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find ; oppo having six
and great het nature gene
Latin human, by Bryane Saxon der the
genos, kind), unlike or dissimilar in ferer. He did much to reform the prisons kind ; opposed to homogeneous.
and hospitals of Europe. His deathHEXAG'OXAL, having six angles.
hour was so serene, that he said to a HEYWOOD, THOMAS, an English dramatic friend who tried to divert his thoughts
writer, said to have written 220 plays from the subject, “Death has no terrors between the years 1596 and 1610. Or| for me : it is an event I have always these playg only twenty-four have been looked to with cheerfulness, if not with preserved. Extract from, 294.
pleasure ; and be assured that it is to me HIGGINSON, FRANCIS, an eminent preacher, a more grateful subject than any other."
born in Englaud, but who emigrated to See Burke's eulogy, 146. Salem, Mass., in June, 1629, when there HowITT, MARY, Lines by, 297. were but seven louses in the place. He IIDNOx, or NORTU RIVER, a river of New died in 1630. He had a son alsu named York, rising in a mountainous country Francis.
West of Lake Champlain, and flowing into HILLARD, GEORGE S., an accomplished the Atlantic beluw New York city. The
American writer, author of “Six Mouths tide flows up as far as Troy. Its scenery is in Italy."
very beautiful. The Colosseum, by, 386.
HULKs ; old, dismasted ships, formerly used On a Literary Taste, 399.
as prisons in England. HIPPOCRATES (Hip-pocrates), the most HUME, DAVID, author of a celebrated history
famous among the Greek physicians, b. of England, b. at Edinburgh in 1711. d. 456 B. C. In his method of cure, pre 1776. In his history he generally favors cepts as to diet take the first rank.
the side of power against the people ; and HISTORY (Gr.istoreo, I know by inquiry), his insidious hostility to the Christian
an account of facts ; not only of such as religion leads him to undervalue the laborg relate to the political annals of nations and sufferings of many illustrious marand states, but to their manners and cus tyrs, religious and political. Extract toms, literature and great pen. Natural | from, 145. history treats of the works of nature gen- | IIUMILITY. The root of this word is the erally.
Latin humus, the ground. HISTORICAL CHARACTERS, 144, 243.
HCRRICANE, Tue, by Bryant, 211. HOLMES, OLIVER WENDELL, an American HICSBAND, according to the Saxon deriva physician and a gifted poet, 265, 337.
tion, is house-band, the binder of the HOMER, the great poet of the Greeks. He household by his labor and his govern
flourished in the ninth century before the ment of love. Christian era, and is supposed to have HYDROSTATICAL, relating to the science of been a strolling bard, poor and blind. weighing fluids. Ilis Niad is a poem descriptive of the HYPERBOL'ICAL (Gr. uperballo, I throw siege of Troy, in Asia Minor; and his beyond, overshoot), in rhetoric, exaggerOdyssey describes the wanderingy of ated, tumid. The hy-per'bu-le is a figure, Ulysses. These poems have been trans which may be extravagant either from its lated by Pope ; but Cowper's version of expressing too little or too much. the Iliad is the most faithful.
HYPOTH'ESIS (Gr.), a supposition. Pl., ses.. HOMILY, a discourse or sermon read or pronounced to an audience.
I BID, or IB, a contraction of the Lat., ibiHo-M0-GE' NEOUS (Gr. omos, the same, and dem, meaning, in the same place, or also
genos, kind), of the same kind. See there. Heterogeneous.
IDEA, a Gr. word, from idein, to see ; liter Hood, Thomas, an English poet, comic and ally the image or resemblance of any pathetic, b. 1798, d. 1845.
object conceived by the mind. Ode to his Son, by, 45.
