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BANNOLPH, THOMAS, an English poet, who ance, applied chiefly to religions cere

died 1634, before his thirtieth year, 256. monies. Ravex, a large bird of a black color, hav- BI'val (Lat. rivus, a river). Rivals, in the

ing its name from ravenous, because of primary sense of the word, were dwellery its greedy disposition. The proverb (p. on the banks of the same river, contendery 65) is directed against those who would for its water privileges ; whence the word pull out the mote from a brother's eye came to be applied to any who were on before heeding the beam in their own.

any grounds in more or less unfriendly READING, Remarks on, 13, 52, 399.

competition with one another. RECORD. On page 320, Shakspeare places ROBERTSON, WM., a celebrated historian, b

the accent of the noun on the last syllable. in Scotland, 1721, d. 1793. It should be on the first, to distinguish it Discovery of America, 188. from the verb. To suit the measure of Mary, Queen of Scots, 244. the verse, however, an exception may here ROGERS, HENRY, a distinguished contributor be made.

to the Edinburgh Review in 1849—53. BECORD'ER, & species of flageolet, in Shak Vanity, &c., of Literature, 315. speare's time.

ROGERS, SAMUEL, a highly-esteemed EngRECTILIN'E-AR, right-lined, straight.

lish poet, b. 1760, and alive 1854. REDUNDANCE (lat. redundans, streaming In Rome, 307.

over, overflowing), superabundance. ROLAND (pronounced Rolang'; the a as in REEF, a range of rucks seeming to be reft father), Madame, the wife of a French or rift from the main land.

statesman, was born in Paris, in 1754. RE-ENFORCEMENT, an increase of strength She was remarkable for her beauty and or force by something added.

intellectual gifts. She was one of the vicRELIGION. This word is believed to be from tims of the French revolution. See an ac

the Latin rel'igo, I bind back or fast; count of her execution, p. 291. whence it means, an acknowledgment of ROME, a city of Italy, formerly the metrop'. our bond or obligation as created beings olis of the greater part of the world

to God, our Creator. See pp. 279, 313. known to the ancients. Its present popuRESERVOIR (rez-er-vwor), literally a place lation is estimated at one hundred and

where anything is reserved or kept ; a eighty thousand, including about nineteen tank or pond in which water is collected thousand foreigners, 307, 386. and preserved in order to be conveyed by ROM'ULUS, the reputed founder of the city pipes where it is needed.

of Rome. He is supposed to be a mythiRETRIBUTION (Lat. retribuo, I give back), cal personage.

repayment, requital. The proverb, “ the Root. The root of a word is the primary feet of retribation are shod with wool ” I signification to which it can be traced. (p. 66), indicates how silently and surely Ro'saRY (Lat. rosarium, a rose-garden). punishment must come to the transgress A Catholic devotional practice, consisting or. “Thy sin shall find thee out," - if in repeating certain prayers a certain not to-day, at some future time. Thou number of times. As the computation is mayest have long credit, but thou must made by beads, the string of beads used pay at length with interest.

for this purpose has acquired the popular REPUBLIC (Lat. respublica, public wealth, or name of a rosary.

cominonwealth), that form of government ROUEN (pronounced Roo-ang' ; the a as in in which the supreme power is vested in father), an ancient city of France on the the people.

river Seine. On the American Republic, 287. ROUTE (pronounced rout or root), the way RETROSPECTIVE (Lat. retro, back, and of a journey ; a course.

specto, I look at), looking back on past ROUTINE (roo-teen'), a round or course of events.

occupation. It is from the Lat. rota, a A Retrospective Review, 127.

wheel. REVOKE (Lat. révoco, I call back). In Ru'BICUND, inclining to redness.

card-playing a revoke is when a party Ruby, a crystallized gem of various shades does not follow suit, though in his power of red, found chiefly in the sand of rivers to do so.

in Ceylon, Pegu, and Mysore. REVENGE, BEST KIND OF, 213.

