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their wives. Third.—That communion should be given in both kinds. Fourth. That the Church service should be celebrated in the vulgar tongue. The Pope consulted the cardinals, but refused his request, as he could not well grant him what he refused to so many other princes. When this answer arrived, the King was already wavering in his determination to support the true Faith, fearful of causing a revolt with which he was threatened; this unfavourable answer decided him, and he gave up all hopes, and followed the religion of his States. His Queen, a zealous Catholic, a sister of Sigismund Augustus, King of Poland, was so much affected by the change in her husband's dispositions, that she sur. vived but a short time. In twelve months after the King followed her, and left the throne to his son Sigismund, then King of Poland. Charles of Sudermania, who governed the kingdom in the Sovereign's absence, usurped the crown, and his crime was sanctioned by the States, who declared Sigismund's right to the crown null and void, on account of his religion. Charles, therefore, being settled on the throne, established Lutheranism in Sweden. He was succeeded by his son, Gustavus Adolphus, one of the greatest enemies Catholicity had either in Sweden or Germany; but his daughter Christina renounced the throne, sooner than give up the faith she embraced, and lived and died in the Catholic Church. She left the kingdom to Charles Gustavus, her cousin, who reigned for six years, and transmitted it to his son, Charles V., and to the present day no other religion but Lutheranism is publicly professed in Sweden (23).

25. Denmark and Norway underwent a similar misfortune with Sweden. Idolatry was predominant in Denmark till the year 826, when the Catholic religion was established by Regnor I., and continued to be the only religion of the kingdom, till in 1523 Lutheranism was introduced by Christian II. The judgment of God, however, soon fell on him, as he was dethroned by his subjects, and banished with all his family. His uncle, Frederick, was chosen to succeed him. He gave liberty to the Protestants to preach their doctrine, and to his subjects to follow it. Not, however, content with this, he soon began a cruel persecution against the bishops, and against every Catholic who defended his religion, and many sealed their religion with their blood. This impious monarch met an awfully sudden death while he was banqueting on Good Friday, and was succeeded by Christian III., who completed the final separation of Denmark from the Catholic Church. Thus, in a short time, Lutheranism became dominant in these kingdoms, and continues to hold its sway there. There are many Calvinistic congregations in Denmark, as Christian permitted the Scotch Presbyterians to found churches there. There

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(23) Historia Relig. Jovet, t. 2, p. 324.

are also some Catholics, but they were obliged to assemble privately for the Holy Sacrifice, and even now, though the spirit of the age is opposed to persecution, they labour under many restraints and disabilities. Norway, till lately, and Iceland at the present day, belongs to Denmark, and Lutheranism is likewise the religion of these countries, though the people, especially in the country parts, preserve many Catholic traditions, but they were till lately destitute of priests aud sacrifice.* In Lapland, some Pagans remain as yet, who adore the spirits of the woods, and fire, and water; they have no Catholic missioner to instruct them. There are, indeed, but few Catholics altogether in the Northern kingdoms. Formerly, the Dominicans, Franciscans, Carthusians, Cistercians, and Brigittines, had convents there, but now all have disappeared (24).

SEC. III.-ERRORS OF LUTHER.

26. Forty-one Errors of Luther condemned by Leo X. 27. Other Errors taken from his

Books. 28. Luther's Remorse of Conscience. 29. His Abuse of Henry VIII. ; his erroneous Translation of the New Testament; the Books he rejected. 30. His Method of celebrating Mass. 31. His Book against the Sacramentarians, who denied the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist.

96. FIRST in order, come the forty-one propositions of Luther, condemned by Leo X. in his Bull, Exurge Domine, published in 1520, which is found in the Bullarium of Leo X. (Constit. 40), in Cochleus's account of Luther's proceedings, and also in Bernini's (1) works. They are as follows: First. It is a usual, but a heretical opinion, that the Sacraments of the New Law give justifying grace to those who place no hindrance in the

way. Second. - To deny that sin remains in a child after baptism is, through the mouth of Paul, to trample both on Christ and Paul. Third.—The tendency to sin (Fomes peccati), although there is no actual sin, delays the soul, after leaving the body, from entering into heaven. Fourth.— The imperfect charity of one about to die necessarily induces a great fear, which of itself is enough to make the pains of purgatory, and excludes from the kingdom. Fifth.—That the parts of penance are three-contrition, confession, and satisfaction; is founded neither in Scripture, nor in the ancient Holy Christian Doctors. Sixth.-Contrition, which is obtained by examination, recollection, and detestation of sins, by which a person recollects his years in the bitterness of his sous, pondering on the grievousness, the multitude, and the foulness of

(24) Joves, cit. p. 343.