IDES, one of the three epochs or divisions Retrospective Review (abridged), 127. of the ancient Roman month. The caThe Lee-shore, 359.
lends were the first days of the different HOODED BELL. By this striking image of a months ; the ides, days near the middle
bell covered with a hood, Grahame de of the months, and the nones, the ninth
scribes the effect of the snow in hiding it. day before the ides. Brutus reminds HORACE, one of the most popular Latin Cassius of the ides of March (43 B. C.) as poets; b. 65 B. C., d. 9 B, C.
the time when Julius Cæsar fell beneath HORIZON (Gr.orizo, I limit), the line which their daggers and those of the other conterminates the view on all sides.
spirators. “Tu quoque Brute !" (thou, HORNE, GEORGE, an English bishop ; b. too, Brutus !) was Cæsar's exclamation
1730, d. 1792. The Government of the on seeing Brutus stab. Cassius was Thoughts, 97.
married to the half-sister of Brutus. HOUSEWIFE. By Walker and Worcester ILIAD. See Ilomer.
pronounced hůz'wif; by Webster, as IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL, Thoughts on spelled.
the, 150, 314, 316, 412. HOUSEHOLD. Used (p. 426) as an adjective, IMPEACH, 'to accuse; to bring charges in the sense of familiar.
against a public officer before the proper HOWARD, Joux, a celebrated English phi tribunal.
lanthropist, b. 1726, and d. 1790, from & IMPRESS', to compel to enter the public ser malignant fever caught in visiting a suf vice 29 a seaman.
LM'PROV:38, to speak extemporaneously, JENNER, EDWARD, an English physician, especially in verse.
celebrated for having introduced, about INCONVENIENT IGNORANCE, 181.
the year 1776, the practice of vaccination, INDIANS, Phe N. A., 299, 302, 382.
was born 1749, died 1823. INEXPEG'SABLE, not to be subdued by force. JERUSALEM, the capital of Palestine, and the INFLECTIONS OF TIE VOICE, 41, 46.
scene of the crucifixion of the Saviour, is INNOCENT. The original Latin is in'no situated in the southern part of the coun
cens, and simply means, doing no hurt try, about thirty miles from the sea. It or harm. See p. 384.
has been long in the hands of the Mahoir INSTRUCTIOX. (Lat. in and struo, I fur etans, and is now a ruinous place, with nish, set in order.) Compare this with about twenty thousand inhabitants, of
the derivation of the word education. whom Give thousand are Christians. INTAYGIBLE, that cannot be touched.
JEW, WANDERING, The (p. 412), an imagi INTEMPERANCE, want of moderation, not in nary personage, whose existence is de
drinking only, but in eating, and any rived from a legend, that when our kind of indulgence.
Saviour was on his way to execution he INTENSE (Lat. intendo, I stretch), strained, rested on a stone before the house of a
ardent, vehement, extreme in degree. Jew, named Ahasuerus, who drove him IO'NA, a small but farnous island of the away with curses; whereupon, Jesus re
Ileb'rides, once the seat of an abbey, 371. plied, “ Wander thou upon the earth till IRVING, WASHINGTON, an admirable Ameri I return." The fable runs, that the Jew,
can writer, born in the city of New York, racked with remorse, has ever since been April 3, 1783. His style is pure and feli wandering over the earth. There is no citous, and he has written po line “which foundation in reason or history for this dying he could wish to blot."
legend, but it has been made the subject Climate of the Catskill Mts., 111
of stories by many writers, and there are Ferdinand and Isabella, 281.
many allusions to it in literature. The N. A. Indians, 382.
JEWELL, Jonx, an English bishop in the ISRAEL. By this name is sometimes under-1 time of Queen Elizabeth. He was an
stood the person of Jacob, and sometimes elegant Latin scholar; b. 1522, d. 1571.
the people of Israël, the race of Jacob. JOAX OF ARC, 259. ITHURIEL'S SPEAR has reference to a pas. Jons LITTLEJOHX, a poem, 336.
sage in Miton's Paradise Lost (beginning JOHNSON, DR. SAMTEL, born at Litchfield, Book 4th, line 788), in which Ithuriel, Eng., 1709 ; died 1784. His is one of the one of the good angels appointed to search greatest names in English literature. His the garden, touches with his spear (" for style, though somewhat pompous and no falsehood can endure touch of celestial wanting flexibility to modern ears, is temper ") the evil spirit, who, thereupon, wielded by him with a peculiar mastery. starts up " discovered and surprised.”