REDDER. “He who will not be ruled by RIIEIMS, an ancient city of France, where the rudder must be ruled by the rock

most of the French kings have been (p. 65). He who will not be guided by the crowned. Pronounced Rangz.

restraints of conscience, enlightened by RUINE, a celebrated river of Europe, which, the monitions of religion and experience,

rising in Switzerland, flows into the North is likely to make a wreck of his happi Sea. Its distance, following its windings, ness. is about six hundred miles. Lines on, RUSKIN, Jonx, an eloquent English writer, 359.

author of a work on “Modern Painters." RICHTER (pronounced Reehk'tur), a cele The Sky, 263. brated German novelist, b. 1763, d. 1825. RUSSELL, M., Hebrew Literature, 389.

The Two Roads, by, 92.
RILL FROM THE TOWN POMP, 231.

SAG'AMORE, a name for a chief among some RITE, a customary ceremony or observ- of the North American Indian tribes.

in Ceyhound chis, sem of

Two Roadsst, b. 1763", "Cele

RILL

Sr. PIERRE, BERNARDIN de, an ingenious SCHILLER (pronounced Shiller), John Chris

Frunch writer, author of the popular tale topher Frederic von, one of the most illus of “ Paul and Virginia ,” b. 1787, d. trious poets of Germany, was born and 1814.

Marbach, in Wirtemberg, in 1759 ; died Storm in the Indian Ocean, 200.

1805. The extract (p. 343) is from his BAL'AMIS, an island on the eastern coast of celebrated historical tragedy of Wallen

Greece, celebrated for a naval victory stein, admirably transiated by Coleridge. gained over the Persians by the Greeks, SCHOOL. The Greek word schöle, frum B. C. 480. The present name of the which this is derived, means leisure, island in Colouri.

spare time; that is, spare time for study ; SALT. The allusion (p. 385, line 5) is to an implying that the time must speedily

ancient custom. Salt, if used too abun come when our opportunity will be past, dantly, is destructive of vegetation, and and the engrossing occupations of life will causes a desert. Hence, as an emblem of leave us little leisure, comparatively, for their doom, destroyed cities were sown storing the mind. The word school is with salt, to intimate that they were de sometimes used by seamen as synonyvoted to perpetual desolation. There is mous with shoal: thus we hear of a an allusion to the practice in Judges 9: school of fishes, as on p. 400. In this 45.

sense the word seems to be derived from BAMARITANS, a mixed race of Israëlites and the Saxon sceol, a crowd.

Assyrian colonists, who, in the time of the On our Common Schools, 185. Saviour, were looked on with great dislike The Schoolmaster Abroad, 269. by the Jews. The Samaritaps took their | SCHOOLMEX, the teachers of that method of name from Samaria, their capital city. philosophizing which arose in the schools The race is now dwindled down to a few and universities of what are commonly families. The Saviour's parable of the called the middle ages embracing the “good Samaritan” (Luke 10: 30) has period from the reign of Constantine, A. made the phrase proverbial.

D. 325, to the era of the invention of printSAN'ATIVE (Lat. sano, I heal), having the ing, 1450-1455. The Schoolmen adopted power to cure or heal.

the principles of Aristotle, and spent much SAN FRANCISCO, a city on the bay of that time on points of nice and abstract specu

name on the west coast of North America. lation. Their works are now little read. The growth of this city has been unpre- SCHOTTEL, The Seasons, from the German cedented in the world's history. In 1847 of, translated by Charles T. Brooks, 83. it was an insignificant place; through SCHUBERT, a German writer, from whom the discovery of gold in California, it is the extracts on Telegraphs (p. 376) and now a great city. For a description of its on Photography p. 379) were translated local and maritime advantages, see p. by the Rev. W. Furness. 29.

SCHWANAU, pronounced Shuarino. SAND, GEORGE, the name assumed in her SCIENCE (Lat. sciens, knowing, prest ut

published writings by Madame Dudevant, i participle of scio, I know), in its moet a French novelist, of great but irregular comprehensive sense, knowledge, or cerand not always well-directed talents. tain knowledge. The knowledge of reaExtract from, p. 439.

sons and their conclusions constitutes SANIOUS så'nious), pertaining to sanies, abstract, that of causes and effects and

which is a thin, reddish discharge from of the laws of nature natural science wounds or sores.

The science of God must be perfect; the SANSCRIT (that is, the perfect), the present science of man may be fallible. See p.

dead language of the Hindoos, in which 419. the books of their religion and laws are SCOTT, SIR WALTER, eminent as a poet, a written. It is understood now by the novelist, and a historian, was born in Brahmins alone. The Hindoos are the Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1771, and died people of Hlindostan' in Asia.

