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philosopher, and the most learned man of | BEAUTIFUL, The, a poem, 264. his day ; but his career teaches the moral Ministry of the, 317. lesson that the tree of knowledge is not the BILLETS, pieces of wood, cut with a bill, or tree of life. He held the otlice of Iligh beakeri i re, so called from its resemblanco Chancellor, but showed himself morally to the bill of a bird. unfit for it, 312

Bivouac (biv'wak). This word is derived BAILLIE, Joanna, uistinguished as a dramat from the Lat. bis, twice, and the German ic writer ; b. in Scotland, 1765; d. 1850. wache, a guard, and signified originally a First Voyage of Columbus, by, 191.

guard to keep watch during the night. BAJAZET, a warlike but tyrannical Sultan of To bivouac is to remain as a guard all

Turkey, who succee led to the throne in night, without tents or covering. The 1389, having strangled his rival brother. word is sometimes spelled with a final k. He died 1403. See p. 255.

BLACKSTONE, Sir Wm., an eminent lawyer, BANCROFT, Geo., extract from, 193,

b. at London 17:23, d. 1750. His * ComBAXYAN. A very large tree of India. It! mentaries on the Laws of England” is

gends down roots from its branches, and still a legal text-book. those roots, striking into the ground, them BOATSWAIN ( in seamen's language bO'en), selves become trunks.

an officer on board of certain ships, who Lines on, by T. Moore, 311.

has charge of the risging, boats, &c. BAR, to prevent, obstruct.

BOARD of Health. The term board is ap BA'SHAN. In scriptural geography, the plied to any budy of individuals intrusted,

land east of the Jordan, and north of Gil for public or private purposes, with the ead; celebrated for its rich soil and fat management of any business or speculacattle, especially its breed of bulls.

tion. It is the province of the Board of BASTILE (basteel'), a noted fortress in Paris, Health in cities to provide against con

built in the fourteenth century, and de tagious diseases, &c. stroyed by the populace in 1789. See BODLEIAN. The library of Oxford, England, p. 60.

under this name, is so called from Sir BAYONET, so called from having been first Thomas Bodley, who died in 1612, and made at Bayonne, in France.

who did much for its foundation. BAYS, the plural of bay, the laurel-tree; ap- BOMBAST. This word is of the same origin

plied to a crown or garland bestowed on as bombasin, and once meant linen sewed warlike or literary merit.

together with flax between, to swell it BEADLE (from the root of to bid), a messen-1 out. Ilence it was applied to a tuinid,

ger ; in England a parish ollicer, whose inflated style, in which sound predomnibusiness is to punish petty offenders.

nates over senge. B. C. These initials attached w dates sig- BONAPARTE, Napoleon, was born in Corsica, nify “ before Christ."

an island in the Mediterranean, belonging BEGUINE. The Beguines were a class of to France, on the fifteenth August, 1769

women in Germany and the Netherlands, He was at the military school of Brienno of pious and secluded habits, similar to from 1779 to 1784, wheu he went to Paris.

the nuns, except that they took no vows. In 1786 he commenced his military career, BELAY, a nautical term, meaning to fasten · which was the most wonderful of modern or make fast, as a rope.

times. In 1804 lie became Emperor of BELLIG'EREST (from the Lat. bellum, war, I France. After remarkable reverses, le and gero, I carry on), weinig war.

was defeated by the allied armies under BELL. The derivation of this word is curi Wellington, at Waterloo, June 18, 1815.

ous ; it is from the Anglo-Saxon belian, He surrendered himself to an English to bellow.

squadron, and was brought to Plymouth, BELVIDERE (from the Lat. bellus, fine, and whence he was removed to St. Helena, a

video, I see). In Italy this name is given barren island in the Atlantic Ocean, where to the cupolas on palaces, from which a he died May 5th, 1821. fine prospect may be had. It is also the An Early Riser, 226. name of a part of the Vatican (the ancient Character of, by Lamartine, 393. palace of the Popes in Rome), where the Napoleon as a Student, 396. famous statue of Apollo, known under BONNIVARD), Francois de, b. 1496, d. 1570, the name of Belvidere, is placed. This was the prior of a convent near Geneva, statue is believed to be the most perfect in Switzerland, and one of the most stren. ever made. The artist's pame is un uous supporters of the liberty of his coun known. In Italian the word is pro try. He was seized and imprisoned by

nounced in four syllables, Bel-ve-da'-re. the Duke of Savoy in the castle of Chillon, BENEFACTOR (from the L. bene, well, and at the eastern extremity of the Lake of

factor, a doer), one who confers a bene Geneva, where he remained from 1529 fit.

till 1536, when he was liberated by his BENGAL' (the a as in fall) is the most east countrymen. The traces left by his steps

ern province of Hindostan', lying on each on the pavement of his cell are still seen. side of the Ganges.

