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physical condition of students before they are allowed to compete in inter-collegiate sports. And yet at the same time a heterogeneous mass of humanity, without any form of selection, and utterly regardless of its fitness, is driven through a so-called education. Society at large must sooner or later awaken to the realization that the indiscriminate education of the masses cannot be too strongly condemned, for excessive demands upon the brain power of a community must ultimately lower not only the intellectual, but also the moral standards. Even with the crude and imperfect methods now used by the alienist, if the opportunity were given to him to apply his tests, it would be possible greatly to reduce the numbers of those who are seriously injured mentally and morally by a schooling ill adapted to their individual needs and necessities. Everyone admits that it is the duty of the physician to warn those with weak hearts or lungs not to overtax those organs. Is it not equally important that the mental welfare of the community be safeguarded? Only some men are born to be educated; how many more, unfortunately, have thrust upon them an education, which is disastrous not only to themselves, but also to the community at large?

To prevent the sins of over-educated fathers and mothers from being visited on the children unto the third and fourth generation is a problem of great sociological as well as economic importance to the State. The sudden expansion of mental powers may be quite as unfortunate as the sudden acquisition of riches, and the community that heedlessly imposes mental tasks indiscriminately upon the children in its Public schools adds greatly to the list, already appalling in length, of those who overtax the capacities of hospitals for the insane.

Gentlemen, only when we realize the truth of these observations by competent authorities will medical inspection rise as part of our school economy to its essential and proper proportions.

DR. ROBERT Law (Ottawa).--I congratulate Dr. MacMurchy on her excellent paper, bringing forward this question which is now coming into prominence as a live matter, and consider that this matter will shortly be considered part of the regular routine of a Health Department's duties, and that the work should be under direction of Health Department.

In Ottawa the Health Officer has done such work as has been done; this was chiefly in control of contagious diseases, with the result that the schools have been kept free from any epidemic; and in throat inspection cases of scarlet fever and diphtheria have been removed from classes.

Teachers have been found allies in this work, and should be taken into account in any scheme of inspection, as the alert teacher, accustomed to the normal appearance of the child in health, will readily note any marked departure therefrom, and can notify Medical Officer.

The schools in Ottawa have been placed in first-class condition during the past five years through the employment of a permanent architect, who has made a special study of school sanitation.

I have recommended an outlay for medical inspectors to work with the Medical Health Officer, but the authorities have so far turned it down, owing to the plea of financial stringency. It will be necessary for us to show the authorities that it is a business proposition which will give an adequate return for outlay. The plan I proposed is to employ several inspectors to attend the schools at the opening of the fall term and examine all children, similarly examine any new-comers during term, and any cases referred to the officer by the teacher, or on the occurrence of any infectious disease. The inspector to be paid according to the amount of work done.



You, no doubt, brother, have in quiet moments, and very frequently, too, thought what new specialty would arise to disturb our quiet, yet never-ending studies and researches. Dr. Waetzold has equalled, in fact has eclipsed, Dr. Gould, of Philadelphia, in extremism. While the distinguished lexicographer and oculistbiographer attributes numerous nervous ailments to "eye-strain," with equal learning and copious illustrations, Dr. W. claims "earstrain” as the prominent factor, and we, country doctors—in fact all M.D.'s-will await their published claims for the prize-for leisure moments' reading, and for our sanction and authority, provided we consider them intelligent and adaptable.

To one who is observant, there are many evidences most pleasurably afforded of the tendency of many medical journals to discontinue their publications or to form an amalgamation in publication with some other similar journals. Equally noticeable is the

drift of medical colleges—mostly of the stock company order-towards suspension of business or to a unity with a well-endowed or state university. That these changes are for the best and honorable interests of medicine the student or observer will, at once, admit as stubborn facts.

We, who are readers of medical journals, admire such articles as Drs. Hunter and Powell present, and not least the classical writings of Dr. Fischer, who tells us of the glorious deeds of the Fathers in Medicine-a subject much neglected in our medical