1832. His death was accelerated by Loo SANTILLANE (pronounced San-teel-yah-ne great mental effort made to relieve him

in Spanish ; San-teel-yahn in French; self from pecuniary dilticulties incurred the a in both as in father). Santillana by the failure of his publishers. A few is the name of a town in Spain.

minutes before he sank into the state of SARMATIA, the ancient name of Poland.

unconsciousness which preceded his death, SATURDAY (in Latin, Saturni dies, Set he called his son-in law and biographer, urn's day), so called from the planet Lockhart, to his bed-side, and said, Saturn.

“ Lockhart, I may have but a minute to BATURNALIA (săt-ur-nå-li-a), a feast among speak to you. My dear, be a good man,

the Romans in honor of Saturn, an old -- be virtuous, be religious, - be a good Italian divinity. The Sa-turrian period man. Nothing else will give you any was the golden age, according to the comfort when you come to lie here." Toets.

Let every youth take the admonition to BAVOYARD (pronounced in French 80-104-1 heart, as if it had been addressed person

yar), a native of Savoy, a duchy burdering ally to himself by this good and gilled on France, Switzerland, and Piedmont. man. Scott an Early Riser, p. 226. Many of the organ-grinders and exhib Pibroch of Donuil Dhu, 46. Llors of shows in Paris are bavoyards.

Hymn of the Hebrew Maid, 164.

is, the

Hindoor laws ar

Humanity of Brace, 173.

of any age. Little is known of his life. Coronach, 258.

His means of education must bave been BORIPTURE (Lat. scriptum, past participle imperfect; but he must have supplied

of scrib-ere, to write), a writing. By the want by much solitary and intense. way of distinction, the word is applied to though, perhaps, desultory, study. On the books of the Old and New Testament, his Power of Expression, p. 312. as being the one Scripture needful; Adam and Orlando, 319. just as the term Bible (from the Greek Isabella and Angelo, 320. biblos, a book) is applied by way of em

Brutus and Cassius, 350. inence to the one book.

Scenes from Hamlet, 371. SCURRILOUS (Lat. scurra, a buffoon), using Passages from Shakspeare, 391. low, obscene, or abusive language.

Wolsey and Cromwell, 421. SEASONS, POETRY OF THE, in four parts, 83, Sue DIED IN BEAUTY, p. 178. 297, 337, 374, 433.

SHELLEY, PERCY BYSSHE, an English poet, SEGUR, COUNT DE, quoted, 329.

b. 1792 ; drowned by the upsetting of a SELECT PASSAGES, in Prose, 367.

boat on the Gulf of Lerici, near Leghorn, In Verse, 100, 113, 177, 256, 309, 410. 1822. He had great genius, unquestionSELF-KILLING, by Chambers, 171.

ably, but was conceited and presumptuSEMI, a Latin prefix, signifying half ; as ous, undertaking, while yet a boy, to semi-diameter, half a diameter.

settle questions in philosophy and reliSEM'INARY (Lat. seminare, to sow), liter gion, which, to grapple with fitly, requires

ally, a place where seeds or first princi a lifetime of study and meditation. His ples are implanted; hence, a school, a intimate friends were of opinion that, had place of education.

he lived, the goodness of his heart would SE-MIR'Amis, an Assyrian queen, wife of eventually have corrected the errors of

Ninus. Her history is much rpixed up his head, and that poetry would have with fabulous matter. She won great worked the cure of his irreligion. Adbattles, founded many cities, and erected dress to a Sky-lark, by, 415. buildings of rare magnificence; but she SHERIDAN, RICHARD BRINSLEY, distinguished was cruel, unscrupulous, and treacher as an orator and dramatist, was born in ous.

Dublin, in 1751 ; died 1816. He had SENTIMENT (Lat. sentio, I discern by the splendid abilities, but was wanting in that

senses, I feel), hence it is a thought high and steadfast moral principle which prompted rather by feeling and impulse could control his appetites, and keep him than elaborated by the judgment ; where from being immersed in debt. Anecdote fore sentiment should be under the of, p. 278. Extract from his speech check and control of principle.

against Hastings, 208. SEPTEMBER (lat. septem, seven), so called SHELL, an instrument of music ; the first

from its being the seventh month in the lyre being made, it is said, by drawing old Roman year, beginning with March. strings over a tortoise-shell. It is the ninth month of our year.

