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about thirty feet in width and at the other extremity, so effecto. Dearly a hundred in height at each ally dazzled my eyes, that I could end, in order to admit as much not see the carriages which were light as possible, but it slopes away driving rapidly by us, much less to the centre, where it is not more the peasants on foot, whose hal. than eighteen feet. It is nearly a looings were blended with the remile in length; and at the entrance, verberated noise of the wheels on when you look through the other the pavements. I had passed aperture, appears diminished al. through the obscurity of the most to a point, like the effect pro. grotto and emerged again into the duced in looking through an in- open air, before I could arrange verted telescope. As the rays of my sensations. In warm weather light, admitted at the extremities, the coolness, which is felt immewould not reach the middle of the diately on entering, is refreshing, passage, about one third the dis. and the passage through the grotto tance is seen by an opening, in- becomes very pleasing. There are clining upwards about thirty feet many openings on each side, closed above the entrance, through which with gates, which lead into exten. a fresh supply of light is admitted sive caverns, formed by cutting to the centre. Carriages general stones used in building. In one of ly go provided with torches, but it these openings,towards the centre of is difficult to drive, as the distant the grotto, a hermit has his gloomy light dazzles the sight, and makes cell, and there passes his life, con. it impossible to see any object, templating in silence a skull, by when in the middle of the grotto, the feeble light of a lamp. The
The first time I passed thro' it peasants bestow their charity, and I was in a chair with a friend, who receive his blessing; the luxurious fortunately held the reins ; for I man of the world is driven by his could have paid no attention to the hermitage with velocity, while the horse. My admiration was excited noise of the wheels does not dis. by the romantick appearance of turb his meditations. the entrance. The light, admitted
REV. DR. HOWARD, TRE distinguishing feature of preacher. But there was not any Dr. Howard's character was good thing offensive in his delivery, ar. sense. He thought with accuracy, tificial and disgusting in his tones ; and reasoned with clearness. This his emphasis, though not forcible, was the style of his publick dis- was just ; and there was such pere courses, which were always solid spicuity in his language, so much and judicious. As he was not novelty or importance in his ideas, gifted by nature with a mellow and that he seļdom failed to command harmonious voice, as there was no the attention of an auditory. frenzy in his eye, no enthusiasm is not such a mode of preaching, pither in his heart or head, and as on the whole, the most useful? he had no proud confidence in his The admirers of eloquence, who own elocution, he did not ac- go to a church as to a theatre, for quire the reputation of a popular the sake of having their passions moved, and who think that a ser. Their doctrine descends not like mon is not good, unless it inspires the dew, but like the rain in them either with pity or terrour, a storm ; their voice is not small will condemn the discourses of Dr. and soft, but it rolls like thunder, Howard as cold and unaffecting, or roars like a whirlwind. They But when it is considered of what paint the character of the vicious materials christian congregations man with blacker strokes of deare composed, this censure will pravity, than those with which appear unjust. Those who attend Milton has drawn the character of publick worship are commonly Satan ; and they represent the the most decept and virtuous part Supreme Being, as hating the of the community. They are pa. work of his own hands, as fired rents, who lead to the house of with anger, and armed with venGod their children, whom they geance. The hearers listen with have trained up in the habits of admiration of the wonderful oraorder and decorum. It is the due torical powers of the speaker, ty of a minister to confirm such Though their bosoms are agitated persons in the good practices, almost to agony, yet they are at which they have already learned, the same time charmed; for there to exhort them to persevere in are many men, who are never so them, and daily to make new im- much delighted, as when objects provements in virtue ; to instruct of terrour are by luminous and the young in the obligations, with expressive language rendered visiwhich, from their want of years ble to their eyes. The effect of such and experience, they are not yet preaching sometimes is, that the acquainted, and to point out to hearers,their mental sight being acthem the danger of yielding to customed to none but glowing coltemptation ; to fill the minds of ours are too much inclined to consithe hearers in general with adora- der the common and essential duties tion and gratitude to God, the au- of life, which are best performed thor of every perfect gift, and with with calmness and moderation, as respect and affection to Jesus, not sufficiently splendid to be of through whom we receive the any value. Religion they suppose christian religion ; and to warn all to be something more than humble to prepare for death, to avoid the reverence of God, love to Christ, panishments, and to qualify them- justice, sincerity, and benevolence; selves for the happiness, of a fu- and it is never so highly prized by ture world. These are important them, as when it partakes the most and interesting themes ; but to dis- largely of enthusiasm, play them with advantage it is not To such an impassioned kind necessary to have recourse to the of eloquence the temperate Dr. Janguage of passion, or vehement Howard could not attain ; and gesticulation. A different senti- from our knowledge of his sentiment, it is confessed, prevails ments we can say, he would not among many, both preachers and have attained it, if he could. But hearers. The former deal in bold though he was never fervent, yet figures and hyperbolical descrip- sạch was the goodness of his heart tions. They address a congrega- and his affection to his friends, tion of sober christians, as if they that he was sometimes pathetick. were an assembly of heathens, or We particularly recollect two Oc.
