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both were able and willing, their is pretty nearly the case, but I appreefforts were nevertheless weak and hend not so of a whole people, who fruitless, I cannot discern the slight- always possess some distinct peculi. est shadow of encouragement deri- arity of national character. This, invable from their present state. If Fer- deed, does not seem to be the opinion dinand comes to their aid, it must be of the two parties who have already at the head of his friars, and with an passed under review. Each of these Inquisitor-General for his command-thinks, and has some apparent cause er-in-chief, for army he has not, for thinking, that they are the sole and being equally destitute of a fleet, drivers of the two-legged herd,—that I do not see how he could transport whatever they enforce, the people will his holy legions, except by borrowing obey, wherever they march, the people our Lady of Loretto's chapel for an will follow. The spiritual leader thinks other aery excursion. Charles' the himself sure of implicit submission Tenth has, I apprehend, enough to from every dutiful son of the Church ; do at home.

and the political director is equally I am aware that conjunctures of confident of obtaining the support of this nature are sometimes contempla- the people to every project, which has ted by the leading heroes of the New a tendency to restore what he calls the Association; that every rumour of dis- Independence of Ireland. Both may find tant wars excites a hope that Britain themselves mistaken. I am old enough may be involved in the quarrel, and to remember, when the French people that nothing conveys more delight to appeared to be so enthusiastically attheir patriotic imaginations, than the tached to the crown and the altar, that prospect of her distress and degrada- it was deemed impossible to shake tion, from calamities and dangers ex their allegiance, or dissolve the bonds ternal or internal. Generous sentiments of hereditary affection. Yet, we all and pious wishes of this kind do oc- know, not only with what sang froid casionally break forth; they spring they witnessed the overthrow of both, from the Amor Patriæ, are cherished but with what exulting mockery they by the infallible spirit of Papal Chris- spurned the one, and with what untianity, taught by its benevolent pas, feeling fury they beheld the destructors, and suffer no abatement from tion of the other. Civil tyranny, supe that weakness which fools call gratis ported by the irresistible power of the tude, for having rescued so many sword, and spiritual by the ignorant thousands of their humble country- bigotry of the people, are, while that men from misery and starvation. If power and that bigotry remain, the the papers tell us true, the Magnus strongest of all governments

. But, let Apollo of the Association (whether the means of domination be once so called from the refulgent grace and weakened, let the chain that binds the beauties of his person, the luminous connexion between ruler and slave be qualities of his mind, or the happy once broken, and the forced submisambiguities of his oracular effusions, sion to oppressive sway quickly chanI cannot tell) has been frequently ges into enmity, insult, and defiance ; heard to growl with tigerlike satis- the depressed take their turn to reign, faction over the recent distress of the and the quondam slave becomes the Sister Island. I don't know what cre most unrelenting master. dit his political friends may give him man, pretending to enlarged informain this particular point; but among tion, and enlightened understanding, his political opponents there is not a shut his eyes to that glaring truth, single man who entertains the small- which every day's observation throws est doubt of his sincerity;

in his way, that knowledge is advanWe come now to the third party cing with wide and rapid steps ? that whose hopes of change, and views in its progress has wonderfully accelerathe event of it, I had proposed to con ted within the last fifty years ? that sider—that many-headed monster the it must, of necessity, not only contiHibernicum vulgus. This party, it nue that acceleration, but add to, and may be thought, cannot properly be increase it? that it has lately visited, said to have a will of its own, impel- and is now spreading into distant reled only by present feeling, and vary- gions, and popular Empires, into ing with the changeful circumstances which for thousands of years not a ray of the day. Of mobs, no doubt, this of light had shone, and that it is ben

Can any

ginning to illuminate the farthest parts possible—the signs of the times, to of the earth? that this knowledge which that domineering Church, preembraces the two greatest rights of sumptuously assuming attributes and civilized men, spiritual liberty, and privileges belonging to God alone, is so civil liberty, a right to be protected by perversely blind, too clearly demonequitable laws, under a well-constitue strate that the mighty change apted form of representative government, proaches, the liberation of the human and a right to adopt the religion of race from servitude of mind, and from his choice, a right to seek instruction servitude of body, and that, delayed wherever instruction is to be found, as this time may be, by interest and a right of full inquiry into the nature, artifice on the one hand, and by weakgrounds, and authority, of that in- ness and prejudice on the other, yet struction, a right of exercising his own COME IT WILL. Can any two countries judgment in all matters relating to in the world be more contrastedly difthe interests of an immortal soul, and ferent than Great Britain under the a right-the necessary consequence of ancient domination of the Roman See, his being a responsible agent-of hold- and Great Britain since the establishing himself accountable, for that ex mentof the reformed religion? Had the ercise of his judgment, to God alone! change of her faith nothing to do with