He was the compiler of the first good
dictionary of the English language. His JA (pronounced ya, the a either as in father | biography, written by Boswell, is a store
or water), an adverb in German, corre house of literary portraiture and informa sponding to our yes.
tion, 371. JACKSOX, ANDREW, President of the t'nited Jove (from Jovis, the genitive of Jupiter),
States from 1829 to 1837, was born in S. the name of the supreme deity among the Carolina, in 1707 ; died, 1845. He com Romans. manded at the battle of N. Orleans, where JOBAL is spoken of in the Bible (Gen. 4: he displayed great inilitary capacity. Ex- 21) as “the father of all such as handle tract from, 288.
the harp and organ." JACOBIX. In French history, a political JUDAY, the name of the fourth son of Jacob
club, during the first revolution, bore this and Leah ; also of a tribe ; and, finally, nane, having taken it from holding their of a kingdom occupying the southern part meetings in the hall of a suppressed Jaco- of Palestine. The name Jew is derived bin monastery. The members were the from it. most sanguinary and violent of the revo-Jrly is so named from Julius Cæsar, who lutionists ; and Jacobinism came to mean | reformed the calendar, so that this month a factious and bloody radicalism.
stood, as it does now with us, the seventh JANUARY, the first month of the year. Byl in order.
some the name is derived from Janus, a Jose, the sixth month, so named, according Roman divinity ; by others, from janua, to some, from Juno; others say, from a gate.
Junius Brutus. JEFFERSCN, THOMAS, third President of the JUPITER, in mythology, the Latin name of
United States, was born in Virginia, in the deity called by the Greeks Zeus: it is 1743, ed died on the 4th July, 1826, derived from that word, with the addition simultaneously with John Adams, the pater, father. See Jove. second president. It was Jefferson who JU'VE-NAL, one of the most caustic of the drew up the famo: Declaration of Inde Roman satirists; and he may be called pendence, 381. Extract from, 287.
the last of the Roman poets. He died A JEFFREY, FRANCIS, Lord, famous as a critio, D. 128. b. in Scotland 1773, d. 1850. Oo the Steam-engine, 406.
| KARR, ALPHONIR, a French writer, dlatha
guished for his taste and knowledge in the eye, it still continues to charm the ear botany. See pp. 125, 353.
with its melody. The sky-lark is not KEBLE, REV. JOHX, an English devotional found in the United States, but we havo poet, much esteemed, 69, 113.
the shore-lark, resembling it in some reKEEN. The use of this word as a verb (as spects, but an inferior bird. See Lines on p. 128) is very unusual.
to a Sky-lark, p. 415. KIIAN (pronounced kawn), in Persia a gov- LATIN, the language spoken by the ancient ernor of a province.
Romans, or the inhabitants of Latium, Koscils'KO, TUADDERS, a Polish general whence its name.
and patriot; b. 1746, d. 1817. Joining LAUNCH OF THE SMP, 143. the American cause, he served under J.AUREATE. Literally, crowned with laurels. Washington during the revolution. Re In England the “poet laureate ” is an turuing hotne, he twice bravely attempted officer of the king's household, whose to free his native country, but, being duty it was, formerly, to write odes on wounded and taken prisoner in 1794, royal birthdays. Southey was laureate passed the rest of his days in exile.
for several years; and Alfred Tennyson KEY-STONE, the stone on the top or middle held the othce in 1854.
of an arch or vault, which, being wider LAUREL. The ancient laurel was a species at the top than at the bottom, enters like of evergreen shrub or bay-tree, with the a wedge, and binds the work.
leaves and branches of which it was the KNOWLES, JAMES SHERIDAN, a dramatic custom to crown the victors in various
writer and an actor ; born in Ireland, in games. 1784. He is the author of many success LEAD. “The plunging lead," 191. An ful plays. In the latter part of his life he allusion to the practice of “heaving the became a Baptist preacher.
lead ” on ship-board, on approaching a The Abuse of Genius, by, 147.
coast, to learn the depth of the water.
