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Consonant, and such combinations as the following may afford a fitting practice for the voice ; thus (the a throughout as iu father): ah, ang, an, an, al, ar, ap, ab, af, av, ath (the th hard as in thiu), ath (the ti soft as in thine), at, ad, ak, ag (the g as in gun), ash, az, &c. Then place in similar juxtaposition with Consonants the other Elementary Vowel sounds, simple and compound, the a in fat, the e in met, the u in mute, &c., and continue the practice. These combinations may be easily written out on a slate, and much benefit derived from exercising the voice on them, till a clear and accurate articulation of all the Vowel sounds ig attained.

107. In what we say of Consonants we allude to their actual sounds, and not to the arbitrary names given to them in the Alphabet. There are many difficult Consonant combinations in the English language, to the proper utterance of which careful practice is essential. Several of the Consonants, as they are heard at the beginning or at the end of a word, can be enunciated independently, although the aid of a Vowel sound may at first seem indispensable. The student can test this, by suddenly suspending the voice before it reaches the Vowel in such combinations as b'a, d'a, &c. ; or by prolonging the Consonant Sound after the Vowel in abb; eb--b; ib-6; ad-d; ed~ ; id-d, &c. ; or before, as in 64be, d-de; g-ge, &c.

108. “In taking some of the mute consonants (P, b,f,v, t, d, th, k, g, 8, z, sh, zh),” says Professor Latham, “and pronouncing them as independently of any Vowel as it is possible to do, we shall succeed in making an imperfect sound. Now, if the mute consonant so taken and uttered be one of the following, p, f, t, th (as in thin), k, s, or sh, the sound will be that of a whisper. The sound of p', ť (such as it is), is that of a man speaking under the natural pitch of his voice, and at a whisper.

109. “ But if the mute consonant go taken and uttered be any one of the following, b, v, d, th (as in thine), g, z, or zh, the sound will be that of a man speaking at the natural pitch of his voice, and with a certain degree of loudness and clearness.” After experimenting upon the independent consonant elements thus indicated, — carefully distinguishing their alphabetical names from their actual sounds, the student may proceed to practise his voice upon the combinations which they form.

110. The following Exercises contain nearly all the difficult consonant combinations that can occur in English speech. By delivering the words of each paragraph according to the punctuation, at first deliberately, and then more rapidly, as practice makes perfect, they will be found to serve as exercises in respiration as well as in articulation. In elocution it is important to acquire the power of keeping the lungs well filled by frequent and imperceptible inspirations.

111. To gain this power, the exercise is recommended of prolonging the simple Vowel sounds musically to the full extent of expiratory power ; silently replenishing the lungs, and recommencing the sound as expeditiously as possible. The same principle of exercise in connection with

Articulation may be obtained in counting, by pronouncing the numbers from one to a thousand deliberately and distinctly, with as few perceptible breathings as possible.

EXERCISES IN CONSONANT COMBINATIONS. I. Orb'd; prob’dst, trouble ; troubl’st, troubl’d, troublidst ; troubles, brand, probes, prob’st; waddle, waddl’st, waddl'd, waddl’dst, waddles ; hard'n, hard'n'st, hard’n’d, hard’n’dst, hard’ns, drove ; deeds, didsty breadth, breadths, bragg'd, bragg’dst, glow ; mingle, mingl'st, mingl’d, mingl’dst, mingles, grow, wags, wagg’st; hedg’d, bulb, bulb'd, bulbs, hold, holds, hold'st, bulge, bulg'd; whelm, whelm'd, whelms, fall'n, shelve, shelves, balls, silk, silks, hulks.

II. Mulct; mulcts, help ; help'd, helps, help'st; scalp’st, halt, balts, halt’st; gulf, gulfs, delft, false, fall’st ; health, healths, fileh, filch’d, entomb’d, entomb’dst ; tombs, scamp, scamps, attempt, attempts, nymph, nymphs ; entomb'st, send, sends, send'st, range, rang’d, guns, hang'd ; hang’dst, hangs, strength, strengths, wink, wink’d, winks, wink’st, daunt ; daunts, daunt'st, wince, winc'd, hyacinth, hyacinths, flinch, flinch’d, barb, barb'st.

III. Barb'd; barb’dst, barbs ; heard, heard'st, bards ; burgh, burghs, urge, urg'd; hurl, hurl'st, hurl'd, hurl’dst, hurls ; warm, warm'st, warm’d, warm’dst, warms, warmth ; turn, turn'st, turn'd, turn’dst, burnt, burns, curve; curv'st, curv'd, curv'dst, curves, wars, bark, barks, bark'st ; bark'd, bark’dst, carp, carps, carp’st, carp'd, carp'ust, hurt, hurts ; hurt’st, turf, turf'd, turfs, purse, burst, bursts, hearth, hearths, harsh.