SHIP, THE, by Wilson, 228. SEQUACIONS (Lat. sequar), following, pur SHORE. This word is the old past participle suing. It is a poetical word.

of the verb to shear. * Shore" (says BERGEANT, John, an eminent American law Tooke), “as the sea-shore, shore of a yer and statesman, who died in 1853. river, is the place where the continuity of Declaration of Independence, 381.

the land is interrupted or separated by BETEN SAGES. The "seven sages” of the sea or the river." The word shore also

Greece (referred to p. 429) were Perian means a prop or support for a building. der, or, as some say, Epimen'ides, lit'. tácus, Thales, Solon, Bias, Chibo, and SICKLE (sik'1). This word is from the Cleobü'lus. All of them, except Thales, I Latin sec'ula, a sickle, which is from acquired their distinction by their prac seco, I cut. tical wisdom in regard to the affairs of SIDNEY, SIR PHILIP, was born in 1554, in life. They seem to have been the Frank Kent, England. Ile wrote “The Defence lins of their day. They flourished about of Poetry," and other works. He com600 B. C.

manded a detachment of forces sent to BEX'TANT (Lat. sertans, the sixth part, the assist the people of the Netherlands

limb of the instrument being the sixth against the Spanish, and fell in a victopart of a complete circle), an astronomical rious engagement near Zutphen (proinstrument, used principally at sea for nounced zootfen), in 1586. See anecmeasuring the altitudes of celestial objects, dotes of, 172, 278. by which the latitude in which a ship may SIEGE (seej). The word is derived from the be is ascertained.

Latin sedo, I sit ; and an armed force is BHAKSPEARE, WILLIAM, or Shakespeare, as sometimes said to sit down before &

his name is sometimes spelled, was born town. A siege is the act of besetting a in the little town of Stratford on the fortified place with an army. To raise a Avon, in Warwickshire, England, in siege is to relinquish a siege, or cause it April, 1564, and died in 1616, having just to be relinquished. completed his fifty-second year. By all SIERRA (si-érra) is the Spanish name for a who ran i 'ad the English language he is saw. Applied to a ridge of mountains, is accounted the greatest dramatic writer

ship: igik't).

The sickle, whic

suggests the resemblance of their outline of one of his dramas. Extract from,
to that of a saw.

translated by Lytton, 136.
BIGSOR, the French mode of spelling the SORCERER (the o pronounced as in nor)

Spanish señor, a title of respect, pro This word is from the Latin sorti'tor, .
nounced seen' yur.

caster of lots, and means a conjurer, .
Simms, Wx. G., an American poet and wizard.

miscellaneous writer, born 1806, in South SOUNDS AND LETTERS, 15.
Carolina. Quoted, p. 298.

SOUND AND SENSE, 236.
SI'N E- URE(Latin, sinë, without, cura, care), SOUR-KROUT, cabbage cut fine, pressed, and

an office which yields profit, with little or left to ferment till it is sour, 181.
no care attending it.

SOUTH, ROBERT, an eminent English divine,
SIRRAH (pronounced sir'rah, or sărrah), a b. 1633, d. 1716. Quoted, p. 314.

word of reproach, probably derived from SOUTH EY, ROBERT, an English poet and mis-
Sir ha! -though this derivation is dis cellaneous writer, born in Bristol, in 1774,
approved by Webster.

died in 1843. He was appointed poet-
SKY, THE, Our neglect of, 263.

laureate (see Laureate) in 1813. He was
SKY-LARK, TO THE, 415. See Lark.

& very diligent writer, but overtasked his
SLOUGH, pronounced slou, when meaning a brain to such an extent that he was insane
miry place; and stuf, when meaning the the last few years of his life. The re-
cast skin of a serpent, or the part that marks on self-killing (p. 171) apply to his
separates from a foul sore.

case.
Suce, to lie idle, to play the drone.

The Cataract of Lodore, 36.
SMITH, HORACE, an English poet and essay The Complaints of the Poor, 63.
ist, b. 1779, d. 1849.

Comfort in Adversity, 113.
On the Coming of Spring, 298.

The Father's Return, 136.
To the Flowers, 337.

