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The Study of the Atom: Or, The Foundations of Chemistry
Francis Preston Venable
Полный просмотр - 1904
The Study of the Atom: Or, the Foundation of Chemistry
F. P. (Francis Preston) Venable
Недоступно для просмотра - 2012
accepted according acid action affinity amount appear Aristotle arrangement assumed atomic theory atomic weights attraction bodies called carbon cause century Chem chemical chemistry chloride combination compounds conclusion considered consist contained course Dalton dependent determined direct distinct divisible electricity elements equal equivalents ether evidence existence experiment explanation facts force further gases give given greater heat hydrogen hypothesis idea important influence knowledge known later lead less light mass matter means measure ments method molecular molecule motion namely nature necessary number of atoms observed original oxygen particles period phenomena philosophers physical position possible present properties proportions question reached reaction reason regarded relation relative says seems seen simple solution space specific heats substances sulphur supposed taken temperature things thought tion true union valence various views volumes
Стр. 73 - All these things considered [that is, the chemical facts he had just recited], it seems probable to me that God in the beginning formed matter in solid, massy, hard, impenetrable, movable particles, of such sizes and figures, and with such other properties and in such proportion to space as most conduced to the end for which He formed them; and that these primitive particles, being solids, are incomparably harder than any porous bodies compounded of them, even so very hard as never to wear or break...
Стр. 73 - But should they wear away, or break in pieces, the Nature of Things depending on them, would be changed. Water and Earth, composed of old worn Particles and Fragments of Particles, would not be of the same Nature and Texture now, with Water and Earth composed of entire 817 Particles in the Beginning. And therefore, that Nature may be lasting, the Changes of corporeal Things are to be placed only in the various Separations and new Associations and Motions of these permanent Particles...
Стр. 100 - An enquiry into the relative weights of the ultimate particles of bodies is a subject, as far as I know, entirely new : I have lately been prosecuting this enquiry with remarkable success.
Стр. 175 - Without entering into details, I will give the conclusions I then arrived at in the very words I used: 1. The elements, if arranged according to their atomic weights, exhibit an evident periodicity of properties. 2. Elements which are similar as regards their chemical properties have atomic weights which are either of nearly the same value ( eg platinum, iridium, osmium ) or which increase regularly ( eg potassium, rubidium, caesium).
Стр. 93 - Having been long accustomed to make meteorological observations, and to speculate upon the nature and constitution of the atmosphere, it often struck me with wonder how a compound atmosphere, or a mixture of two or more elastic fluids, should constitute apparently a homogeneous mass, or one in all mechanical relations agreeing with a simple atmosphere.
Стр. 95 - The different sizes of the particles of elastic fluids under like circumstances of temperature and pressure being once established, it became an object to determine the relative sizes and weights, together with the relative number, of atoms in a given volume. This led the way to the combination of gases, and to the number of atoms entering into such combinations the particulars of which will be detailed more at large in the sequel.
Стр. 100 - Why does water not admit its bulk of every kind of gas alike ? This question I have duly considered and though I am not yet able to satisfy myself completely I am nearly persuaded that the circumstance depends upon the weight and number of the ultimate particles of the several gases ; those whose particles are lightest and single being least absorbable, and the others more, according as they increase in weight and complexity (he added in a foot-note: 'Subsequent experiment renders this conjecture...
Стр. 73 - Now by the help of these principles, all material things seem to have been composed of the hard and solid particles above mentioned, variously associated in the first creation by the counsel of an intelligent Agent.
Стр. 72 - The Parts of all homogeneal hard Bodies which fully touch one another, stick together very strongly. And for explaining how this may be, some have invented hooked Atoms, which is begging the Question; and others tell us that Bodies are glued together by rest, that is, by an occult Quality, or rather by nothing; and others, that they stick together by conspiring Motions, that is, by relative rest amongst themselves.
Стр. 72 - I had rather infer from their Cohesion, that their Particles attract one another by some force, which in immediate Contact is exceeding strong, at small distances performs the chymical Operations above mention' d, and reaches not far from the Particles with any sensible Effect.— There are therefore Agents in Nature able to make the Particles of Bodies stick together by very strong Attractions.