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offering itself, an asham-corban, or trespass-offering. After confession of his guilt, he brings his offering, of which there is a difference for t.e sake of the poor. This trespass-offering, like all the rest, clearly pointed to Christ, who is the asham of his people ; thus, says Paul, he made himself asham for us, who knew no guilt.' The different ceremonies here enjoined seem to differ materially in nothing from 'what we have already had under consideration.
At the 15th verse, the law of trespass in holy things is entered upon. The first instance seems to refer to keeping back or ignorantly withholding what should be given to the service of the Lord. The word applied in the case of Ananias and Sapphira • keeping back • part of the price, are borrowed from the law on this head. But in their case it was not ignorantly, but presumpluously, and punished ac. cordingly by excision according to the law. The ram brought for this trespass, was not only to be without blemish, but to be estimate ed by the priest, that is, of a certain value, according to the law afterwards laid down for his regulation. The original deficiency behoved to be made up, with a fifth part more, and then confession and atonement to be made by the asham. The last case under this head, is, when a soul sinned, by transgressing any of the command. ments, although ignorant of any such transgression, of which the Jewish rabbies enumerate nine kinds,
CAP. VI.-contains an additional law concerning the trespassoffering, ver. 1—8. respecting breach of trust, or concealed dishonesty. It seems to have a particular respect to crimes which have not been detected, but arising from voluntary acknowledgment and conviction; those in all the branches here enum
imerated, were to be included in the trespass-offering.
The 25th section of the law, begins with the 8th verse of this chapter, and commences with some additional regulations to the priest, as to the burnt-offering. This is the daily burnt-offering, Offered morning and evening continually. In doing which, the priest was to be arrayed in the sacred garments ; but when he went out, even to carry forth the ashes to a clean place, these sacred garments were to be laid aside. This regulation as to the ashes, is very remarkable ; as the turning of the burnt-offering to ashes, was a sign of the divine acceptance, Psal. xx. 4. so the carrying them out of the camp, and that to a clean place, was a clear evidence of divine regard, and plainly pointed to the death and burial of Jesus Christ, when his precious body was laid in the new tomb, wherein yet never man had been laid, and so was a clean place not defiled with the dead; see John xix. 16–18. ; this is evidently opposed to the unclean place, mentioned Lev. xiv. 40. 41. where the stones and dust of the leprous house were to be laid.
From verses 14--19. we have the additional laws as to the meat. offering, in which we observe nothing particular, not already 'hinted at. From 19–23. the offering of the high-priest is mentioned ; and it should be observed, that the expression in the day, ver. 20. should be read from the day; because this meat-offering was offered every morning by the high-priest, morning and evening continually. The whole of this offering was burnt upon the altar ; no part of it was eaten by himself, or any other of the priests. And this was the distinction in their offerings between the high-priest and the ordinary priests. He offered this offering every day; they offered their minchah at their initiation, and then only. It may also be observed in general, that the meat-offering, or minchah of the people, was eaten in the holy place by the priests, who made atonement for them ; but because no priest, being a sinner, could make atonement for himself, therefore kis meat-offering was not to be eaten, but all burnt on the altar.
From verses 24-30. we have additional laws as to the sin-offer' ing. The priest who offered the sin-offering did eat it, and thus, as we learn, Lev. x. 17. he typically abolished the same. It was also a part of their livelihood, which was afterwards abused, eating the
sin of God's people, and lifting up their soul unto their iniquity,' Hosea iv. 8. it also pointed out our communion with Christ, our sacrifice. In verse 27. the contagion of sin and defilement is pointed out by touching the flesh of the sin-offering, or its blood staining any thing. The law in verse 30. prohibiting eating of the sin-offering, points out the inefficacy of the blood of bulls and goats. It is very remarkable, that when the apostle says, Heb. xiii. . We have an • altar, whereof they have no right to eat who serve the tabernacle,' he is plainly alluding to this part of the Levitical law. The priests miglit eat of all the rest ; but of the bodies of those beasts, whose blood was carried into the holy place, they had no right to eat; they behoved to be burnt without the camp. 'And thus the force of the apostle's reasoning appears moet obvious. Christ the great sin-offering has been once offered for the sins of his people; his blood has been sprinkled ; now, those who adhere to the service of the earthly tabernacle, have no right to partake in eating of his flesh and blood, for their law forbade it.