band of thieves and murderers. casions, in which the auditories were much moved by the simple and this led him often to be silent, pathos of his voice and language. He did not choose to speak of himOne was at the funeral of Rev. Dr. self; he had no ambition to wound Clarke, whose sudden death every the feelings of his neighbour by one bewailed. The other was at a smart reply or a witty sarcasm ; a publick commencement, when for flattery and compliments, either his long-tried and faithful friend, serious or sportive, he was totally the president of the university, lay unqualified by his sincerity ; his dangerously sick. On both these exemption from prejudice preoccasions, though there were other vented him from railing against performances, and by men who the opinions of others, because were commonly esteemed more they differed from his own; his eloquent than he, yet the tide of civility rendered him unwilling, by grief rose to its height, whilst he needless contradiction, to offend was praying
those who were present ; and his This effect was in part produced prudence, his 'benevolence, his reby the unaffected simplicity of his ligion, forbade him to slander the character. When Dr. Howard absent. We have cut off so many appeared to be moved, eveny per, of the usual topicks of conversason believed that he was really tion, that few are left for the candid moved. Any event, which so Howard. The subjects, which he good a man lamented, was a sub- preferred, were science, literature, ject of lamentation to all good politicks, morality, and theology ; men : it was impossible therefore and when he spoke on them, he to resist being drawn with him was listened to with pleasure. But into the same current of grief. he was not always grave and sciSimplicity distinguished Dr. How entifick ; for he sometimes enliv, and on these, and on all other oc- ened conversation with a sprightly casions. He never covered his sally; and he frequently charmed mind with the varnish of art ; he the benevolent, by defending the derer pretended to more feeling, reputation of a brother, when ung knowledge, or virtue, than he pos. generously attacked. He was sir sessed ; but with manly plainness lent, but never absent in company : he exhibited his sentiments and he listened with attention to what Character, such as they existed. others said ; and a pleasant smile
This freedom from affectation often marked his approbation of #2s probably one of the causes of the observations of his friends, the taciturnity, which was regretted particularly of the young, who reby his friends. The duke de la quired this encouragement. Rochefoucault observes, that no Of humility, the peculiar virtue man ever opens his mouth, unless of the christian, he was an eminent prompted by vanity; and though example. No grace of the mind Te do not entirely assent to the re, is so often affected as humility.
ark....for Rochefoucault is the There are men, who, under the kurist of human nature, and dis- name of foibles, accuse themselves posed to exaggerate all its foibles of feelings, which they secretly iad vices,...yet we are compelled hope every one will regard as ogrant, that many of the speeches amiable weaknesses. There are stich we hear are dictated by others, who, that they may enjoy anity and affectation. Of this the satisfaction of speaking of oth Dr. Howard was sensible ; themselves, even acknowledge
their vices. There are others, the religious opinions that he de who humble themselves with so dopted were much more unpopumuch stateliness, and condescend lar than they are at present ; yet with so much dignity, that it is he was not deterred by this con. manifest that they think them- sideration from openly declaring selves superiour to those who are what he believed. The creed in their presence. In fine there which he thus early embraced, he are others, who write long joursaw no cause afterwards to change, nals of humility, to be read after but he persevered in it to the last. their death, and which, though We presume not to say that he they are dictated by vanity and had discovered the truth ; but of egotism, are designed to possess this we have not any doubt, that, the minds of those who peruse blessed by his Maker with a clear them with an exalted idea of their understanding, he exerted himself sanctity ; for they confess in gen- to obtain it, with industry and pa. eral terms, that they are the vilest tience, humility and devotion. To of men ; whilst they are careful those who are disposed to appeal not to specify the particular acts to the authority of intelligent and of folly, meanness, and insincerity, virtuous men, in support of their which are known to their contem, opinions, the authority of Dr. poraries. The humility of Dr. Howard might with force be urgHoward was not of this spurious ed. But on this species of argusort ; he never mentioned either ment, which is seldom brought his virtues or his faults ; but it forward, except by those who was evident at the same time to cannot produce any better proof, all, who were intimately acquaint no stress ought to be laid ; be, ed with hini, that he had a humble cause experience shows,....though, sense of his own talents and mor before we become acquainted with al attainments.