The lead used for sounding is in the shape LABAUME (pronounced La-bom, the first a of a cone, with a small hole at the base,
as in father). Eugene Labaume was a into which some grease is put, that sand colonel in the French army, who wrote a or mud may adhere. graphic account of Bonaparte's campaign, LE-AN'DER, a famous youth of Abydos, who described p. 327.
swam every night across the Hellespont LA BRUYERE, JOHN DE, an eminent French to visit Hero, his lady-love. During a writer, b. 1644, d. 1696.
stormy night he perished in the waves. LA'CONISM, a short and pointed saying ; $0 LEARNING TO WRITE, 87.
termed from the celebrity which the Lace LEEWARD (pronounced lu'ard), the lee side ; dæmonians (or people of Laconia) an that is, the side opposite to that from ciently had for their brief and sententious which the wind blows, which is called mode of expressing themselves ; so that windward. A lee shore is the shore this mode is still called laconic. The upon which the wind is blowing. work entitled “ Lacon” (quoted p. 78) LEIBNITZ (Libnitz), an eminent mathema
was by Colton, an English clergyman. tician and philosopher, born in Leipsic, LAMB, MARY, & sister of the celebrated 1646, died 1716.
English humorist, Charles Lamb, who died LEIPSIC (Lip'sic), the largest commercial 1834. See p. 77.
town of Eastern Germany, celebrated for LAMARTINE, ALPHONSE DE, distinguished as its extensive book trade.
a poet, orator, historian, and politician, LE SAGE, Alain René, a celebrated French was born at Macon, in France, in 1790. novelist and dramatic writer, b. 1668, d. He rose to great distinction during the 1747. He is principally remembered for revolution of 1848, but was superseded his novel of “ Gil Blas," which first apbecause of his liberal and popular tenden peared in 1715. cies. Extracts from, 291, 393.
Gil Blas and the Archbishop, 340. LAMMENAIS, Félicité Robert, Abbé, a dig Gil Blas and the Parasite, 429.
tinguished French ecclesiastic, politician, LESSOx. The Latin word from which this and author ; b. 1782, d. 1854.
is derived means simply to read ; thus The Poor Exile, 82.
indicating that reading should hold a Efficacy of Prayer, 318.
primary rank in a pupil's lessons, since LANGUET, pronounced Lang-gwā', the first it gives its naine to the word. a as in father, 172.
LE'VER (Lat. le-va'-rë, to raise or lift up), a LARBOARD, the left side of a vessel, looking bar for raising a great weight by turning forward.
on a fulcrum or prop ; the second meLARDNER, DR. D., 138.
chanical power. LARK, a name given to a genug of birds, of LEYDEN, Joun, a Scotch poet and scholar,
which the sky-lark is much celebrated by b. 1755, d. 1806, from over-study. See European poets. It is one of those few
p. 171. birds that chant whilst on the wing. LIBRARY. In this word we have a record When it first rises from the earth, its of the fact that books were once written on notes are feeble and interrupted ; as it the bark (liber in Latin) of trees. ascends, however, they gradually swell to LEBIG (pronounced Lee-big), Justus, . their full tone, and long after the bird | distinguished chemist, b. in Germany, la has reached a height where it is lost to 1803. On Light, 406.
LIEUTENANT. This word is composed of Henry King, drowned a sailing from
two French words, lieu, place, and ten- England to Ireland. ant, holding, and it generally means an | LYING. The proverb, p. 65, condenses into officer who supplies the place of a supe a few words a volume of exhortation rior in his absence. The word has been I against running in debt; the most deadopted into the English language, and, basing effect of which is, that it surely according to Webster, it may be pro | leads to equivocation and lying. nounced either li-lën'ant or lef-ten'-LYRICAL. A lyric, or a lyrical poem, was ant. It is difficult to account for the formerly one composed to be sung to the latter mode. Was it suggested by the music of the lyre. The word now applies words left tenant? These would be to a large class of poems, adapted either equally expressive of the nature of the to singing or recitation, and distinguished, office.
both in their structure and their brevity, LIFE-BOAT, THE, a poem, 89.
from epic and didactic poems. See Ode. LILY. “The lilies of France," 259. The lily, LYTTON, SIR EDWARD BULWER, an English
or rather the fieur-de-lis, was adopted baronet, and well-known author, b. 1800. as a royal emblem by Louis VII., of His surname was changed from Bulwer. France, 1179.
Is Knowledge Power, 240. LILLIPUTIAN, diminutive ; from Swift's satir Mary Stuart, 247. ical account of Gulliver in Lilliput.
The Treasures hy the Way, 423.
gion supposed by some theologians and Translation from Sophocles, 436.