- There are no hordes of northern or the prodigious improvement of her other barbarians now to break down condition? Let the question be anupon civilized nations, to extinguish swered by her Catholic neighbours, the lamp of knowledge, and to give to one of which, in a revolutionary transan artful and ambitious priesthood, a port, deemed the abolition of the second opportunity of trampling upon Popish religion necessary to the escrowns and sceptres, and establishing tablishment of religious freedom. I a universal despotism over mind and am far from being an advocate for body. Northe reverse is in progress, the frenzy of that revolution, but I the civilized is seeking the barbarian do not hesitate to say, that such a rein the remotest corners of human ha- volution would never have taken place, bitation, and the light of the Gospel is had France at a former period follownow gratuitously diffusing itself over ed the example of England, thrown all the ends of the earth. The day is off the yoke of the Italian Pontiff, and not probably far off, if, indeed, it is set up a liberal and independent Chris. not already come, when some who tian Church, a measure which would were within a few years little advan- soon have been followed by a liberal ced above the beasts that perish, will form of government. Without lookcry shame upon many of those nations, ing farther than our own island, what who have called themselves Christians was the constitution, creed, and docduring the lapse of ages. And why? trines of the Romish Church, in the simply because the religion which days of St Dunstan, St Becket, and they have been taught, is the religion many other saints of like character ? of Rome, not the religion of the Gos- Do the records of heathenism furnish pel – the religion of the Inquisitor, more absurdities, follies, impostures, not the religion of the Apostle-the and oppressions ? None certainly, at religion of the Pope, not the religion least among the more civilized porof Christ. Of the book in which his tions of heathenism. Well, what that divine religion is taught, they know church was then, we have her own aujust as much as they do of the Ko- thority for saying, she is at this very ran. But shall this reproach for ever day, for she professes to be infallible, rest upon Europe ? Shall ignorant indefeasible, and immutable!! She bigotry continue to be the characteris- calls repetitions of prayers, in a tongue tic of so many people, around whom unknown to the speaker, prayers with the light of truth and knowledge is devotion ; and measures the efficacy rapidly spreading its radiance? Shall of the prayer by the rules of arithmenations, deriving from the great Crea- tic,-she calls a bellyful of one food tor every blessing which climate and a holy fast, and of another, a mortal constitution can bestow, be for ever sin,-she calls the same act a sin in doomed to wear the chains of super- one body, and a sacrament in another, stition, and remain strangers to the —she plays tricks to delude the vulhappiness of both civil and religious gar, and calls them miracles worked liberty? No-the thing is utterly ime by the finger of God,-she has invent

ed a secondary hell, for the purposes and more imperious than the former. of an earthly traffic,-she forbids There are indeed, among the idlers works of honest industry on days de- and paupers of the country, always dicated to saints, but gives full scope enough to raise a mob, and follow any to idleness, drunkenness, and profli- riotous leader ; but I speak of the great gacy,—she prohibits scriptural know- agricultural body of the people, and ledge, because she thrives by scriptu- those who know the country well, ral ignorance,-she makes God a ci- know that I speak truth. pher in his own kingdom, and takes The late rebellion, as I may call it, the power of life and death into her of the forty-shilling freeholders, may own hands—and, to finish the climax seem to militate against my doctrine; of presumptuous absurdity, she not but when we consider the artifices reonly pretends to exercise all his func- sorted to—the anathemas, or, in plain tions, but moreover to make him first, English, the horrible curses of the and eat him afterwards !!!