(1) Bernin. t. 4, sec. 16, c. 2, p. 285.

N.B.-A Vicar Apostolic has been appointed to Sweden and Norway. In 1856, a Prefect Apostolic, Abbé Djonvoski, has been appointed for Iceland, Lapland, Greonland, and the Arctic Regions of America.

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his sins, the loss of eternal beatitude, and the incurring eternal damnation; this contrition only makes a man a hypocrite, and a greater sinner. Seventh.—That proverb is most true, and better than all the doctrine about conditions given as yet: the highest penance is not to act so again, and the best penance is a new life. Eighth.-Presume not by any means to confess venial sins, and not even every wicked sin; for it is impossible that you should know all your mortal sins, and hence, in the primitive Church only these manifestly mortal were confessed. Ninth.-When we wish clearly to confess everything, we act as if we wished to leave nothing to the mercy of God to pardon. Tenth.- Sins are not remitted to any one, unless the priest remitting them) he believes they are remitted-yea, the sin remains unless he believes it remitted ; for the remission of sin and the donation of grace is not enough, but we must also believe it is remitted. Eleventh.—You should on no account trust you are absolved on account of your contrition, but because of the words of Christ: “ Whatsoever thou shalt loose.” Hence, I say, trust, if you obtain the priest's absolution, and believe strongly you are absolved, and you will be truly absolved, no matter about contrition. Twelfth.—İf by impossibility you should confess without contrition, or the priest should absolve you only in joke, and you, nevertheless, believe you are absolved, you are most certainly absolved. Thirteenth. In the Sacraments of Penance and the Remission of Sins, the Pope or bishop does no more than the lowest priest-nay, if a priest cannot be had, any Christian, even woman or child, has the same power. Fourteenth.—No one ought to answer a priest that he is contrite, nor ought a priest to ask such a question. Fifteenth.—They are in great error who approach the Sacrament of the Eucharist with trust, because they have confessed, are not conscious to themselves of any mortal sins, have said the prayers and preparations for Communion-all these eat and drink unto themselves judgment; but if they believe and trust, they will then obtain grace: this faith alone makes them pure and worthy. Sixteenth. It seems advisable that the Church, in a General Council, should declare that the laity should communicate under both kinds, and the Bohemians who do so are not heretics but schismatics. Seventeenth.—The treasures of the Church, from which the Pope grants indulgences, are not the merits of Christ or his saints. Eighteenth.—Indulgences are pious frauds of the faithful, and remission of good works, and are of the number of those things that are lawful, but not expedient. Nineteenth.Indulgences are of no value to those who truly obtain them for the remission of the punishment due to the Divine justice for their actual sins. Twentieth.—They are seduced who believe indulgences are salutary and useful for the fruit of the spirit. Twentyfirst.—Indulgences are necessary only for public criines, and should be granted only to the hardened and impatient. Twenty-second.