Night in the Desert, 178.
Suita, Rev. SYDNEY, an English clergy A Fair Day in Autumn, 374.

man, and a contributor to the Edinburgh Spain. The kingdom of Spain comprises
Review ; distinguished for his wit. He nearly four-fifths of the Pyr-e-ne'an pen-
was born 1768, died 1845.

in'sula, separated from France by the
Labor and Genius, 214.

Pyrenees. It is a thoroughly mountain-
Resistance to Ridicule, 368.

ous country. Its chief articles of export
BOCLK (so'kl or sok-kl), in architecture, a are wines, fruits of southern Europe, salt,

square member, whose breadth is greater olive-oil, corks, quicksilver, and a little
than its height ; used instead of a péles wool. By the fanatic and insensate pro
tal for the reception of a column. It dif ceeding of expelling the Moors (the last
fers from a pedestal in being without base remnants of whom were driven out of the
or cornice. It is derived from the Latin country in 1609), Spain lost 800,000 of
8Occue, a shoe.

her most diligent and industrious inhab-
BOC'RA-TES, one of the greatest intellects of itants, and the consequences were fatal

any age, was born in Greece, B. C. 470. both to her manufacturing and agricul-
He taught the immortality of the soul, tural interests. Thus does injustice, in
and strove constantly to enlighten and the order of Providence, carry with it its
improve men, to make them happy here, own punishment, to nations as well as to
and give them faith in a life hereafter. individuals!
lle believed in one God, to whose provi- SPAR'TA or LAC-E-DÆMOX, one of the most
dence he traced all human blessings. powerful states of ancient Greece. The
Being accused of hostility to the popular distinguishing traits of the Spartans were
religion, he was condemned to drink hem severity, resolution, and perseverance.
Jock, a powerful poison, which he did Defeat and reverse never discouraged
with perfect composure, and died in the them. Their children were early inured
Beventieth year of his age, retaining to to hardship, and at a certain annual fes-
the last his high and hopeful faith. Plato tival they were severely flogged, for the
was his most eminent disciple.

purpose of enabling them to bear pain
SOLILOQUY (Lat. solus, alone, and loquor, with firmness. Whoever uttered the least
I speak), a talking to one's self.

cry during the scourging was disgraced.
Contrasted Soliloquies, 80.

See story of the Spartan boy, p. 77.
Soliloquy of Van Artevelde, 384.

SPECIAL (spěcial), designating a species or
SOPH'IST (Gr. sophos, wise), a Greek word, sort ; particular, peculiar. Special plead-

originally siguifying a wise person, but ing, in law, is the allegation of special or
afterwards restricted to a bad sense, as new matter, as distinguished from a di-
the persons calling themselves sophists, rect denial of matter previously alleged
through their vain subtieties and dishon on the opposite side. A special verdict
est arguments, fell into disrepute ; so that is one in which the facts of the case are
sophistry came to mean fallacious rea put on the record, and the law is sub-
soning, or reasoning sound in appearance mitted to the judges.
only.

SPIDER. The Apologue of “The Spider and
BUPHOCLES (80f-0-clés), a Greek dramatic the Bee” (p. 108), from one of the early
roet, b. 495 B. C. In his ninety-fifth productions of Swift, had reference to an
year he is said to have expired from joy, active contest going on at the time be
in consequence of the unex] cted success tween the advocates of ancient learning

and those of modern learning. The Bee | STOMACH, COMPLAINT OF A, 157.
represents the Ancients, the Spider the STORX, on the Mountains, 333.
Moderng The Apologue may be not un- " in the Indian Ocean, 200.
justly aplied to those "self-applauding STORY, JOSEPH, a distioguished American
writers" of the present day, who, far judge and writer on law, was born in
nished with a native stock," and despising Marblehead, Mass., 1779, died 1845. He
accuracy and careful investigation, under was associate justice in the Supreme
value the importa .de of study and in Court of the United States, having been
struction. Ste Swift.

appointed in 1811.
SPISACB (generally written, as pronounced, Fulton's First Steamboat, 324.

Spin'age), a garden plant, the leaves of STREET, ALFRED B., an American poet (b.
which are boiled for greens.

