Taking Stock: A Look At The Opportunities And Challenges Posed By Inventories From The Cold War Era (vol. 1: Materials In Inventory Initiative Report)
DIANE Publishing, 30 авг. 2004 г. - Всего страниц: 190
The U.S. Energy Dept. is storing at least 820 million kg of nuclear & non-nuclear materials in inventory at 44 sites in 19 states: spent nuclear fuel, plutonium, natural & enriched uranium, depleted uranium, lithium, sodium, lead, chemicals, weapons components, scrap metal & material. Three materials make up an estimated 95% of the total: depleted uranium, scrap metal, & lithium. Left unattended, much of this material could present environmental, health, or safety risks. Maintaining these materials in a safe condition costs millions of dollars/year.
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ANL-E ANL-W approximately Challenges Posed Classified Clean cost data cost information cylinders Department defines Department of Energy Department's depleted UF6 depleted uranium disposal disposition options disposition plans Distribution of DOE DOE Order DOE Sites Storing Environmental Impact Statement estimated excess Executive Summaries Figure gallons Gaseous Diffusion Geographic Distribution Hanford Hanford Site health vulnerabilities identified implement in-use INEL Initiative inventory information isotopes lithium lithium hydroxide management and disposition management plans materials in inventory materials management Metal and Equipment million National Laboratory Natural and Enriched needs NMMSS NMMSS-Tracked Materials nuclear materials nuclear weapons Oak Ridge Opportunities And Challenges ORNL Pantex Path Forward percent plutonium Portsmouth Posed By Materials potential programs quantities radioactive radioactively contaminated reactors recycling requirements reuse Savannah River Savannah River Site Scrap Precious Metal sites reported spent nuclear fuel storage facilities Team Reports Total tracking tritium vulnerabilities associated weapons components
Стр. 187 - ... long-term consequences of current decisions in a way that. until now. has only rarely been done. Only then will future generations recognize this exciting but uncertain time as the beginning of the closing of the circle on the splitting of the atom. GLOSSARY Alpha particle. A particle consisting of two protons and two neutrons. given off by the decay of many elements. including uranium. plutonium. and radon. Alpha particles cannot penetrate a sheet of paper. However. alpha emitting isotopes in...
Стр. 188 - high-level radioactive waste" means — (A) the highly radioactive material resulting from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, including liquid waste produced directly in reprocessing and any solid material derived from such liquid waste that contains fission products in sufficient concentrations; and (B) other highly radioactive material that the Commission, consistent with existing law, determines by rule requires permanent isolation.
Стр. 188 - Heavy Metals Metallic elements with high atomic weights, eg, mercury, chromium, cadmium, arsenic, and lead. They can damage living things at low concentrations and tend to accumulate in the food chain.
Стр. 88 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada.
Стр. 188 - Office" means the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management established in section 305. 2 (18) The term "repository" means any system licensed by the Commission that is intended to be used for, or may be used for, the permanent deep geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, whether or not such system is designed to permit the recovery, for a limited period during initial operation, of any materials placed in such system. Such term includes both surface and subsurface...
Стр. 189 - Isotopes. Different forms of the same chemical element that differ only by the number of neutrons in their nucleus. Most elements have more than one naturally occurring isotope. Many more isotopes have been produced in reactors and scientific laboratories. K Reactor. A plutonium and tritium production reactor at the Savannah River Site. started in 1 954 and shut down in 1988. The code name "K
Стр. 189 - Nonproliferation. Efforts to prevent or slow the spread of nuclear weapons and the materials and technologies used to produce them. Nuclear reactor. A device that sustains a controlled nuclear fission chain reaction. Nuclear weapons complex. The chain of foundries. uranium enrichment plants. reactors. chemical separation plants. factories. laboratories. assembly plants. and test sites that produces nuclear weapons.
Стр. 188 - Fusion; The process whereby the nuclei of light elements, especially those of the isotopes of hydrogen (deuterium and tritium), combine to form the nucleus of a heavier element, with the release of substantial amounts of energy.
Стр. 187 - A beta particle is identical with an electron. It has a short range in air and a low ability to penetrate other materials.