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grace, unless we should say that when there is undoubted faith, they confer grace. Twenty-fourth.--All vows, both of religious orders and of good works, should be abolished. Twenty-fifth.It is sufficient for a brother to confess to a brother, for to all Christians that were, has been addressed: Whatsoever

ye

shall bind on earth.” Twenty-sixth.—Bishops have not the right of reserving cases. Twenty-seventh.-A change of life is true satisfaction. Twenty-eighth.—There is no reason why Confirmation should be reckoned among the sacraments. Twenty-ninth.—Matrimony is not a sacrament. Thirtieth.—Impediments of spiritual affinity, of crime, and of order, are but human comments. Thirtyfirst. - The Sacrament of Orders was invented by the Pope's Church. Thirty-second.—The Council of Constance erred, and many things were rashly determined on, such as, that the Divine essence neither generates nor is generated, that the soul is the substantial form of the human body. Thirty-third.—All Christians are priests, and have the same power in the words and sacruments. Thirty-fourth.— Extreme Unction is not a sacrament; there are only two sacraments, Baptism and the Bread. Thirty-fifth.—The Sacrament of Penance is nothing also, but a way and return to Baptisın. Thirty-sixth.Antecedent

grace

is that movement which is made in us without us, not without our active and vital concurrence (as a stone which is merely passive to physical acts), but without our free and indifferent action. It was thus Luther explained efficacious grace, and on this he founded his system, that the will of a man, both for good and evil, is operated upon by necessity; saying, that by grace a necessity is induced into the will, not by coaction, for the will acts spontaneously, but by necessity; and in another place, he says, that by sin the will has lost its liberty, not that liberty which theologians call a coactione, but a necessitate, it has lost its indifference.

28. In his book on the Sacrifice of the Mass, we may perceive how remorse torments him. “How often,” he

" How often," he says, " has my heart beat, reprehending me—Are you always wise? Do all others err? Have so many centuries passed in ignorance? How will it be if you are in error, and

you

along with tion? But at length Christ (the devil he should have said) confirmed me."

29. In the year 1522, Henry VIII. wrote a book in defence of the Seven Sacraments

. Luther, answering him, calls him a fool, says he will trample on the crowned blasphemer, and that his own doctrines are from heaven. In the same year he published his German translation of the New Testament, in which learned Catholics discover a thousand errors; he rejects altogether the Epistle of St. Paul to the Hebrews, the Epistles of St. James and St. Jude, and the Apocalypse; he made many changes after the first edition, no less than thirty-three in the Gospel of St. Matthew alone. In the words of St. Paul, chap. iii. v. 3, “For we account a man to be justified by

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lead so many

you to damna

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Bull, there are many others mentioned and enumerated by Noel Alexander, and Cardinal Gotti (2), extracted from various works of Luther, as from the treatise “ De Indulgentiis," “ De Reformatione," " Respon. ad lib. Catharini," “ De Captivitate Babilonica,” “Contra Latomum," “ De Missa privata," "Contra Episc. Ordinem," "Contra Henricum VIII. Regein," “ Novi Testamenti Translatio," “ De Formula Missæ et Communionis," “ Ad Waldenses, &c.,' “ Contra Carlostadium," “ De Servo arbitro," " Contra Anabaptistas,” and other works, printed in Wittemberg, in several volumes. Here are some of his most remarkable errors: First.—A priest, though he does it in mockery or in jest, still both validly baptizes and absolves. Second.—It is a foul error for any one to imagine he can make satisfaction for his sins, which God gratuitously pardons. Three.Baptism does not take away all sin. Fourth.—Led astray by wicked doctors, we think we are free from sin, by baptism and contrition; also that good works are available for increasing merit, and satisfying for sin. Fifth.—Those who have made it a precept, obliging under mortal sin to communicate at Easter, have sinned grievously themselves. Sixth.—It is not God, but the Pope, who commands auricular confession to a priest. Whoever wishes to receive the Holy Sacrament, should receive it entire (that is under both kinds), or abstain from it altogether. Seventh.—The right of interpreting Scriptures is equal in the laity as in the learned. Eighth.—The Roman Church in the time of St. Gregory was not above other churches. Ninth.—God commands impossibilities to man. Tenth.God requires supreme perfection from every Christian. EleventhThere are no such things as Evangelical Counsels; they are all precepts. Twelfth.-We should give greater faith to a layman, having the authority of Scripture, than to a Pope, a Council, or even to the Church. Thirteenth.-Peter was not the Prince of the Apostles. Fourteenth.—The Pope is the Vicar of Christ by human right alone.