1812) remarkable for the fidelity of his
BP RIT (Lat. spiro, I breathe). The word descriptions of forest scenery. Quoted p.

primarily signified a breathing or gentle 297.
blowing of air. According to Locke, STRID' Lors, from the Latin stri'dulus,
"spirit is a substance in which thinking, making any harsh or hissing sound.
knowing, doubting, and a power of moy- STRONG DRINK MAKETA Pools, 294.
ing, do subsist.”

STUDY OF WORDS, Trench on the, 119.
The Body's Motive Power, 138.

SUCCESSIVE. To preserve the metrical har-
SPONTA-SE'ITY (Lat. spontë, of free will), mony of the line (p. 321, line 32), the ac-
Voluntariness.

cent may here be placed on the first syl
SPRAGUE, CHARLES, on the Indians, 303. lable in reading. The labors of lexicog'-
SPRING, POETRY OF, 117, 297.

raphers (dictionary-makers) had not
SQUEERS, a character in Dickens'y tale of fixed the accent of a large class of words

“Nicholas Nickleby ;" the exaggerated in Sbakspeare's day. Successive is now
type of a class of schoolmasters who once properly accented on the second syllable.
existed in England.

Sur'FIX (Lat. sub, under, firi, I have
STALACTITES (Gr. stalak'tis, that which fixed), a letter or syllable added to the

drops), a concretion of carbonate of lime, end of a word; a postfix.
hanging like an icicle from the roofs of SUFFOLK and NORFOLK were the two broad
caverns, &c., and formed by the gradual divisions of “southern” and “northern
dropping of water holding the carbonate folk” into which the eastern part of Eng-
in solution.

land was divided.
BTAR. “He saw a star shoot,” &c. (p. 92). | SUMMUM BONUM. See Bonum.

The meteors, commonly called falling or SUMMER, POETRY OF, 337.
shooting stars, are supposed to be masses SUNDAY, the first day of the week, is said to
of matter indated with phosphureted hy derive its name from the Saxons, who
drogen gas, and which, being spontane consecrated it to the sun in heathen
ously ignited, shoot from the upper region times.
of the atmosphere in a downward direc- SUPERSCRIPTION (Lat. super, upon, and
tion to the earth. The will of the wisp, scripsi, I have written), the act of writ
or ignis fatuus (Latin for fire of fools), is ing upon ; also the address, or direction
supposed to have a similar origin, though written.
formed nearer the ground from decom- SWIFT, JONATHAN, a celebrated political and
posing substances.

miscellaneous writer, born in Dublin,
STARBOARD. Standing on the deck of a Ireland, in 1667. He was a great master

ship, with the face towards the bowsprit, of irony and satire, but many of his writ-
the side to the right is the star board, ings will be deservedly forgotten, for their
that to the left the lar board.

coarseness. He was created a Dean (an
Brill (lat. stillo, I drop), a vessel, or ap ecclesiastical dignitary) in 1713. In 1739
paratus, used in distilling liquors.

his intellect gave way, and he expired an
STOCK. Of this word, in its various mean idiot, "a driveller and a show," in 1745.

ings, Trench says, "They are all derived With all his failings, he was a very great
from and were originally the past parti man.
ciple of to slick, which, as it now makes The Spider and the Bee, 108.
stuck, made formerly stock; and they SWORD. Webster's preferred pronunciation
cohere in the idea of firedness, which is of this word is sword, although he admits
common to every one."

sord, which is the mode preferred by
Bro'ice, a celebrated sect of antiquity, so Walker, Sheridan, Smart, Worcester, and

called from the stoa (porch or portico), in other eminent philologists.
Athens, where Zeno, the founder of the The Sword and the Press, 255.
Hect, taught (B. C. 300). The Stoics are Sec'opUANT. The derivation of this word is
proverbially known for the steroness and curious and amusing. It is from the
austerity of their doctrines. They repre Greek sykos, a fig, and phaino, I dis
sentedi virtue chietly under the character cover ; and originally meant an in
of self-denial; but, with a strange incon former against those who stole figs.
sistency, did not disapprove of suicide. Hence it came to signify a tale-bearer ;
They studied to make themselves indiffer then a parasite, one who tries to obtain
ent at once to the pleasures and pains of the favor of another by flattery, or by tell
sense, and to exercise complete ontrol ing tales of those whom he would up
over the passior-3.

plant.

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