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XIII. False names are vain,—thy lines their author tell ;
Thy best concealment had been writing well.
And gui't proves fate, which was but choice before.
The bad must miss ; the good untaught will find.
Reason, the rudder, to direct and save. XVIII. This without those obtains a vain employ ;
Those without this but urge us to destroy.
Which in the virtuous mind doth all things conquer
It lifts the saint to beaven.
QUESTIONS. -115. What does Pronunciation include ? 116. Does colloqnial pronun ciation ever differ from that used in reading the Scriptures or poetry ? Mention examples. 117. What is Modulation ? 118. Emphasis? What is the original meaning of Enphasis ! 119. To what may the misplacing of one's emphasis lead ? 121. What is necessary is order to emphasize expressively?
125. With regard to the Inflections of the Voice, upon which so much has been said and written, there are in reality but two — the rising and the falling. The compound, or circumflex inflection, is merely that in which the voice both rises and falls on the same word – as in the utter. ance of the word “ What,” when it is intended to convey an expression of disdain, reproach, or extreme surprise. The analysis of vocal inflection was first promulgated by Mr. John Walker, author of the dictionary bearing his name.
126. The inflections are not denominated rising or falling from the oigh or low tone in which they are pronounced, but from the upward or downward slide in which they terminate, whether pronounced in a high or low key. The rising inflection was marked by Mr. Walker with the acute accent ('); the falling, with the grave accent (). The inflection mark of the acute accent must not be confounded with its use in accentua tion.
127. In the utterance of the interrog'ative sentence, “ Does Cæsar deserve fame' or blame'?" the word fame will have the rising or upward slide of the voice, and blame the falling or downward slide of the voice. Every pause, of whatever kind, must necessarily adopt one of these two inflections, or continue in a monotone.
128. Thus it will be seen that the rising inflection is that upward turn of the voice which we use in asking a question answerable by a simple yes or no, and the falling inflection is that downward sliding of the voice which is commonly used at the end of a sentence. Lest an inaccurate ear should be led to suppose that the different signification of the opposing words is the reason of their sounding differently, we give below, among other examples, some phrases composed of the same words, which are nevertheless pronounced with exactly the same difference of inflection as thr: others.
The Falling followed by the Rising.
We should say ocean', not ocean'. 129. The rising progression in a sentence connects what has been said with what is to be uttered, or with what the speaker wishes to be implied or supplied by the hearer; and this with more or less closeness, queru, lousness, and passion, in proportion to the extent and force of the rise.
130. The falling progression disconnects what has been said from whatever may follow ; and this with more or less completeness, exclusiveness, and passion, in proportion to ths force and extent of the fall.
131. The rising inflection is thus, invariably, associated with what is incomplete in sense ; or, if apparently complete, dependent on or modified by what follows; with whatever is relative to something expressed, er to be implied, and with what is doubtful, interrogative or supplicatory.
132. The falling inflection, on the contrary, is invariably associated with what is complete and independent in sense, or intended to be received as such; with whatever is positive and exclusive; and with what is con fidently essertive, dogmatical or mandatory.
133. The rising inflection is thus, also, the natural intonation of all attractive sentiments ; of love, admiration, pity, &c.; as in the exclamationg “ Beautiful! Alas'! Poor thing'!” The falling inflection is the tone of repulsion, anger, hatred and reproach, as in the exclamations, “ Go'! Fool'! Malediction'!”
134. A great number of rules are given by Mr. Walker and his followers for the inflecting of sentences or parts of sentences. To these rules there are many exceptions not enumerated by their framers. The rules, if used at all, must therefore be used with extreme caution, or they will mislead ; and the reader who undertakes to regulate his elocution by them will, in many instances, fall into error. We give below the rules that are least liable to exception ; but even these must be received rather as hints to guide the reader, where he is in doubt, than rules to hold where his understanding dictates the intonation most in accordance with the sense and spirit of what he is reading. Marks of inflection, like marks of emphasis, may serve to illustrate a principle, as for instance the fact that there is a rising and falling inflection of the voice, and that the sense of a sentence often depends upon a correct emphasis and inflection. But the student who expects to attain a correct style of elocution by following inflection marks, rather thin by studying the pith and catching the spirit of what he is to read, will be disappointed.
I. Where the sense is complete, whether at the termination of a sentence or of a part of a sentence, use the falling infection.
II. When sentences are divisible into two parts, the commencing part is generally distinguished by the rising inflection.
III. Questions commencing with an adverb or pronoun, and which can. not be answered by a simple “yes” or “no,” generally terminate with the falling inflection.
IV. Questions commencing with a verb, and which can be answered by a simple “yes” or “no," generally terminate with the rising inflection.
V. When two or more questions in succession, the first beginning with a verb, are separated by the disjunctive particle or, the last question requires the falling, and the preceding ones the rising inflection.