For six classes of persons indulgences are neither useful nor necessary—to wit, the dead, those on the point of death, the sick, those who are lawfully impeded, those who have not committed crimes, those who have committed crimes, but not public ones, and those who mend their lives. Twenty-third.—Excommunications are merely external penalties, and do not deprive a man of the common spiritual prayers of the Church. Twenty-fourth.—Christians should be taught rather to love excommunication than to fear it. Twentyfifth-The Roman Pontiff, the successor of Peter, is not the Vicar of Christ instituted by Christ himself in St. Peter, Vicar over all the Churches of the world. Twenty-sixth.-The word of Christ to St. Peter, “Whatsoever thou shalt loose upon earth,” &c., extended but to what St. Peter himself alone had bound. Twenty-seventh. -It is not certainly in the power of the Pope or the Church by any means to lay down articles of faith nor laws of morals, nor good works. Twenty-eighth.—If the Pope with a great part of the Church should think so and so, although not in error, it is, nevertheless, neither sin nor heresy to think the contrary, especially in a matter not necessary to salvation, until by a General Council one thing is rejected and the other approved. Twenty-ninth. We have a way open to us for weakening the authority of Councils, and freely contradicting their acts, and judging their decrees, by freely confessing whatever appears true, no matter whether approved or condemned by any Council. Thirtieth.-Some of the articles of John Huss, condemned in the Council of Constance, are most Christian, most true, and most evangelical, such as not even the universal Church could condemn. Thirty-first.—The just man sins in every good work. Thirty-second.- A good work, be it never so well performed, is a venial sin. Thirty-third. It is against the will of the spirit to burn heretics. Thirty-fourth.-To fight against the Turks is to oppose the will of God, who punishes our iniquities through them. Thirty-fifth.—No man can be certain that he is not in a constant state of mortal sin on account of the most hidden vice of pride. Thirty-sixth.–Free will after sin is a matter of name alone, and while one does what is in him he sins mortally. Thirtyseventh.—Purgatory cannot be proved from the Holy Scriptures contained in the Canon of Scripture. Thirty-eighth.--The souls in purgatory are not sure of their salvation-at least all of them; nor is it proved by reason or Scripture that they are beyond the state of merit or of increasing charity. Thirty-ninth.—The souls in purgatory continually sin, as long as they seek relief and dread their punishment. Fortieth.-Souls freed from purgatory by the suffrages of the living, enjoy a less share of beatitude than if they satisfied the Divine justice themselves. Forty-first.—Ecclesiastical prelates and secular princes would do no wrong if they abolished the medicant orders.

27. Besides the errors here enumerated and condemned by the

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Bull, there are many others mentioned and enumerated by Noel Alexander, and Cardinal Gotti (2), extracted from various works of Luther, as from the treatise “ De Indulgentiis," “ De Reformatione,"

. "Respon. ad lib. Catharini," “ De Captivitate Babilonica," “ Contra Latomum,” “ De Missa privata,” “Contra Episc. Ordinem,” “ Contra Henricum VIII. Regein," “ Novi Testamenti Translatio,” “De Formula Missæ et Communionis," " Ad Waldenses, &c.," “ Contra Carlostadium," " De Servo arbitro,” “ Contra Anabaptistas," and other works, printed in Wittemberg, in several volumes. Here are some of his most remarkable errors: First.-A priest, though he does it in mockery or in jest, still both validly baptizes and absolves. Second.— It is a foul error for any one to imagine he can make satisfaction for his sins, which God gratuitously pardons. Three.Baptism does not take away all sin. Fourth.-Led astray by wicked doctors, we think we are free from sin, by baptism and contrition; also that good works are available for increasing merit, and satisfying for sin. Fifth.—Those who have made it a precept, obliging under mortal sin to communicate at Easter, have sinned grievously themselves. Sixth. It is not God, but the Pope, who commands auricular confession to a priest. Whoever wishes to receive the Holy Sacrament, should receive it entire that is under both kinds), or abstain from it altogether. Seventh.—The right of interpreting Scriptures is equal in the laity as in the learned. Eighth.—The Roman Church in the time of St. Gregory was not above other churches. Ninth.—God commands impossibilities to man. Tenth. God requires supreme perfection from every Christian. Eleventh.There are no such things as Evangelical Counsels; they are all precepts. Twelfth.—We should give greater faith to a layman,

. having the authority of Scripture, than to a Pope, a Council, or even to the Church. Thirteenth.—Peter was not the Prince of the Apostles. Fourteenth.— The Pope is the Vicar of Christ by human right alone. Fifteenth.—A sin is venial, not by its own nature, but by the mercy of God. Sixteenth.—I believe a Council and the Church never err in matters of Faith, but as to the rest, it is not necessary they should be infallible. Seventeenth.—The primacy of the Roman Pontiff is not of Divine right. EighteenthThere are not Seven Sacraments, and for the present there should only be established Baptism, Penance, and the Bread. NineteenthWe can believe, without heresy, that real bread is present on the altar. Twentieth.—The Gospel does not permit the Mass to be a sacrifice. Twenty-first.-The Mass is nothing else but the words of Christ: “Take and eat, &c.," the promise of Christ. Twenty-second. It is a dangerous error to call Penance, and believe it to be, the plank after shipwreck. Twenty-third.— It is impious to assert that the sacraments are efficacious signs of

(2) Nat. Alex. t. 19, art. 11, sec. 2; Gotti, c. 108, sec. 4 ; Tournelly, Comp. Thol. t. 5, p. 1, diss. 5, art. 2.

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