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bacteriological laboratory, with branches for the supply of vaccine and of the various sera and antitoxins. These should be prepared and tested by men on salary and without any personal interest in their sale.. And they should be issued bearing the Government stamp as a guarantee of purity and reliability, and marked with a date limit of efficiency. The general practitioner throughout the country would then know just what he is using, and both he and his patient would be much better protected than they are at present. Moreover, in such a national laboratory there might well be bacteriologists and chemists engaged in original research. This country should rise above the position of hanging on to the skirts of other nations and waiting to hear from them. It is fully time that in such a national laboratory Canada also should have her investigators taking their part in forwarding the advances of science. In such a National Department of Public Health there would be no interference with Provincial rights, only a domestic rearrangement for greater efficiency. On the contrary, one of my dreams is the creation of a national board or council of public health, composed of the occupier of the federal office I now hold and of a representative from each of the Provincial Boards of Health, to meet at the Capital from time to time to advise the National Government in public health questions affecting the country at large. Advice and recommendations from a council so composed should carry more weight with the Dominion Government, and with the people, than those of any one sanitary advisor, be he ever so able and ever so experienced.

Departments of Public Health already exist in some countries. They are being actively striven for in Great Britain, in the United States, in Mexico and in Cuba. That we will ultimately have one in Canada I in no wise doubt.

THE EPOCH OR ERA OF INTERNATIONAL SANITATION.

Within the last generation the idea has been spreading that those nations that are most active in sanitary and hygienic movements are really dependent on each other for complete success. This idea has found expression in international official conferences such as those of Venice, and London, and Paris; in the international congresses of hygiene and demography; in such international conventions as those of the Republic of North and South America; of those on tuberculosis; in such international societies as the American Public Health Association, which embraces the United States, Canada, Mexico and Cuba, and in the general international exchange of health news and bulletins.

It

International agreement, as a recent writer has pointed out, or even a declaration of policy to ameliorate the local conditions that cause disease, so that no people should be allowed to live without sufficiency of pure air and light, pure water and pure food, good drainage and sewerage; in other words, except under the healthful environments of man which are his inalienable right-such an agreement would furnish objective employment of national thought and energy, and by the substitution of one energy by another detract by so much from the consideration of armament and war. has been suggested that in the search by peace congresses for measures to be recommended to The Hague Tribunal for consideration as measures towards universal disarmament, or partial disarmament, or arbitration, or peace, such international sanitation as I have alluded to above might be included as tending directly and indirectly towards the full or partial abolition of war.

It is devoutly to be hoped that in the process of evolution of international sanitation the time may be not far distant when it may be possible that there shall be Canadian medical officers responsible to the Dominion Government in every port of emigrant departure for this country in Europe and in the Orient. The action of such a body of men in vaccination, disinfection and careful inspection before departure would lighten the work of quarantine and immigration officials on this side. And, what is far more important, it would remove to a great extent the chances of outbreak of disease during the voyage, thus lessening the risk of infection for all classes of persons upon the vessel. It would benefit the shipping interests greatly both in time and in money. Moreover, it would obviate the hardships which must necessarily accrue in many cases from the sending back of undesirable immigrants from the port of arrival in this country.

In conclusion, I would say that I cannot hope that I have told you anything new this evening. The truths of sanitation are well established and well known. We cannot plead now as in the days of Hosea the Prophet when it was written: “The people are destroyed for lack of knowledge." But these truths—like othersrequire iteration and re-iteration, line upon line, line upon line, precept upon precept, precept upon precept, here a little and there a little.

The best I can hope for is that I may have in some small degree presented to you some old thoughts in new settings. And I may, indeed, be well content if anything that I have said tends to make these truths—ever old and ever new-sink more deeply into your minds and memories, and if, by so doing, I may have advanced even by the smallest step our progress towards that time when the four sanitary epochs or eras of which I have spoken—the Domestic, the Municipal, the National, and the International-may be followed by a fifth, towards which we are all striving and yearning, the epoch or era of Universal Sanitation.

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.*

By INGERSOLL OLMSTED, M.D., HAMILTON.

Gentlemen,-Permit me first to thank you for placing me in the honorable position of President of the Ontario Medical Association. In electing a member of the profession of this city to fill this most important office, I feel that you wished to do honor to Hamilton and to the profession here, rather than to the individual. On two previous occasions Hamilton has been honored by the election of one of its citizens to the Presidency of this Association. In 1883 the late Dr. J. D. Macdonald was chosen, and again in 1888 the late Dr. J. W. Rosebrugh received the honor. The first and only meeting of this Association in this city was held in the old City Hall, on James Street North, where the present City Hall stands, in the year 1884, just twenty-four years ago.