M'CARTHY, D. F., a young Irish poet, 17%. LINGARD, DR. JOHN, an English priest, an McLCAX, John, a judge of the Supreme
thor of a history of England ; b. 1770, d. Court of the United States. Extract 1851. Extract from, 283.
from, 289. LINGUIST (Lat. lingua, the tongue), a per- MACAULAY, THOMAS BABINGTON, distin son skilled in languages.
guisted as a critic, poet, and historian, LINNÆ'Us, or Linne, Charles von, the most was born in England in 1800.
celebrated of modern naturalists, and the The Puffers, 162.
MACE, a club or staff, being an ensign of LION AND SPANIEL, The, 139.
office, gilt, and surmounted with a crown LITERATURE, On, 267, 345, 389.
or globe. LITURGY (Gr. leiton, public, ergon, a MACEDON (pronounced Mass'e-don), the
work), anciently a public work, or office ; name by which ancient Macedonia, a now applied to a form or ritual of public country in Europe, north of Greece, is
worship in certain Christian churches. sometimes called. LIVERY, a word believed to be derived from MACKAY, CHARLES, 156, 336.
the delivery of clothes by masters to their MADISON, JAMES, President ef the United servants ; a particular garb or dress.
States for two terms, was born in Virginia LLOYD, ROBERT, an English poet, b. 1733, March 16th, 1751. He took a leading d. 1764.
part in the convention which adopted the On Expression in Reading, 155.
Federal Constitution, was a member of LOGIC (Gr. logos, speech) has been defined Congress from 1789 to 1797, was ap
the science, and also the art, of reasoning. pointed by Jefferson Secretary of State in LONGEV'ITY, length of life ; long life.
1801, and was first elected to the Presi LONGFELLOW, HENRY WADSWORTH, an ac dency in 1809. He died, much respected
complished American poet and scholar, in 1836. See Wirt's vindication of him, born 1807.
p. 431. Launch of the Ship, 143.
MANITOU (pronounced Ma-nee'too), an InExcelsior, 285.
dian name for the Great Spirit. Louis XIV. (pronounced Loo-ee), King of | MANKIND. Man kinned, or related, is the
France from 1651 to 1715. Literature original Saxon meaning of this word. and the arts flourished remarkably under What a lesson of human brotherhood is his reign.
lodged in it! LOWERTZ. Pronounced Lo-vairtz'.
MANECVRE. Pronounced ma-nü'-vür. LU'CIFER (Lat. lux, light, fero, I bring), MANSFIELD, WM. MORRAY, a celebrated
literally, the light-bringer; the name of Scottish lawyer, b. 1705, d. 1783. He the planet Venus when seen in the morn was Chief-justice of the King's Bench, and ing before sunrise. See Hesperus. The was made an earl. name of Lucifer is sometimes applied to MAR'ATHON, a plain in Greece where a celeSatan.
brated battle was fought B. C. 490, in Lrxos, Complaint of a pair, 360.
which ten thousand Athenians routed an LUTIST AND NIGHTINGALE, 295.
army of one hundred and ten thousand CYC'IDAS (Lis'sedas). The title of a cele-l Persians.
brated poem by Milton, an extract from MARCU, the first month of the Roman year, which is given, p. 410. Under this name and the third of the Euglish. It has it the poet laments the death of his friend, I name from Mars.
MAR'ITAL (m*:'ital), pertaining to a hus- | MET APAOR (Gr. metaphero, I transfer ; in band.
dicating the substitution of one word for MAR), the god of war among the ancient another of similar meaning). "The silver Romans.
moon” is a melaphorical expression; the MARTYRDOM (Gr. martur, a witness), lite “moon, bright as silver,” is a compari
rally, the suffering of death o acount of gon. one's Wherence to the truth
METAPHYS'ics (Gr. meta, after, and phusis, MARY STUART. See pp. 211, 247.
nature), the science of mind or intelli MASSANIEL'LO, a poor fisherman of Naples, gence.
who, in 1617, healed a rebellion against MEXICO, VALLEY of, 205. the Spanish viceroy, became governor of MICROSCOPE (Gr. mikros, little, and skopeo, Naples, and caused sixty of the principal I view), an optical instrument which enpalaces to be reduced to ashes. He was ables us to see objects too minute to be treacherously induced to lay down his seen by the naked eye, 406. arms, and was finally shot dead by four MIDLAND SEA. See Mediterranean. conspirators, formerly his friends.