IV. Search ; scarch’d, striv'd; striv’dst, driv'l, driv'l'st; driv'l'd, driv’l’dst, driv’ls, heav'n; heav'ns, eleventh, drives, driv'st, amaz’d; muzzle, muzzl’st, muzzl’d, muzzl’dst, muzzles, prism ; prisms, prison, imprison'st, imprison'd, imprison’dst, prisons, wreath'd ; wreaths, wreath'st, wreath, truckle, truckl’st, truckl’d, truckl’dst, truckles ; black’n, black'n'st, black’n’d, black’n’dst, black’ns, crafty, act, acts, racks ; ripple, rippl’st, rippl’d, rippl’dst, ripples, prove, crypt, crypts, clips, clipp’st.

V. Depth ; depths, settle ; settl'st, settlid, trust; combats, combat'at, flame, trifle ; trif'st, trif'd, trifl'dst, trifez, fragment ; waft, wafts, laughs, laugh’st, fisth ; fifths, slaughter, nestle, nestl’st, nestld, nestl'dst, nestles; smoke, snail, basin, basins, skip, musk, mask'd, masks; mask'st, har'ass’dst, screw, spatter, rasp, rasp'd, rasps, spring, splash ; stay, bust, busts, streets, strides, logarithm, logarithms, through, smith’d, youths, ; shrink.

QUESTIONS. - 101. What practice on Vowel sounds is recommended ? 105. On their combinations with consonant sounds? 108. What other combination is suggested ? 107. Can Consonant sounds ever be uttered independently of Vowels? How can thig be tested ? 108, 103. What difference is found in the mute Consonants in uttering them in. dependently of Vowels ? 110. What is said of the management of the breath in reading! 111. What exercise is suggested ?


112. In the following exercises, most of the noteworthy difficulties in the articulation of our language have been introduced. In some of the sentences, it will be seen, little regard has been had to the sense which they may make ; the object being either to accumulate difficulties in Consonant combinations or to illustrate varieties of Vowel sounds and their equivalents :


I. A father's fate calls Fancy to beware. All in the hall here haul the aul all ways. Aunt's heart and hearth are better than her head. And shall I, sir'rah, guarantee your plaid ? Arraign his reign to-day ; tho great rain gauge. And so our whaling ended all in wailing. Accent the ac'cent accurately always.

II. Auful the awe ; nor brond ought Tom to maul. The bulb, the bribe, the barb, the babbling bibber. Biding thou budgdst, and budging bravely bidest. Bubbles and hubbubs barbarous and public. Canst give the blics a notion of an ocean? Churlish chirographers, chromatic chanters. Chiy. alry's chief chid the churl's chaffering choice chimerical.

III. Call her; her choler at the collar scorning. Crime craves the Czar indictment curious. Despised despoilers tracked the dastard's doom. Di aph’ă nous delusions dep'recate. Drachmas disdain dispersed despotically, Earn earth's dear tears, whose dearth the heart's hearth inurns.

IV. England her men metes there a generous measure. Cesar deceives the people from his seat. The key to that machine is in the field. Friends, beads and heifers, leopards, bury any. Examine, estimate the eggs exactly.

V. Faults ? He had faults; I said he was not false. Facundious Philip's flippant flaency. Ghastly the gibbous anger gorges gnomes. Go ! though rough coughs and hiccoughs plough thes through! Grudgdst thou, and gib’dst thou, Gorgon, with thy gyves ?

VI. He humbly held the hostler's horse an hour. His honest rhetorio exhilarates. Hear'st thou this hermit's heinous horesy ? He twists the texts to suit the several sects. Hope, būats, roads, oats, and loads of cloaks and soap. Why harassdst thou him thus inhumanly ?

VII. In either place he dwells, in neither fails. Is he in life through one great terror led ? In one great error rather is be not? Is there a name is their an aim more lofty ? I say the judges ought to arrest the culprit. I say the judges sought to arrest the culprit.

VIII. Janglingly jealous jeered the Jacobin. June's azure day sees the jay gayly jump. Knavish the knack could compass such a knot. Keep cool, and learn that cavils cannot kill. kontucky knows the dark and bloody ground.

IX. Long, lank and lean, he illy lectured me. Lo ! there behold the scenes of those dark ages. The scenes of those dark cages, did you say Mete'orous and meteor’io va pors. Mulctedst thou him? In misery he mopos. X. Myrrh by the murderous myrmidons was brought. Man is a miora cosm, a mimic world. Mute moping, maimed, in misery's murmurs whelmid, Mammon's main monument a miscreant makes. Moments their solemn realm to Memnon give.

XI. Neigh mo no nays ; know me now, neighbor Dobbin. Nipt now the fower is rir'n, fcrever fall’n. Nymphs range the forests still till rosy dawn. Nay! did I say I scream ? I said ice cream. Never thou clasp'dst more fleeting triumphs here.

XII. O'er wastes and deserts, waste sand deserts straying. On the hard wharf the timid dwarf was standing. O, note the occasion, yeoman, hautboy, beau! Orthoepy precedes orthogʻraphy. Obʼligatory objects then he offered.