After an absence of twenty-four years, it is my pleasant duty to extend to you a hearty welcome. We feel that the prodigal has returned, and an intellectual feast has been prepared for you. We trust that the reception given you this year will induce you to return to us in the near future.

Hamilton has well deserved the name of the Ambitious City. It may not be generally known, but nevertheless a fact, that this was the first city in America where antiseptic surgery was practised. Dr. A. E. Malloch, a Canadian, who is with us this afternoon, was a house surgeon of Lord Lister. He returned to Canada and introduced Listerism in Hamilton in 1868.

In his early operations the spray was used, but realizing that it was unnecessary, he abandoned its use years before it was discarded in England. The results he obtained, and the work he did were as fine as anything I have ever seen.

Also this is the first city in the province where compulsory notification of tuberculous patients to the Medical Health Officer was established.

*Delivered at the Ontario Medical Association.

It was owing to the energies of Dr. W. F. Langrill, the present Medical Superintendent of the City Hospital, that this important by-law was passed in 1902. At that time Dr. Langrill was the Medical Health Officer, and he was ably supported by the Hon. Lieut.-Col. John S. Hendrie, who was Mayor of the city.

There have been many improvements in this city during the past twenty-four years. Whereas formerly there was only one hospital, with accommodation for 100 patients, we now have two first-class hospitals, the city, with 250 beds, and St. Joseph's, with 50 beds. Both of these institutions are splendidly equipped with modern appliances, and over 3,000 patients are treated annually in the wards, and about the same number are treated as out-patients. The surgical work has increased by leaps and bounds, and the results have been excellent.

Two years ago a Sanatorium was established on the mountain, for the treatment of incipient cases of tuberculosis. It has accommodation for 35 patients. The results obtained there have been very encouraging.

Another very important institution is being erected, thanks to the generosity of one of our citizens, Mr. William Southam, namely, a hospital for advanced cases of tuberculosis. We will henceforth be in a position, we hope, to successfully cope with the ravages of this terrible disease. It is thus a great pleasure for us all to have the members of the Association meet here.

Now, in regard to the Association itself. We felt that owing to the tendency of its members to devote themselves to special branches, new sections should be formed. The various subjects could not be fully discussed in the two sections, Medical and Surgical, consequently three additional sections have been formed, namely, Preventive Medicine, Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat; Obstetrics and Diseases of Children. Two additional sections could easily be added, namely, Mental Diseases and Diseases of the Nervous System and Pathology. I firmly believe that if this plan were followed, and the different sections were placed in the hands of enthusiastic men, our annual meetings would be very much better attended.

With 2,500 practitioners in this province, we should have more than 10 per cent. of them at our meetings. Some parts of our Ontario are seldom represented on our programmes. This should not be allowed. During the year hundreds of interesting cases are seen by the different physicians, which are never published. The rule to take careful notes of cases should be more generally adopted. It would then be a very easy matter to get up short paper which would lead to good discussion with marked benefit to all present.

During the past two years several county medical societies have been formed, and if the officers of these societies were to interest themselves in getting their members to write papers and present them to the Ontario Medical Association, the duties of the officers of this society would be lightened very much.

We want every physician, whether practising in village, town or city, to come to our meetings, and give us the benefit of his experience.

Many of the papers on the programme this year are by Canadians practising in different parts of the United States. Thus, there are two from New York, two from Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, and two from Detroit. Montreal has sent some of her best physicians and surgeons to assist us at this meeting, and last, but not least, our brethren across the line, who unfortunately are not Canadians, have graciously laid aside their work and come to us with the best fruits of their labors.

For the preparation of this programme, gentlemen, we are chiefly indebted to the untiring energy and faithful work of the chairman of the Committee on Papers, my friend, Dr. Wallace.

As there are a large number of excellent papers to be read this afternoon, I shall not take up any more of your time, but will proceed with the programme.

MR. DOOLEY (M.D.) ON MATTERS MEDICAL.*

I see be th' pa-apers that th' sessions iv this prehistoric s'ciety has been a gr-reat success. All iv th’pa-apers on th’ programme was r-read amid breathless silence an enthus'sm, fr'm

“Clinical Symptims iv an Overdose iv Jawn Collins," to "Ann S. Thesia in her relations to or with certain Mimbers iv Parlymint,” an' no language bein' used more riprihinsible than th' scientific wurruds emplied be th' gifted authors thimselves.

Now, although I'm a medical man mesilf-I'm an M.D., like

*An original monologue, written and recited (in character costume) by Mr. Gordon Rogers, Ottawa, at the smoking concert of the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Medical Association in the Russell House, Ottawa, on June 11th, 1908.

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