priests on the one hand, and the inflamIs it possible, Sir, that these things matory harangues and delusive procan continue to hold their ground in mises of the demagogues on the other, the face of reason, knowledge, and un- and, after all, the difficulty with which derstanding, and in the light of the it was accomplished, we need not won, nineteenth century ? Are our Hiber- der at what took place. This would nian priests intoxicated with the fa not long endure—but the true way of vours lately shown them--so besotted preventing such disgraceful scenes, is as to think such a system can last, or to take away a privilege always most that the rays of information, which shamefully abused,—put the franchise surround their benighted flocks, can into proper hands;—no man should be for ever withheld from their eyes? vote for a knight of the shire baAre their lay champions so blinded by vings less than a £20 freehold ;-half a vain ambition, as to suppose that of our yeomen are mere paupers, with with such troops, they shall be able to as little property as brains,—the miextinguish the lamp of truth, and serable victims of political ambition, in overthrow the steady and enlightened every view, exercising a privilege of Protestantism of this Island, were it which they know not the true meaneven undefended by the policy of ing or value, and dragged from their Great Britain ? If they are, I can as- quiet homes and proper occupations, sure them that they reckon without to a scene of discord, clamour, confutheir host? Paddy is not quite so sim- sion, and perjury. ple as they think him— I know the The ambitious views of my poor people well, and have known them for countrymen reach but a short way, many a long year; and I know that and are easily developed. They are were the landlords of Ireland to do within the range of a short reflecting their duty, to live more among them, to telescope. No ideas of grandeur mix encourage their industry by kindness, with their prospective hopes. The and reward it with reasonable rents, unemployed pauper looks no farther to lay on them no burdens but what than for work and wages sufficient to they could easily bear; to feel an in- maintain himself and family. This, terest in their welfare, - to promote however scanty, he would prefer to their instruction, and to be more in find at home ; but seeing that the inthe habit of personal mixture and creasing number of his fellow-laboure communication-Were they, I say, to ers renders that a vain hope, he now do this, I have full reason to know, anxiously solicits that relief which emia that neither priest nor demagogue gration offers, and from which thirty would be able to alienate the affections or forty years since he would have of the tenant from his natural friend shrunk' with horror. It must be af. and protector the landlord. I do also forded to him. The land is overknow, that to be transferred from stocked, and there are no present nor Protestant to Catholic landlords, is possible means of other support. among the things which they are so The farmer,-and he belongs to a far from wishing, that, as I have my class which, though in too many cases self heard from more than one of them, reproachable for slovenliness, neglie it is what they most ardently depre- gence, and want of skill, contains a cate; the latter, with some exceptions, very large number of extremely frugal, being far more severe, more exacting, quiet, and industrious people knows

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perfectly well, that whatever changes of the same craft, and professors of take place, his station in life will be the same creed, to hack, maim, and unaltered. He will be a farmer still; murder each other, in defiance of laws he is fit for no other place, nor do his human and divine, for no other purwishes or desires require a better.- pose than to ascertain, whether there What is kis ambition? To have a farm be more men able to carry arms among suited to his means of cultivation-to the Bryans than among ihe Sullivans, be under an easy rent-subject to light the Denovans, or the Collinses; for if charges of every kind—a good market the question of numerical superiority for his spare produce—and with the had never been mooted, no thought of means of living in what he considers contention would ever have suggested comfort—the ability of saving some itself to their minds. There is not a money to portion off his daughters, man of them, who, being asked his and settle his grown-up sons in a bu- opinion of such inhuman broils in cold siness like his own. When this can be blood, will hesitate to say, that they even moderately accomplished, it is no are very absurd, and very wrong, easy matter indeed to goad the farmer yet not a man of them will refuse the into acts of insurgency, or projects of call when invited to the field; when, rebellion. They are, of all persons, but for the interference of the civil and most content with their lot; to which sometimes the military power, blood also their constant employment, and would be wantonly shed at every pubtheir simple and secluded habits of lic meeting. It is no doubt a remnant life, very materially contribute. Times of the old feudal state, when clan met must be bad indeed, distress severe, clan in bloody contention, under the and oppression bitter, when such pera command of their respective chiefs. sons are seen in the counsels of insur. The wonder is, that the rivalry should rection, and the ranks of the rebellious. remain when the grounds of it have Hence I do with confidence reassert been removed, and that the hostile what has been stated above, that as movements should continue among the long as the Government affords patere members after the heads had departe nal protection, and, what is an indis- ed. *

It affords, among a thousand pensable requisite, as long as landlords other proofs, a sample of the benefits fulfil their bounden duty to a valuable they have derived from religious inclass of inhabitants on whom their own struction under the auspices of the prosperity so mainly depends, little Church of Rome; and how happily danger to the State need be apprehend, her priests, after a thousand years of ed from that numerous and useful instruction, have succeeded in humanbody—the farmers of Ireland. izing, civilizing, and Christianizing

But I must not rob my rustic coun- their Irish flocks. After an apprentrymen of their heroic fame; for even ticeship of such length, and to so little among them are to be found heroes of purpose, surely I cannot be wrong in no small estimation in their own eyes, saying, that there is one trade they and, without any question, the most have yet to learn, and which will nedisinterested of all those who pretend ver be learned under the old masters to the glorious title. Some fight to re -the trade of a Christian. cover old or gain new territories; some I have, Sir, I fear, trespassed too to be distinguished by honours and long on your columns, having run my rewards; and many, for the simple ob- observations to a greater length than jects of pay and subsistence; our İliber- I intended. So much attention, how. nian heroes alone for the mere plea- ever, is now necessarily turned to this sure of fighting. The nature and cha- country, that if they shall be found to racter of this valour is altogether pe- contribute in any material degree to culiar to the country where it is found, the elucidation of its present state, and not certainly to be paralleled in condition, prosperity, and character, any other region of the globe, Chris no apology need be offered. tian or heathen, civilized or savage.