Account of, by A. Dumas, 142. BERESINA (Ber-e-ze'na), a river of Russia. Doxun, the Latin for good; summum

The Passage of, by the French, 328. honum, the chief gool. BESTIARY, one who fought with wild beasts Boxi's, a premium for a privilege, at the ancient spectacles.

Books. The inoor bark of trees was opos

blas on

had. It


used for writit z on. In England, many was very methodical in his tine ; but then hundred years ago, people used to write is not much to praise in his private ebat upon the bark of the beech-tree, which acter. 226. they called boc. We have not changed Broy (from bois, the French for wood), the word much. See Library

piece of wood floating on the water, to iDThoughts on Books, 397.

dicate shoals, &c. The adjective buopan Boom (from the Danish bomme, a drum), tol has the same origin. make a noise like the roar of the waves, BCRCER, Godfrey Augustus, b. 1746, d. 1794: or a clistant gun.

a German poet, celebrated for his spirid Books (from the Lat. borus, or Fr. bon), a ballads. gift, a favor.

The Brave Man, by, 165. BOCLOGNE (Boo-lon), a seaport of France on BURKE, Edmund, a writer, orator, and the English Channel.

statesman, of great eminence. Born in BOCQUET (boo-ka), a nosegay.

Ireland, 1780; died 1797. He was one of Buw, the curved part of a ship forward. the greatest masters of English style; -a When it has this meaning it is pronounced amiable and religious man in private hje, so as to rhyme with cow.

and exemplary in his domestic and socia BOWRING, John, his translation of Derzha-1 duties. See character of, by Hazlitt, and vin's ode, 153.

Grattan, 245, 216. True Courage, hy, 242.

Extracts from his Speeches, 146, 263, BRAHMIX, the highest or priestly class,

269. among the lindoos.

BURNET, Gilbert, Bishop of Salisbury, was BRAVE MAN, The, translated from the Ger-| born in Scotland, 1643 ; d. 1714. Ile was man of Burger, 165.

the author of a IIistory of the Reformie BRAZIER, an artificer in brass.

tion. 226. BREWSTER, Sir David, an eminent philoso- BURRINGTOX, E. H., Lines hy, 264.

pher of Scotland, b. 1781. lle was the BURTON, W., Learning to Write, 87. inventor of that optical toy, the Kaleido BUSHMEN. A name given by the Dutch scope.

colonists to some roaming tribes akin to Barbarism of War, by, 303.

the Hottentots, in the vicinity of the BRIDEWELL, a house of correction for dis Cape of Good Hope. They are of a duk

orderly persons ; so called from the palace copper complexion, and small in stature. near Bridget's well in London, which was So dvep are they sunk in barbarism, as to turned into a work-house.

be unacquainted even with the construo BROOKE, Henry, The Lion, &c., by, 139. tion of huts or tents, 119. BROOKS, C. T., Translations by, 83, 412. By and By. The proverb, p. 61, T2, is BROCGITAM, Henry, Lord, distinguished as a directed against the habit of procrastina

statesman, man of letters, and philoso tion ; of putting off what ought be done as pher; born in Scotland. He entered once till "by and by." Parliament in 1810. On Science, by, 441. Byrox, Lord George Gordon, an English The Schoolmaster Abroad, by, 269.

nobleman, of great but misapplied talenta. On the Pleasures of Science, 441.

Ile was born in the year 1788, and died in BROWNE, J. R., The Whale Chase, by, 400. Greece, in 1824. See p. 148. BRUCE, Robert, one of the most heroic of the Ambition, by, 100,

Scottish kings, and the deliverer of Scotland The Guilty Conscience, 258.

from the English yoke; b. 1274, d. 1329. Ancient Greece, 310. BRUIN, a familiar name given to the bear, A Storm on the Mountains, 333. from the Fr. brun, brown.

