impiger, iracundus, &c.
great knowledge of the language, For. honoratum, Bentley, with a and insight into the modes of excritical sagacity which had been pression adopted by the best Rorarely equalled, proposes to read man authors. But let it not be Homereum, which Hurd has ad- - supposed that our critick is the onmitted into the text, in his edition, ly modern, who deserves censure as indeed he has almost all the on this account. Scioppius wrote readings of the British Aristar- a book against the Latinity of chus. « If you insert the charac- Strada, and the learned H. Steph. ter of Achilles, as it is drawn by ens another of uncommon excel. Homer, into your work, let him be lence on that of the great Lipsius.
Markland, in more modern times, * Impiger, iracundus, inexorabilis, acer,
is not always equally correct in his Jura neget sibi nata, nihil non arroget armis.”
annotations ; and it would be The son of Peleus, indeed, was
found that even the great Toup, dreaded on account of his cou.
who is the Coryphcüs of Grecian rage, but if we consider his story,
+ See Bentley's note on the passage we do not find that honours were
Horat. P. 674. Ed. Amst. often showered down upon him. 'The author of the preface to the On the contrary, Agamemmon Oxford edition of Cephalas, in-a note, takes away his mistress, Pgionis xan. mentions this passage, but does not dipapnis, or, as Horace stiles her, seem thoroughly to conceive the force Briseis niveo colore'; and tho’he
of Bentley's correction. There is any.
account also of this celebrated passage had plundered so many cities, yet in Foster on Accents, which the curious did the commander in chief alivays reader may consult.