I remain, &c. It is a strange sort of warfare, which

SENEX. engages friends, neighbours, exercisers Cork, 13th Nov. 1826.

• I was myself spectator of a very fierce battle between two rival parties of at least fifty on a side; which battle took place on a Sunday, immediately after coming out of chapel, in a town of the county of Cork. It was with difficulty quelled by the peace-officers. The parties went to prayers, as they call it, with cudgels under the coats. Pray, to whom were their prayers addressed ? or what edification did th receive from their nriest? Mars ought to have a place in the Irish calendar.

LETTER ON RICARDO'S THEORY OF RENT. Sir, Your readers, I apprehend, are, in our own opinion, such progress in like the rest of the reading world, this certain science, that we shall not nearly tired of Political Economy; but readily yield to the new light. I deif, in the following pages, I present fine the Political Economy of a nayou nothing new, commit them to the tion to consist in the practice in its flames, or, what is a worse ordeal, to institutions, of what may best contrithe burning quill of a sharp critic. bute to the happiness and comfort of the

I was once a student under Adam people at home, and to the security and Smith's system; and in those days, continuance of those blessings against the application to this science was as efforts from abroad. assiduously followed out by my fellow Nor more favourably will my opistudents, as any full-grown gentleman nions be held in the estimation of the can now boast of doing.

new school, when I declare, that the I have occasionally met these stu- institutions and regulations by which dents of the Ricardo school ; but I do the above may be attained, depend not discover in them intellects a whit upon the manners, customs, habits, more acute, or reasoning powers of and genius of the people ; soil, situgreater capacity, than were possessed ation, nay, the very latitude and lonby my fellow - students. But I am gitude of the country.–And now, sir, told, that we, of the old school, know let us attack the fundamental doctrine now nothing of the subject ; that the of this new school. discoveries of Ricardo on Rent have Rent, Mr Ricardo tells us, never can changed the whole system ; and that take place till land of the first quality in consequence, Political Economy has is completely occupied, and land of the become the most certain of all sciences. second quality comes into demand. I have attempted to reason with these The rent, then, consists of the differgrown-up scholars of this new school ence in produce of the two qualities of on this very subject; but I have found land. Again, land of the second quaa violence in their argument, and an lity cannot admit of a rent till it is assumption in their preinises, which completely occupied also, and land of have not conveyed to my mind the the third quality is, in like manner, most favourable impression of the brought into cultivation by the desoundness of their doctrines. I have mand, the difference between the two, been told, that my resistance to their as in the first case, constituting rent. fundamental principles on Rent, be- From this theory, for it is pure theory, trays in me a want, a deficiency, in without a single fact to support it, very intellect,-a flatness, perhaps, they important deductions are made : And mean, in the argumentative bump the more I have considered the theory, of some one of the departments, or the more I am convinced, that this provinces, into which the brain, or its theory was invented in order to found representative, the skull, has been, of upon it those deductions. late, divided.

When such a theory is so assuAs to the certainty of this science, med, the question is, what foundaI shall be delighted to have pointed tion has it in fact. I venture to say, out to me any one science, of the whole then, that it is not true in any instance, circle, in which there is any certainty, that land of the first quality is necesunless that science be founded on num sarily occupied before land of the sebers or measurement.

cond quality can afford a rent.--No In writirg on any subject, there is country ever was, or ever can be, in nothing like explaining what we un such a situation. Land of the first, derstand the nature and essence of that and second, and third quality, depend subject to be. I have some notion that for their cultivation, in every country, I shall be held by the followers of the both of the old and new world, upon new school, to be the veriest dunce local situation and climature. Near a that ever undertook to write upon Po- demand, and with access to that delitical Economy, when I detine my mand, by roads or by navigation, land meaning of the subject.-But we, of of the second and third quality will be the old school, are not easily damped. cultivated in preference to land of the We studied too ardently, and made, first quality, that is remote from de

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