The Colosseum, by, 388. BRUTCS, Lucius Junius, known as the first

Brutus, received his surname of Brutus, CABINET, in politics, the governing council or brute, from feigning idiocy in order to of a country; so called from the cabinet or escape the tyranny of Tarquin, a king of apartment in which the Chief Magistrate ancient Rome. Lucretia, a lady of great transacts public business, and assembles purity, having been grossly abused by his privy council. In the United States the Sextus Tarquin, Brutus threw off his pre members of the President's Cabinet are the tended idiocy, and roused the Romans to Secretaries of State, of the Treasury, of expel their king and establish a republic. War, of the Navy, the Interior, the PostAs consul, he afterwards sentenced his master General, and the Attorney General. two sons to death for crimes against their | CADI (in Arabic, a judge). The Turks style country. See p. 309. Marcus Junius their inferior judges Cadi. Brutus, celebrated by Shakspeare, was a CA'LyX, a Greek word, signifying a cup. It descendant of the first Brutus, 350.

is the name given by botanists to the outBRYANT, Wm. Cullen, an eminent Americanermost of the enveloping organs of a poet, b. in Cummington, Mass., Nov. 3, flower. 1794.

CALABRIA, the southern part of the kingdom Extracts from, 178, 205, 257, 338.

of Naples ; traversed throughout by the The liurricane, by, 211.

Apennine Vintains. November, by, 375.

Adventure in Calabria, 305. BUFFON, burn 1707, died 1788 ; a famous CAMERA Obscura, or Durk Chamber, is an

naturalist, the eloquence of whose style optical apparatus, by which the ijaget gave a charm to his scientific works. He of external objects are thrown on a whik

surface, and represented in a vivid man- CASTLE of Indolence, the title of a celebrated

ner in their proper colors, shapes, &c. poem by Thomson, written in the manner CAXILLA, I I ancient mythology, one of the of Spenser, and containing many obsoleto swift-food servants of Diana, accustomed words. to the chose and to war.

Cass, LEWIS, On Labor, 427. CAMPAGNA (kam-pan'-ya, the a pronounced CATACOMB3 (from the Greek words, kata,

likenin father), a term applied to the | down, and kumbos, a hollow), a cave for low lands of the Tiber abont Romne in Italy. the burial of the dead. The word simply means a flat, open CATILINE, a Roman of great talents, but dis country. The Roman Campagna is quite solute habits. He conspired against his unhealthy at crtain seasons.

country, and was denounced by Cicero la CAMPBELL, Thonika, a great lyrical poet his most celebrated oration.

(see Lyrical), was bin in Glasgow, Scot-CATSKILL Mountains are in the vicinity of land, in 1777; died 1841. Ile wrote his fine Catskill, Green county, N. Y., on the poem of “The Pleasures of Hope” when Hudson. They received their name from only twenty-two years of age.

the great number of catamounts formerly Ir. “ Pleasures of Hope,” 309, 412, killed there, 111. 310.

CAVERX by the Sea, The, 183. Lord Ullin's Daughter, 276.

CECILIA. There are several saints of this CANAAN (Ca'nan), all that tract of land, on name in the Catholic church. The most

each side of the Jordan in Palestine, which celebrated, who has been erroneously reGod gave for an inheritance to the chil garded as the inventresy of the organ, sufdren of Israel.

fered martyrdom A. D. 220. How Cecilia CANA'RIES, thirteen islands in the Atlantic came to be the patron-saint of music is not

Ocean, about sixty miles from the west agreed. coast of North Africa ; known to the Ode on Cecilia's Day, 416. ancients as the Fortunate Isles. They CENIS, Mount, a mountain of the Alps in were re-discovered in 1402, and seized by Savoy. It is eight thousand six hundred the Spaniards in 1420, who planted vines and seventy feet above the level of the there. The canary-bird is a native of sea. these isles.

CENTURY (from the Latin centum, a hune CASDOR, from the Latin word canderë, to drei), in a general sense, anything con

be white, to shine, to glitter ; hence sin sisting of a hundred parts ; a period of a cerity, purity. The word candle is of the hundred years. same genealogy

CHALMERS, Thomas, a celebrated Scotch CANDLES, candlestick. See Candor.

divine, born 1780, died 1847. CAN'NDBAL, a person that devours human Planets and leavenly Bodies, 224.

flesh. The word is probably of Indian Ministry of the Beautiful, 317. origin.

