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became world-famous, with palatial quarters which culminated in the consolidation on Fifth avenue a few years ago. It is doubtful if the world ever saw a finer equipment under one roof.

The first professional regularly appearing journal issued in America was in 1850, and is called the Daguerrian Journal, redacted by S. D. Humphreys. The first two volumes intact are preserved in the public library, Manhattan. It appeared semi-monthly; and the scribe, in going through the old tomes, found them more interesting than one would imagine. Each issue is entertaining to the person interested in the lore of the profession.

Among the earliest advertisers, are the Scovill Manufacturing Co. daguerreotype materials, with the Anthony Company in close contact with their advertisement. They announce more daguerrian goods as being stocked than their friendly rivals. The Scovill firm was then a small place on Maiden Lane, later on Beekman street; the Anthony people had a more pretentious-looking establishment near St. Paul's church, with a stoop outside. There is a good view, full page print, of it in the public library. It looks very quaint to-day, when we think of the colossal buildings now on and about the spot.

The word "photograph” does not occur in this the first professional journal in America. Everything is "daguerrian" or "daguerreotype," even all through the advertisements of which these are numerous. The subscription was $3 per annum. There are no illustrations; the few plate-pictures announced, disappeared kleptomaniacally, no one knows when. I was surprised to learn from an official source in the library, that the greatest sinners in the book-mutilating line were reverend divines and ladies.

In these days, "daguerreotype” was the word. Look up old Manhattan directories of the '40's and '50's, and the word "photographer" will not be found, but there are dozens of "daguerreotypers.” After the '60's, "photographer” began to appear. It makes quaint reading to-day tu run over that column of studio operators of half a century ago.

EARLY ACHIEVEMENT IN PHOTOGRAPHY.

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S AN interesting demonstration of Mr. Scandlin's refer

ence in a previous issue to the perfection of results in early photography we print in this number two illustrations from his collection of waxed paper negatives made by Victor Prevost in 1853.

These illustrations are from direct silver prints from the original negatives without artist work of any kind and the plates are untouched except to remove blemishes incident to reproduction.

Neither of these photographs has heretofore been reproduced. They form a part of a series made by

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the French savant with the evident purpose of illustrating by the newly discovered process of photography, Alexander Dumas' famous novel “Twenty Years After.” Both views are in the forest of Compeigne, France, and others of the group show the Cathedral town of Soisson and places on the route taken by D'Artagnan, the hero, to the Castle Pierrefonds in his search for Porthos to join him in the great war of the Empire. Several of the views show the Castle Pierrefonds as it then stood, in a state of picturesque ruin. An interesting feature of the collection is to be found in the fact that the journey of Prevost over the routes taken by D'Artagnan was just two hundred years after the scene of the novel, which was laid in the spring of 1653. The negatives bear dates and titles unmistakably establishing their authenticity and form one of the most important and interesting exhibits of early photography extant. Comment upon their artistic and technical value is unnecessary. LAMPLIGHT EFFECTS OBTAINED BY DAYLIGHT ONLY.

BY H. ESSENHIGH CORKE, F.R.P.S.

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OME time ago I contributed an article to this journal describing and giving illustrations to show how the effect of firelight could be successfully imitated and photographed by means of daylight only as the illuminant. The method was, briefly, to place the sitter close to a small clear space of window. Since then I have devised a rather novel method of producing the effect of lamplight in a similar manner, which will enable the operator after a very little trouble, to make perfect results every time. Such subjects as these firelight, lamplight, and other novel effects will prove very interesting for the amateur worker to experiment with and they will provide

the professional worker with excellent specimens which when exhibited in his window or gallery will at once attract considerable attention by reason of their novelty.

For professional use, also in actual practice, I have found them to make a very good sale as a special line such as for Christmas card work and moreover, for such work the professional can legitimately charge a slightly higher fee, both of which points will be found of great service in the end.

The chief difference between the production of lamplight effects and firelight effects, is that whereas in a firelight effect it is not necessary to show the actual (or supposed) fire, yet in a lamplight-effect portrait it is necessary that the actual lamp itself must be included in the picture and what is more, it must appear to be the actual source of light from which the lighting of the whole subject must proceed. This makes the production of such subjects rather more complicated than the production of firelight effect. The actual effect of lighting upon the sitter only is very much the same as it is in a firelight effect only instead of the light proceeding from a small space on a level with the sitter's feet it must proceed from a small opening in the window at about the normal level of the lamp. So that if we

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block up all the window and only leave a small clear space of about one foot square to admit the light we shall at once obtain the correct effect upon the sitter. Then comes the most important and difficult part, that is the inclusion of the lamp. If we place an ordinary lamp between the source of light and the sitter we shall find we have two grave defects. Firstly, the lamp will be so lighted by the strong and concentrated light coming in the window that it will photograph like Fig. I, which certainly does not give us the effect of its being a light and being the source of light. And secondly, it will cast a distinct and large shadow upon some parts of the sitter which also will be entirely wrong. To obviate these two defects I have devised the following plan of working by which the same and correct effect can be obtained. We first take an ordinary lamp with a pretty silk shade and take it into a darkened room,remove the chimney and hang inside the shade upon a piece

of wire one-quarter of an inch of magnesium ribbon. Focus this in the camera and whilst the magnesium ribbon is burning make an exposure. For the correct exposure of such a subject be sure to use one-quarter of an inch ribbon and a well-backed fast plate, the lens being stopped to about 16.

Then from the negative make a bromide enlargement to the same size that the actual lamp used is. Mount the enlargement upon stiff cardboard and then cut away all the background, and put a strut back upon the cardboard so that it can be made to stand upright. Thus we have then a dummy lamp which may be placed in any desired position, and no matter at what angle the light falls upon it, it will always photograph if it

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lamp. Then by placing the lamp and the sitter in position as I have describel, we can make a perfectly straightforward exposure by means or ordinary daylight only.

As regards the length of exposure this must of course depend entirely upon the conditions under which each particular user works.

As a rough guide I may say that personally I use about one square foot of light, a rapid or extra rapid plate, and lens at f6, and find that upon a clear day about two seconds gives me good results.

Prints of these subjects give a better effect if printed in carbon and transferred on to an orange-colored final support, or they may be made in bromide and when dry stained by immersion in a suitable dye.

Candlelight subjects may be made in exactly the same manner except that it will be found easier to observe the exact effect, and then draw it, of a lighted candle. The candle in the illustration is simply a black piece of cardboard, the design being drawn upon it with white chalk.

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