the actual state of human life, we His humility was sincere ; and are ready to suspect the contrary, pincerity was the soul of all his ....that wise and good men are not virtues. He did not join in senti, confined to any particular system ment with those, who think that a of religious faith. good cause may sometimes be The candour of Dr. Howard promoted by stratagems. A sube equalled his love of truth. He was terfuge and deceit, an equivoca, not only indulgent in his thoughts, tion and a lie, were in his view and tolerant in his conduct, toward equally criminal. For the sake those who differed from him in of obtaining the approbation of opinion, but he also treated them men, and promoting his worldly with respect and kindness. The interest, he did not profess to religious sentiments of christians, esteem what he really despised. however erroneous they might be,
The sincerity and uprightness and their ceremonies and modes of his mind led him to inquire af- of worship, however superstitious ter truth with diligence, and to they might appear, he maintained pursue it with impartiality. The ought always to be treated with result of his careful investigation decency ; and he neither allowed was, that he saw reason to reject in himself, nor did he approve in the theological system of Calvin ; others, a sarcastick and irreverent and though at the time, in which way of speaking, of objects, which be entered on his ministerial life, any sincere believer might deem
sacred. For this catholicism he wept with them, when they wepts was entitled to great praise ; be. The affection, which they felt for cause the temptations to an oppo- him, never suffered any interrups site practice are very powerful ; tion ; but as old age approached, and nothing is more common than and he advanced toward heaven, ho to hear christians, especially those became more deeply fixed in their who esteem themselves wiser or hearts, like a tree, whose roots penmore holy than their neighbours, etrate still farther into the earth, in charge each other with absurdity, proportion as its branches rise in superstition, fanaticism, or her. the air. He was dear to his brethren esy.
in the ministry, who always welThe spirit of Dr. Howard ren-comed him with smiles of compla. dered him averse to such unchar cence. He was dear to all his itable thoughts ; for mildness fellow-citizens, who admired his reigned in his heart. Gentle by good sense, and venerated his pats nature, by habít, and by religion, riotism, his integrity, his bevo. he could not express severity, lence, and his sanctity. As a kind which he never felt ; gall could master, a tender husband, and a got flow from his tongue, for there most indulgent parent, he was in was none in his constitution. His particular dear to his family. That temper was sweet and amiable ; he was dear to God we have reaand his good sense forbade him to son humbly to believe ; for the embitter it with bigoted and ma- character, which he possessed, lignant invectives. His soul was must have been formed by habits calm ; and what motive had he to ual devotion, by piety which filled disturb its tranquillity with the fu- his heart, and whence, as from a rious storms of uncharitable zeal ? copious fountain, flowed all the
This wel regulated temper in virtues which he practised. spired him with constant cheerful The reader will learn with pleaness. Though reserved, he was sure, that this good man enjoyed. got solemn ; though serious, not as much felicity, as usually falls to gloomy. The peace, which dwelt the lot of mortals. His days were in his heart, appeared in his coun- passed with usefulness, an approve tenance, in traits which no art can ing conscience, and the blessing of counterfeit. .
heaven ; and though he was some That such a man was dear to times síck, and sometimes afflicto his friends will readily be believed ; ed, yet the edge of bodily pain and he was so friendly in his dis. was blunted by patience, and the position and behaviour, that many force of mental anguish was weak were bound to him by this affecened by resignation. A constitutionate tie. His parishioners lov. tion naturally delicate was preed him as a brother, or honoured served to old age by care and temer him as a father : for they knew, perance ; and to a world of unthat he had engaged in the minis- mingled joy he at length passed, try from pure, disinterested, and through the valley of death, with pious motives ; that he discharge out experiencing many of the ed all its duties with diligence and horrours, which sometimes overa fidelity : that he rejoiced with shadow the dismal region, hem, when they, rejoiced, and