MILKY WAY. See Galaxy. MATERIALIST, one who believes that all ex MILMAN, REV. HENRY HART, an English
istence may be resolved into modifications poet and historian, b. 1791. See p. 385. of matter, independent of spirit.
MILTON, Joux, ranked with Shakspeare as MATHEMATICS (Gr. mathisis, learning), the the foremost of English poets, author of
science which treats of whatever can be that inmortal poem, Paradise Lost, was numbered or measured.
born in London in 1608, died 1674. An MAUDLIN, stupid, fuddled. The derivation affection of the eyes, brought on by in
of this word is singular ; it being a cor tense study, terminated in blindness, to ruption of Magdalen, the penitent, who which he makes touching allusions in his is generally drawn by painters with eyes poems. red and swelled with weeping.
Eulogy on, 146. MACGRE (maw ger), in spite of.
Extracts from, 348, 410. MAY, the fifth month of our year, but the MINISTER. In politics, a servant of the
third of the Roman. The derivation of the sovereign executive power in a state ; name is uncertain
generally speaking, the head of a deMAYER, BRANTZ, an American writer, partment or branch of government. In
formerly secretary of legation in Mexico, G. Britain, the responsible head is called and author of an excellent work on that prime minister. country, 205.
MIRABEAU (pronounced meer-ah-bo), the MEDICINE (mēd-de-sin). The Latin root is most eloquent of the political orators of medeor, I heal.
France ; b. 1749, d. 1791. His contemMEDITERRANEAN (Lat. medius, middle, and poraries speak of the effects of his elo
terra, land), enclosed or nearly enclosed quence as surprising and irresistible. with land; as the Mediterranean Sea, Extracts from, 270. between Europe and Africa. The Eng MISCAP'NOS. From two Greek words, siglish translation may be Midland.
nifying a smoke-hater. MELODY (Gr. meli, honey, and odt, song or MITCHELL, Professor 0. M., a distinguished
tune), sweet song or sound. In music, it American astronomer, director of the ditfers from harmony in being au ar Observatory at Cincinnati. rangement of sounds for a single voice or First Predictor of an Eclipse, 174. instrument.
MITHRIDATES (Mithri-da'tes), a King of MEMBER. The Latin root of this word is Pontus, who, to evade designs against his
membrum, a limb of the animal body. life, accustomed himself to poisons, by MEMEX'TO MORI. Two Latin words, signi the aid of antidotes. He was conquered fying be mindful of death.
by Pompey, 66 B. C. Seeing that death MESTOR, a wise friend and counsellor, so or captivity was inevitable, he took
called from Mentor, the faithful adviser poison ; but his constitution had been so of Ulysses, who, during his absence at inured to it, that it failed of effect, and he the siege of Troy, intrusted to him the called in one of his men to despatch him care of his domestic affairs, and the edu- by the sword. cation of his son Telemachus.
Mod'ICUM (Lat.), a pittance, a small quanMENTZ, a city of Germany, at the conflux of tity.
the Rhine and Maine. John F.lust and | Mot'ETY, the half of a thing. John Guttenberg are believed to have in- M s'ad (Gr. monas, unity, from monos,
vented printing here, about the year 1442. alone), an indivisible particle ; atom. MERCURY, a Roman divinity of commerce MONDAY, the second day of the week, means
and gain. His mercantile character is literally moon-day, or the day of the clear from his name, said to be formed moon. from mercor, I traffic. In the Solar MONOPOLY (Gr. monos, alone, and pole, System, Mercury is the name of the I sell), the exclusive right of selling or pianet nearest the sun.
possessing a thing. MERRICK, JAMES, an English divine and MONTGOJLERY, JAMES, an English devotions
poet, b. 17-20, d. 1166. His capital fable poet, b. 1771. He is the author of “Loo of the Cb uneleor (p. 413) has been super- tures on Poetry." See p. 160. seded by othing better of its kind. IM N'UMENT (Litt. moneo, I admouisnj, 1