CHAMBERS, Robert, a distinguished Scottish CANNING, George, a highly accomplished writer and publisher, born 1801.

orator and writer, born in London in 1770, Complaint of a Stomach, 157.
died in 1827. See p. 270.

Self-killing, 171.
CAPACITY (froin the L. capio, I hold, or Kindness to Brute Animals, 195.

take), the power of containing or taking. Best Kind of Revenge, 213. CAPE (from the L. caput, the head), a point Sound and Sense, 236.

or head of land projecting from the main Passage of Beresina, 326. land into a sea or lake.

Idleness, Jesting, &c., 370. CAR'ICATURE (from the Italian caricare, to Common Errors, 409.

charge, to load), a distorted, exaggerated CHANNING, Wm. Ellery, a celebrated Ameri likeness of any thing or person.

can clergyman and writer, born at NewCARLYLE, Thomas, an eccentric writer, born port, R. I., 1780; died 1842.

in Scotland in 1796. Ilis style, at first On the Teacher's Calling, 186.
simple and eloquent, latterly became af The Free Mind, 277.
fected and grotesque, though often vigor Effects of Irreligion, 316.

The Worth of Books, 398.
The Sword and Pregg, ly, 255.

CHASE on the Ice, 131.
CARNIVAL (from two Latin words, carni and CuaTIAM, Wm. Pitt, Earl of (or Lord), was

valë, meaning, farewell to flesh), a fes one of the greatest orators and statesmen tival celebrated with merriment and of England, and a stanch friend of the revelry in Roman Catholic countries, dur American colonies in their difficulties with ing the week before Lent.

the British government. He was born CARNIVOROUS, feeding on flesh.

1708, died 1778. CARRIER-PIGEON, The, a poem by Moore, Described by Hazlitt, Grattan, 245, 6.

137. The carrier-pigeon flies at an ele On Taxing America, 267. Vated pitch, in order to surmount every CHA-ME-LEON, a species of lizard, found in obstacle between her and the place to Asia and Africa. It has the remarkabla which ihe is destined.

power of changing its color, producing a CASHER Fr. casser, to break), to disrniss succession of rich and varied tints over from service.

the whole body. On this peculiarity CASTLE-BUILDING, forming visionary proj Merrick's admirable fable (see p. 413) it

eets; building “castles in the air," 71. founded.

CHAPXAN, a trafficker, a cheapener.

Extract from his Speeches, 271. CHAP3 (chops), the mouth of a beast.

CLEAVE; as used p. 205, this is an in CHAPTER (from the Lat. caput, a head), a transitive verb, or one in which the action

division of a book or treatise ; as Genesis is confidel to the agent, and does not pass contains fifty chapters.

over to an object. CHARLATAN, & quack; from an Italian | CLERK ; the English pronunciation of this word, meaning to prate.

Word (as if clark) is now repudiated. CHARLEMAGNE (Shar-e-mån), King of the CLEVER, dexterous, expert ; the meaning

Frunks, and subsequently Emperor of the good-natured seems peculiar to AnderWest, was born 712, died 811. His ica. name means Charles the Great. Although CLIFF (now generally spelt cle), a charashe did not know how to write, he was a ter in music ; from the L. clavis, a key. friend to learning. See p. 395.

CODE. With the ancient Romans that juurt CHARLES the Twelfth of Sweden; born 1682 ; 1 of the wool of a tree next to the bark

killed by a cannon-ball, 1718. He was a called codes; and the laws written on military hero, who was lavish of human this wood, smeared with wax, took its blood whenever his selfishness or ambi name; whence is our word code, a colleotion was to be gratified.

tion of laws. CHICASERY (she-kån-er-y), trickery, by COGNAC (kon-yak), a French brandy.

which a cause is delayed or perplexed. | COLERIDGE, Samuci Taylor, an English poet CHILLON (shillong), 142. See Bonnivard. and philosopher, b. 1770, d. 1813. CUKOGRAPHY (kirog'rafy), the art of writ Translation from Schiller, by, 3+3.

ing; from the Gr, cheir, the hand, and COLOSSAL, gigantic, like a Colossus; an grapho, I write.

ancient statue of Apollo, which stood Cuock, a wedge used to secure anything across the entrance of the harlwys at

with, or for anything to rest on. The Rhodes, being so called. It was of brass, long-boat, when it is stowed, rests on two one hundred and fire feet high, so that large chocks.

ships could pass under its legs. CHOʻrts, a number of singers ; verses of a COLOSSEUM (col-os-se'um), The, 386. song, in which all present join.