Fifteenth.—A sin is venial, not by its own nature, but by the mercy of God. Sixteenth.-I believe a Council and the Church never err in matters of Faith, but as to the rest, it is not necessary they should be infallible. Seventeenth.—The primacy of the Roman Pontiff is not of Divine right. Eighteenth. There are not Seven Sacraments, and for the present there should only be established Baptism, Penance, and the Bread. Nineteenth.We can believe, without heresy, that real bread is present on the altar Twentieth.—The Gospel does not permit the Mass to be a sacrifice. Twenty-first. The Mass is nothing else but the words of Christ: “Take and eat, &c.," the promise of Christ. Twenty-second. It is a dangerous error to call Penance, and believe it to be, the plank after shipwreck. Twenty-thirdIt is impious to assert that the sacraments are efficacious signs of

(2) Nat. Alex. t. 19, art. 11, sec. 2; Gotti, c. 108, sec. 4 ; Tournelly, Comp. Thol. 1.5, p. 1, diss. 5, art. 2.

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grace, unless we should say that when there is undoubted faith, they confer grace. Twenty-fourth.-All vows, both of religious orders and of good works, should be abolished. Twenty-fifth.It is sufficient for a brother to confess to a brother, for to all Christians that were, has been addressed: “Whatsoever

ye

sball bind on earth.” Twenty-sixth.—Bishops have not the right of reserving cases. Twenty-seventh.—A change of life is true satisfaction. Twenty-eighth.—There is no reason why Confirmation should be reckoned among the sacraments. Twenty-ninth.-Matrimony is not a sacrament. Thirtieth.-Impediments of spiritual

— affinity, of crime, and of order, are but human comments. Thirtyfirst. — The Sacrament of Orders was invented by the Pope's Church. Thirty-second.—The Council of Constance erred, and many things were rashly determined on, such as, that the Divine essence neither generates nor is generated, that the soul is the substantial form of the human body. Thirty-third.-All Christians are priests, and have the same power in the words and sacraments. Thirty-fourth.Extreme Unction is not a sacrament; there are only two sacraments, Baptism and the Bread. Thirty-fifth.—The Sacrament of Penance is nothing also, but a way and return to Baptism. Thirty-sixth. Antecedent

grace

is that movement which is made in us without us, not without our active and vital concurrence (as a stone which is merely passive to physical acts), but without our free and indifferent action. It was thus Luther explained efficacious grace, and on this he founded his system, that the will of a man, both for good and evil, is operated upon by necessity; saying, that by grace a necessity is induced into the will, not by coaction, for the will acts spontaneously, but by necessity; and in another place, he says,

that by sin the will has lost its liberty, not that liberty which theologians call a coactione, but a necessitate, it has lost its indifference.

28. In his book on the Sacrifice of the Mass, we may perceive how remorse torments him. “ How often,” he says, “ has my heart beat, reprehending me—Are you always wise? Do all others err? Have so many centuries passed in ignorance? How will it be if you are in error, and you lead so many along with you to damnation? But at length Christ (the devil he should have said) confirmed me."

29. In the year 1522, Henry VIII. wrote a book in defence of the Seven Sacraments. Luther, answering him, calls him a fool, says he will trample on the crowned blasphemer, and that his own doctrines are from heaven. In the same year he published his German translation of the New Testament, in which learned Catholics discover a thousand errors; he rejects altogether the Epistle of St. Paul to the Hebrews, the Epistles of St. James and St. Jude, and the Apocalypse; he made many changes after the first edition, no less than thirty-three in the Gospel of St. Matthew alone. In the words of St. Paul, chap. iii. v. 3, "For we account a man to be justified by

a

a

Faith without the works of the law," he adds the word alone, " by Faith alone.” In the Diet of Augsburg, some one said to him, that the Catholics spoke very loudly of this interpretation, when he made that

arrogant answer: “ If your Papist prattles any more about this word alone, tell him that Doctor Martin Luther wishes it to be so; sic volo, sic jubeo, sit pro ratione voluntas- I wish so, I order so, let my