XIII. Pre'cedents ruled precedent Pres'idents. Poor painted pomp of pleasure's proud parade. Pharmacy far more farmers cures than kills. Psyche (si-ke) puts out the sphinx's pseudo pipe. Politics happ'n to be uppermost. The room 's perfumed with per'fumes popular.

XIV. Quilp quoted Quarles's quiddities and quirks. Queens and coquets quickly their conquests quit. Quacks in a quan'dary were quaking there. Quench’dst thou the quarrel of the quid'-nunos then ? Quiescent Quixotism and quibbling quizzing.

XV. Rave, wretched rover, erring, rash and perjured. Rude rugged rocks reëchoed with his roar. Rhinoceroses arined and Russian bears. Round rang her shrill, sharp, frenzied shriek for mercy. Ruin and rapine, ruthlcag wretch, attend thee !

XVI. Six slim sleek saplings slothfully he sawed. Stridulous strayg the stream through forests strange. Snarl'sts thou at me? Vainly thou splash'dst and strovst. Shall shulling shift thy shrinking, shrieking shame ? Schisms, chasms and prisms, phantasms and frenzies dire. Smith, smooth, smug, smart, smirked, smattered, smoked and smiled. Sudden he sadd’nd; wherefore did he sadd’n ?

XVII. The heir his hair uncovered to the air. That last still night, that lasts till night's forgot! The strident trident's strife strides strenuous. The dupes shall see the dupe survey the scene. The martial corps regarded not the corpse. (See Note to 1 60.)

XVIII. The ringing, clinging, blighting, smiting ourse. The storms still strove, but the masts stood the struggle. The steel these steal still stereo types (the er as in terror) their stigma. The stalk these talkers strike stands strong and steady. Thawing it thermometrically thrives.

XIX. Temptations tantamount indictment's debtor. Tenth or ten thou. sandth breaks the chain alike. Think'st thou the heights, depths, breadths, thou ’rt thorough in ? The soldiers skilled in war, a thousand men ? The Boldiers killed in war a thousand men. The prints the prince selected were superb.

XX. Then if thou fallse, thou fallst a blossed martyr. Thou liv’st - liv’st did I say ? appear’st in the Senate! Though thy cry moved me, thy crime moved me more. These things can never make your government. Thou barbdst the dart that wounded me, alas !

XXI. Thou startl'dst me, and still thou startl’st me. Thou watch’st there where thou watch’dst, sir, when I came. Thou black’ndst and thou black. 'n'st me in vain. Thought'st thou those thoughts of thine could thrill mo through ? The intriguing rogue's vague brogue plagues like an ague.

XXII. Thou sleptst, great ocean, hushdst thy myriad waves. The wolf whose howl, the owl whose hoot is heard. The new tune played on Tuesday suits the duke. Too soon thou chuckldst o'er the gold thou stolest Twanged short and sharp, like the shrill swallow's cry.

XXIII. Use makes us use it even as usage rules (this last u like the o in move). Umpires usurp the usurer's usual custom. Utility's your ultima'tum, then. Untunable, untractable, unthinking. Urge me no more ; your arguments are useless. The tutor's revolution is reduced.

XXIV. Vain, vacillating, ve’hement, he veers forever. Whetting his scythe, the mower singeth blithe. While whiling time at whist, why will you whisper? Whelmed in the waters were the whirling wheels. Where is the ware that is to wear so well ?

XXV. White were the wights who waggishly were winking. Wrenched by the hand of violence from hope. Wouldst thou not highly — wouldst not holily? With short shrill shrieks flits by on leathorn wing. Xerxes, Xantippë, Xen'ophon and Xanthus.

XXVI. Yachts yield the yeomen youthful exercise. You pay nobody? Do you pain nobody? Your kindness overwhelms me- makes me bankrupt. Zeuxis, Zenobia, Zeus and Zoroäs'ter. Zephyr these heifers indolently fans.

113. By the term alliteration is meant the repetition of the same letter, chieily at the beginning of words. In the following Exercise the words of every line are alliterative according to the order of the letters of the alphabet. It will be found a good practice for keeping alive the attention of a class to have the lines read singly, one by each pupil successively.

An Austrian army, awfully arrayed,
Boldly, by battery, besieged Belgrade ;
Cossack commanders cannonading coine,
Dealing destruction's desolating doom ;
Every endeavor engineers essay,
For fame, for fortune, fighting furious fray ;
Generals 'gainst generals grapple, grimly great ;
How hold heroic hearts hard, haggard hate ?
Infuriato, indiscriminate in ill,
Kinsmon kill kinsmen, kinsmen kindred kill !
Labor low levels loftiest, longest lines ;
Men march ’mid mounds, 'mid moles, 'mid murderous m. nor ;
Now noisy, noxious numbers notice naught
Of outward obstacles, opposing aught;
Poor patriots, partly purchased, partly pressed,
Quite quailing, quaking, quickly quarter quest;
Reason returns, religious right resounds,
Suwarrow stops such sanguinary sounds.
Truce then to Turkey ; triumph to thy train,

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