VI. The general rule for the parenthesis (a Greek word signifying an insertion) is, that it must be pronounced in a lower tone and more rapidly than the rest of the sentence, and concluded with the inflection that immediately precedes it. A simile, being a species of parenthesis, follows the same rule.
VII. The title echo is adopted by Walker to express a repetition of a word or phrase. The echoing word is pronounced generally with the rising Inflection, followed b'something of a pause.
VIII. The monotone, in which neither inflection of the voice is used, may be defined to be a cortinuation or sameness of sound upon certain syllables of a word or certa'n words, exactly like that produced by repeatedly striking a bell; such a stroke may be louder or softer, but continues exactly in the same pitch. To express this tone upon paper, a horizontal line is sometimes adopted, such as we use to designate a long vowel: thus (--). The monotone may be often appropriately employed in passages of solemnity and awe.
EXAMPLES ON THE ABOVE RULES. I. It is to the unaccountable obliviou of our mortality that the world owes all its fascination'.
Age, in a virtuous person, carries with it an authority, which makes it preferable to all the pleasures of youth'.
II. Virtue were a kind of misery', if fame were all the garland that crowned her!
Your enemies may be formidable by their numbers', and by their power'; but He who is with you is enightier than they'.
III. Who can look down upon the grave', even of an enemy', and not feel a compunctious throb' that he should ever have warred' with the poor handful of earth' that lies mouldering before him'? How many men were in that army' at the time of the victory' ?
What can be worse',
IV. Would a merciful Providence have given us talents', without designing that we should exert them'?
Can such things be'
Without our special wonder' ? Can the soldier, when he girdeth on his armor, boast like him that putteth it off' ? Can the merchant predict that the speculation, on which he has entered', will be infallibly crowned with success'?
Avārus has long been ardently endeavoring to fill his chest': and, lo! it is now full'. Is he happy'? Does be use' it? Does he gratefully think of the Giver of all good things'? Does he distribute to the poor?
V. Does God, after having made his creatures, take no further care of them'? Has he left them to blind fate or undirected chance' ? Has he for saken the works of his own hands'? Or does he always graciously pre sorve, and keep, and guide them'?
Can honor's voice provoke the silent dust'?
Do the perfections of the Almighty lie dormant, or are they not rather in continual exercise'?
VI. Uprightness is a habit, and, like all othor habits, gains strength by tive and exercise. If, then, we exercise' upright principles (and we cannot have them unless we exercise' them), they must be perpetually on the increase.
Then went the captain with the officers, and brought them without violence (fo: they feared the people, lest they should have been stoned'); and when they had brought them, they set them before the council.
Let us' (since life can little more supply
Ex patiate free o'er all this scene of man.
Thou little tricksy Puck! with antic toys so funnily bestuck, light as the singing bird that wings the air - (The door! the door! he'll tumble down the stair!) Thou darling of thy sire! (Why, Jane, he 'll set his pinaforo afire!) Thou imp of mirth and joy, in love's dear chain so strong and bright a link — thou idol of thy parents - (Hang the boy! There goes my ink !)
Thou cherub — but of earth ; fit playfellow for fayg by moonlight pale, in harmless sport and mirth - (That dog will bite him, if he pulls his tail!) Thou human humming-bee, extracting honey from every blossom in the world that blows, singing in youth's Elysium ever sunny - (Another tumble; that's his precious nose !) Thy father's pride and hope ! (He 'll break the mirror with that skipping-rope !) With pure heart newly stainped from nature's mint-(Where did he learn that squint ?)
Thou young domestic dove! (IIe 'll have that jug off with another shove!) Dear nursling of the hymeno'al nest! (Are those torn clothes his best ?) Little epit'omě of man ! (He 'll climb upon the table, – that's his plan!) Touched with the beauteous tints of dawning life — (Ile's got a knife !) Thou en viable being! No storms, no clouds, in thy blue sky foreseeing, play on, play on, my elfin John!
Toss the light ball; bestride the stick — (I knew so many cakes would make him sick!) - with fancies buoyant as the thistle-down, prompting the face grotesque and antic brisk, with many a lamb-like frisk — (IIe 's got the scissors, snipping at your gown!) Thou pretty, opening rose! (Go to your mother, child, and wipe your nose !) Balmy, and breathing musio like the south — (He really brings my heart into my mouth!) Fresh as the morn, and brilliant as its star - (I wish that window bad an iron bar !) - bold as the hawk, yet gentle as the dove --(I'll tell you what, my love, I cannot write, unless he's sent above!)
* This humorous Ode, by Thomas Hood, addressed to his son, " aged three years and five months,” contains numerous examples of the parenthesis. The verses are printed above in the form of prose, that the reader may himself detect the metrical euphony Without the assistance of lies indicating the measure to the eye.