will be sufficient reason for it." 30. In the year 1523 he composed his book, “ De Formula Missæ et Communionis;" he abolished the Introits of the Sundays, all the festivals of saints, with the exception of the Purification and Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin; he retained the Kyrie, the Gloria, and one Collect, the Epistle, the Gospel, and the Nicene Creed, but all in the vulgar tongue; he then passed on to the Preface, omitting all the rest; he then says: “Who, the day before he suffered," &c., as in the Catholic Sacrifice of the Mass, but the words of the Consecration are chaunted as loud as the Pater Noster, that they may be heard by the people. After the Consecration, the Sanctus is sung, and the Benedictus qui venit said; the bread and the chalice is elevated immediately after the Pater Noster is said, without any other prayer, then the Pax Domini, &c. The Communion follows, and while that is going on, the Agnus Dei is sung; he approves of the Orationes Domine Jesu, &c., and Corpus D.N.J.C. custodiat, &c. He allows the Communion to be sung, but in place

c of the last Collect, chaunts the prayer, Quod ore sumpsimus, &c., and instead of the Ita Missa est, says Benedicamus Domine. He gives the chalice to all, permits the use of vestments, but without any blessing, and prohibits private Masses. To prepare for Communion, he says confession may be permitted as useful, but it is not necessary.

He allows Matins to be said, with three lessons, the Hours, Vespers, and Complin.

31. In the year 1525, Carlostad attacked the doctrine of the Real Presence of Christ in the Holy Sacrament, saying that the word this did not refer to the bread, but to the body of Christ crucified. Luther opposed him in his book,“ Contra Prophetas seu Fanaticos;" in this he first speaks of images, and says that in the law of Moses it was images of the Deity alone which were prohibited; he before admitted the images of the saints and the cross. Speaking of the Sacrament he says, by the word hoc, this, the bread is pointed out, and that Christ is truly and carnally in the supper. The bread and the body are united in the bread, and (speaking of the Incarnation) as man is God, so the bread is called his body and the body bread. Thus Luther falsely constitutes a second hypostatic union between the bread and the body of Christ. Hospinian quotes a sermon Luther preached against the Sacramentarians, where, speaking of the peace they wished to have established, if the Lutherans would grant them the liberty to deny the Real Presence, he says: “ Cursed be such concord which tears asunder and despises the Church.” He then derides their false interpretation of the words,“ This is my body." He commences with Zuinglius, who says the word is is the same as signifies. We have the Scripture," says Luther," which says, This

, is my body; but is there any place in the Scriptures where it is writien, This signifies my body. He then ridicules the interpretation of the others. “Čarlostad," he says, “ distorts the word this; Ecolampadius tortures the word body; others transpose the word this; and say, my body which shall be delivered for you is this; others say, that which is given for you, this is my body; others maintain the text, this is my body, for my commemoration; and others again say, this is not an article of Faith.” Returning, then, on Ecolampadius, who said it was blasphemous to assert that God was kneaded, baked, and made of bread, he retorts: “ It would also, I suppose, be blasphemous to say God was made man, that it was most insulting to the Divine Majesty to be crucified by wicked men, and concludes by saying: “The Sacramentarians prepare the way for denial of all the articles of Faith, and they already begin to believe nothing." Speaking of Transubstantiation, he says: “It makes but little difference for any one to believe the bread to remain or not to remain in the Eucharist, if he believe in Transubstantiation." In an agreement made with Bucer, at Wittemberg, in 1526, he granted that the body and blood of Christ remained in the Sacrament only while it was received.

SEC. IV.-THE DISCIPLES OF LUTHER.

32. Melancthon and his Character. 33. His Faith, and the Augsburg Confession com

posed by him. 34. Matthias Flaccus, Author of the Centuries. 35. John Agricola,
Chief of the Antinomians; Atheists. 36. Andrew Osiander, Francis Stancaro, and
Andrew Musculus. 37. John Brenzius, Chief of the Ubiquists. 38. Gaspar
Sneckenfield abhorred even by Luther for his Impiety. 39. Martin Chemnitz, the
Prince of Protestant Theologians, and Opponent of the Council of Trent.

32. PHILIP MELANCTHON, Luther's chief and best beloved disciple, was a German, born in Britten, in the Palatinate, of a very poor family, in the year 1497. He was a man of profound learning, and, at the age of twenty-four, was appointed one of the professors of Wittemberg by the Duke of Saxony. There he became imbued with Lutheran opinions, but as he was a man of the greatest mildness of manner, and so opposed to strife that he never spoke a harsh word against any one, he was anxious to bring about a union between all the religions of Germany; and on that account in many points smoothened down the harsh doctrines of Luther, and frequently, in writing to his friends, as Bossuet, in his History of the Variations, tells us, he complained that Luther was going too far. He was a man of great genius, but undecided in his opinions, and so fond of indifference that his disciples formed themselves into a sect called Indifferentists, or Adiaphorists. The famous Confession

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