COLLINS, Wm., an English poet, b. 1720, d. CHRISTENDOM, all the countries of the world, 1756. His odes, written when he was

the people of which profess Christian quite young, show great genius. ity.

Ode to the Passions, 402. CHRISTIANITY, Obligations to, 313.

COLOMBUS, Christopher, was born at Genca, CHRONOMETER (Gr. chronos, time, and 1437 ; died 1506. See America.

metros, measure), an instrument to COMBUSTIBLE, capable of burning. measure time with great exactness.

Comet (from the Gr. kome, hair), a celes CHUM, & chainber-fellow.

tial bodly, with a luminous train. CICERO, the most famous of Roman orators; COMMONS. In countries having kings and born 106 B. C., murdered by soldiers 43 nobles, the commou people, or their repB. C.

resentatives, are thus called. Compared with Demosthenes, 243. COMPANION (from the Lat. commu'nis,

common, and panis, bread), literally, CINCINNATUS, à consul of ancient Rome ; one with whom we share bread.

he was repeatedly taken from his Cox'CAVE, hollow ; opposed to conver, plough and farm to assume the highest

1 spherical. offices of the state. A society of Ameri- CONCIERGERIE (kon-se-airzh'-re), the name can revolutionary officers took their name of a prison in Paris. from him, calling themselves Cincinnati, Concise (from the Lat. conci'do, to cut whence the great city of Ohio has its down), brief, containing few words. name.

CONCRETE (Lat. concres-ce-re, to grow to CIRCUMFERENCE (from the Lat. circum, gether, to coalesce in one mass). As an

around, and fero, I curry), a line that adj., formed by coalition of separate bounds the space of a circle.

particles in one body. In logic, existing CIRCUMSTANCE (from circum, around, and in a subject ; not abstract; as the white

stans, standing), an incident, a state of snow. As a noun, a compound, a mass affairs.

formed by concretion. CIVILIZATION, Progress of, 338.

CONFUSED. As used by Heywood, p. 234, CLASSICS (from the Latin class 18). The the accent is on the first syllable. In his

Romans were divided into six classes, and day, usage had not settled the accent of a classici was the name given to the first large class of English words. class; whence the best Greek and Roman CONGREVE, W ., an English dramatist and authors have been, in modern times, poet, b. 1672, d. 1729. Ilis reputation,

called classics, that is, first-class writers. very great in his day, has deservedly CLASS Opinions ; those of a certain set or dwindled.

class of mutual admirers and supporters, The Preacher who Failed, &c., 286. 72.

CoxJURE ; when it means to call on solemnly CLAY, Henry, an American orator and (as on p. 372), the accent is on the last

statesman, born in Va. 1777, died 1852. syllable; when it means to affect by magic, For many years he represented Kentucky or to practise the arts of a conjurer, tha in Congress.

acoent is on the first syllable.

Extract from, 207,1 of ancient Rome; ICONS

King one of the ver to the Parliame

CONSCIEN Y ; derivation explained, 125. CRAVEN, a coward ; from to crave, because CONSENTA'SEOCS, agrecing, accorlant.

supposed to crave his life. CONSONANTS ; derivation of, &c., 15, 16, 21. CREASY, E. S., on Demosthenes, 343. CoxsTANCE', a lake between Germany and CROLY, REV. GEORGE, a poet of great ele

Switzerland, ten leagues long, and three in gance and power of diction, born in its greatest breadth.