Harvard, during very many years, has required of candidates for matriculation in medicine the Bachelor's degree in Arts or Philosophy, and Cornell recently has announced similar requirements for its M.D. degree. This announcement recalls the words “History repeats itself,'' for the student in Medicine will remember that several centuries ago Oxford and Cambridge required of medical students similar qualifications. That our Canadian universities and Provincial Medical Councils do not exact, and have not exacted, such matriculation requirements is not only lamentable, but disastrous to the respectability of medicine. Such is to me an established belief, proven by my careful study and inspection of more than 1,200 undergraduates and graduates, who were passing our Council's examinations and those of the University of Trinity College. The fact is this, and very evident to all interested in the progress and respectable standing of medicine, that there has been, and now is, unpardonable velleity on the part of our legislators and faculties in medical studies in reference to such preliminary requirements. Although to many, like myself, whose studies in Arts were totally distinct from association with medical subjects, the lately-arranged and combined courses, wherein either the B.A. or B.S. and Medicine are sought, although not ideal, are commendable, it would appear , to use a simile, like the present of the silver spoon for each one pound of baking powder. Another fact is, those who were not privileged to acquire either B.A. or B.S. or Ph.B., disassociated from medical studies, deserve the profession's highest esteem in the struggle for the acquirement of two degrees, and, too, well worthy that cum honoribus should appear on their parchments. Yes, honor graduates they are, and ever will be in our estimation, but we feel very weak, especially so when we notice in every country newspaper that nearly every dentist is an Honor Graduate of Toronto University," and they, or each one of them, is a doctor. Another fact is, I do not think so much respect is contained in doctor as when, in 1869, I received M.D., for our universities of late, to catch popularity and pennies, are multiplying faculties, and the doctorate is the bubble, beautifully colored and equally as empty, for the unwashed and inane aspirants. In time we will assume the plain Mr. and follow the example of Cameron. Not least, it has been my belief for many years that any university in catering to the whims of visionaries for faculties is dishonoring itself and the three learned professions and is doomed to dishonor. Are such “pipe dreams” ?

To have had an hour's pleasurable conversation with one of my professors and an ex-M. H. O. of Toronto, a writer of a medical text-book, a biographer of the earliest settlers of the Bay of Quinte district, an ex-surgeon of more than ordinary distinction of the U. S. army, etc., in a House of Refuge is not cheering to my thoughts or to those who may read this acroamatical gallimaufry. Such has been a recent event and proof that intemperance debases ; however, in this instance, the inmate of the county's Refuge is self-suporting, although invalidated. Yes, brother, he is an exPresident of the Canadian Medical Association and author of the classical work, “The Biographies of Canadian Medical Men." Magni nominis umbra.

It is, in a sense, somewhat lamentable that we, who are prevented by various fates from attendance at our Provincial and Dominion Medical Associations, are benefited only by an occasional publication of an address, and as such able addresses appear at diverse times and in the authors' favorite journals the halo of glory of these annual gatherings is not apparent to absentees, but is fully enjoyed, personally exalting, encouraging, and honoring to not only city but the “four corners” licentiates in our ranks. One fact is this, that by yearly or more frequent associations with each other to compare experiences, to confirm old views or to abandon them, to have our egoism appear or to be silenced, or by association have moments for self-introspection and the renewal of old acquaintances not only frees “our minds from many silly notions,” but makes us better citizens, and, most decidedly, better doctors. The benefits are innumerable and within the power of obtainment by all who hold progressive views and feel the responsibility of the doctorate.

Very few professors, I learn, have had experience in what is ordinarily termed “country practice,” and when we consider the fact that nine-tenths of the number of students are from the country, and no doubt will engage in rural practice, it is to be regretted that said professors cannot and do not give lessons from experience as regards aretology, the ethics of practice, and other instruction in which and by which their students would be benefited, for thus forewarned and instructed many more years of more efficient service to the community, financial results more encouraging, in fact, every benefit we pray for, would result from heart-to-heart talks about their future labors.

The so-called ethical medicine concerns, whose goods by every device, assisted by medical journals, are most disgustingly and too often introduced to us, have been and are our greatest enemies in every respect, especially so in the cleavage they have caused in our relationship to our next best friends—the honest druggists. However, reaction is setting in, and we are learning that the local druggist has enough on his shelves to meet our practical work—and also learning that the price lists are eclipsed by ethical and legitimate publications more deserving of our study and adoption-learning, too, that it is not professional to act as salesmen for non-ethical goods, even if, in our verdancy, we hang on our office walls their alluring and charming, yet disgraceful, picture cards. We, of all professional men, most assuredly are the most easily victimized, and an ordinary survey of our own daily life will most clearly, yet sorrowfully, prove this fact. Yes, the allowance by us of the work of the patent medicine concern or company to break up an ancient and honorable friendship existing between us and druggists, is dishonorable and disastrous, and those of us who take brief yet clear observations of the movements and designs of men can easily see the maelstrom to which we are drifting. To preserve our professional standing we must preserve our friendship with honest druggists-our best friends.



When we speak of sprained ankle we understand an injury suddenly produced in that joint when its movements are carried beyond their normal physiological limits, or when the bones entering into its formation are deflected in some unnatural direction, without, however, producing actual dislocation.

Then we

find a stretching, or a partial rupture, or a complete rupture, of some of

* Read at the annual meeting of Ontario Medical Association at Hamilton.

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