Ireland about 1790. Extract from, 283. CoxSTELLATION (from the Latin con, to- CROMWELL, OLIVER, one of the greatest

gether, and stella, a star), a group or characters in English history ; born 1599 cluster of fixed stars.

died 1659. Being elected to Parliament CONTEM'PLATE. The Lat, word templum, a he attached himself to the Puritans, be

temple, a place set apart for meditation, I came one of the principal leaders against

enters into the derivation of this word. King Charles I., and joined in bringing CONTEM'PORARY, sometimes written cotem that monarch to the block. As a military

porary (from the Lat, con, together, and leader, he obtained important victories,

tempus, time); living at the same time. which placed him at the summit of power, CONTENT (from con, and teneo, I hold). so that he dissolved the Long Parliament

He who is content is literally one who (see p. 283), and, in 1653, assumed the

contains ; who holds enough ; satisfied. supreme authority in England, under the CONTINENT (Lat. continens, containing), | title of Lord Protector. At one periori of

that which contains or holds ; hence, in his life he was on the point of emigrating geography, a great extent of land not dis to Massachusetts. joined by the sea. The word is much CRUCIFIX (from the Lat. cruci, to a crosa, used by British writers to signify the 1 and firi, I have fixed), a cross on which countries of Europe other than Great the body of Christ is fixed in elligy. Britain and Ireland.

CUMBER, perplexity, distress. CONTRARY. This word should not be used CUMBERLAND, RICHARD, & miscellaneous

as if the same in meaning as opposite. writer, b. in England 1732, d. 1811. “Opposites " complete, while" contraries” | Affectation, by, 144. exclude each other. Opposite qualities CURFEW (from the French couvre-feu, cover

may meet in a person, but not contrary. fire), a bell anciently rung at eight o'clock CONVERSATION SPOILERS, 249.

in the evening, when people were obliged to COPSE (from the Gr. kopto, I fell, cut down), extinguish their fires and lights, accidents

& wood of small growth, because of being from fire being then very frequent and cut.

fatal, as houses were built mostly of wood. CORDUROY, a thick cotton stuff, corded or King Alfred once ordained that, at the ribbed,

ringing of the Curfew, or Cover-fire, Bell, CORONACH (kor'-o-nak), a wild expression of all the inhabitants of Oxford should cover

lamentation among the Scotch Highland up their fires and go to bed. “The curers ; poured forth by mourners over the few tolls the knell of parting day." Seo dead body of a friend, 258.

p. 272. There is no good authority for CORNUCOʻPIA (L. cornu, a horn, copia, the punctuation which would here mako plenty), the horn of plenty.

tolls an intransitive verb. CORREI (körray), the hollow side of th

CURSES. The proverb (p. 64) simply means where game usually lies.

that the heart that can give vent to a CORTEGE (kor-ta'zji), a train, a retinue. curse against another is cursing itself COTERIE (ko-te-ree'), a set, clan, circle of most, by giving strength and development people.

to evil and malignant feelings. COTTLE, JOSEPH, a publisher and author, of COʻRULE (from the Lat. currus, a chariot).

Bristol, Eng. His tribute to lenderson, The curule chair, among the Romans, was p. 167.

a stool without a back, conveyed in a COULTER (kol'ter), the sharp iron of a chariot, and used by public officers.

plough. It is from the Latin culter, a CYCLE, a circle ; in chronology, a periodical plough-share, which is from colo, I culti space of time. vate.

CYLINDER, a long, circular body, of uniform CoUP-DE-MAIN (ko-lur-măng), a bold | diameter. Adj., cylindrical.

stroke ; literally a hand-stroke. COURAGE, from the Lat. cor, the heart -- DAFFODILS (Gr. asphoul' elos), a species of

the heart being the seat of courage, 212. Narcissus, with beautiful flowers of a deep COCRIER, PAUL LUIS, a wittyFrench yellow hue. It flowers in April or May. writer, born 1773, assassinated 1825.

Some of the more hardy species grow An Adventure in Calabria, 305.

wild. COW PER, W ., one of the truest and best of The Daffodils, a poem, 70. English poets, was born 1731, died 1800. DAGTERREOTYPE (da-ger'ro-type), so called Ode to Peace, 137.

from M. Daguerre (dah-ghair), a French Reciprocal Kindness, 197.

artist, who gave publicity to his invention Extracts from, 177, 218, 311, 410, 414. in 1839. An apparatus somewhat similar CRUBBE, REV, GEORGE, a very original Eng to his was contrived about the same timo

lish poet; b. 1751, d. 1832. IIis de by M. Niepci, also a Frenchman, with scriptions of life among the poor are whom the honor should be partially severely true.

shared. See p. 373. Practical Charity, by, 257

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