CHAP. VII.-sets before us, the law of the priests concerning trespass-offerings, verse 1-10.; concerning peace-offerings, 11-34. and a summary of the whole. Few of the particulars in this chapter are unnoticed formerly. There is one general observation which seems entitled to attention. In the case of the sin-offering and trespass-offering, the whole sacrifice was either burnt upon the altar, or given to the priest, and the officer had no share in it. But in the peace-offerings he had his share, and enjoyed communion with them in the feast. The former was an expression of sin and repentance, which it brings to view ; it was therefore attended with confession, humiliation, and occasionally fasting. But the peace-offerings were instituted to point out reconciliation with God, and the joy and gratitude, which pardoring mercy brings to view. On this occasion, therefore he feasted before the Lord on his peace offering The one offering of Jesus Christ included all. In his sufferings and death, as the sacrifice for sin, we are called to lament those transgressions for which he was wounded ; at same time, his broken body and shed blood, brings to our view that peace of God which the blood of his cross hath purchased ; over which his call is, ' Eat, О friends ! drink, yea
drink abundantly, O beloved.' There is a circumstance allu. ded to, verses 15~-18. which should not pass unnoticed. No part of the filesh of the sacrifice was to stand over to the third day, because it might then begin tu putrefy ; but especially, because on the third day, the offered body of Jesus Christ was to be raised, seeing no corruption. The solemn denunciation against the eater on the third day, plainly shews, that this was despising in Moses law, what was there considered most sacred, and that therefore the transgressor should die without
Chap. VIII.-This chapter contains, the preparation, at God's command, for the consecration of Aaron and his sons, ver. 1-5. ; their washing, anointing, &c. together with the altar, laver, 6-13. ; the sacrifices offered for them, with the prescribed ceremonies, 14-32.; and their consecration for seven days, 33–36. This consecration of Aaron and his sons was ordered before, and the principal particulars now mentioned were then considered; see Exod. xxix. On this occasion, we see that all the congregation are gathered together. It was a matter in which the whole church of Israel were intimately concerned, verse 3. The word used here, put upon him, is ļiterally gave to him; this Paul adopts in such passages as these : But put
ye on the Lord Jesus Christ,' &c. In verse 12. it is said, " He
poured the anointing oil on Aaron's head.' The word implies to pour in great abundance. To this we find a reference in Psalm cxxxiii. where it is said, " It ran down the beard, even Aaron's beard, that • went down to the skirts of his garments.' How little do we know of the figurative meaning of scripture language? What would be said of the person, who would have ventured to insinuate, that the pouring of the ointment on the head and body of the high-priest, pointed to the anointing of the body of Christ, his church, and their unity and fellowship !
In examining this consecration of the priest, we find three sacrifices particularly mentioned, 1. The bullock for the sin-offering ; 2. The first ram for a burnt-offering; and, 3. The second ram for consecration ; and all these were necessary to point out the one offering by which our great High-priest sanctified himself. In the 1st, the sin-offering, the confession of iniquity, was made, for Aaron and his „sons laid their hands upon the head of the bullock for the sin-offering, thereby declaring that there was a necessity for another priest to arise. In the 2d, the burnt-offering, the atonement by the death of Christ was manifested : And in the 3d, the ram of consecration, that sanctification which comes by his blood alone. Now, the legal priest needed all this, because he was a sinner.
But Christ, B b
the great High-priest, sanctified himself, though he knew nó ging neither was guile found in his mouth ; and thus he says, ' For their
sakes I sanctify myself, that they also might be sanctified through • the truth.'
We cannot, however, shut this chapter, without reminding our readers, that it is only by keeping in mind the great object which the Holy Ghost has in view, that we can understand the reason for such minuteness in recapitulating what was done on this solemn oc casion. There is here a striking representation of our great High-priest, solemnly appointed to, washed, anointed, consecrated and invested in his sacred and glorious office. We are thus reminded what he did for his guilty people, when having finished his consecration, and perfected himself through his one sacrifice of infinite dignity, he now appears in the presence of God for us. We are also called to think of him in his humiliation and sufferings in the day of his flesh, as thus fitting him to be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God. It is remarkable, that when infinite wisdom shadowed forth the consecration and eternal priesthood of Jesus Christ, by anointing sinful men to the typical office, the utmost care was taken to shew that they were not appointed for any worthiness or perfection in their own characters, nor for any natural capacity with which they were endowed for executing such an office : all was of God! How clearly is it displayed, that not only were they, in themselves, unfit to make atonement for transgressions, but nothing preserved them from dying before the Lord but the shedding of typical blood; the anointing with compounded ointment, the burning of sweet-smelling incense : when we see them washed, anointed and sprinkled, we are reminded, that they were polluted perishing mortals, and of no other use but to shadow forth the glorious High-priest now passed into the heavens.
We must also mention, that every part of the service of the priest. hood, was eminently calculated to instruct us how alone we can draw nigh to God. Man feels himself a sinner, and, as such, infinately removed from divine holiness ; he farther feels his utter incapacity to do any thing, whereby to fit himself fur drawing nigh to God. Now the leading object of all these ceremonies was to instruct Israel ; and they are recorded to remind us, that no part of the service of the sanctuary remains for us to do; that all those things which pertain to God, our great High-priest now executes for us ; pay, that every attempt to interfere in the service of the priesthood, is dishonouring the priesthood of the Son of God. But this we shall be called to consider more fully as we proceed, more especially in the history of Nadab and Abihu.
Well did Paul say, the law was our schoolmaster, to lead us unto Christ.' How admirably calculated was all this service to lead the worshipper to look forward to a nobler priesthood, better sacrifices, and a more powerful intercessor! Nor can we read such portions of scripture, unless the heart is thickly veiled indeed, without seeing, that nothing can atone for sin, or render a sinner acceptable in the sight of God, but the righteousness, blood and intercession of the Great Advocate at God's right hand. Doubtless when Aaron offered his sin-offering, in the view of being consecrated God's high-priest, and wearing koliness to the Lord on his forehead, his bleeding bulloché would remind him of his golden calf, and how much more fitted he was for the righteous judgment of God, than to execute an office only becoming the Son of the Highest.' Thus was he taught lowliness and humility ; thus was he nurtured up to have compassion on the erring multitude, knowing that he himself was encompassed with infirmity. Thus, even under the law was BOASTING EXCLUDED! By what law? If the Levitical law was a law of works, Aaron was ill fitted for his distinguished office, nay, but by the law of faith! Yes, reader, they had a law of faith under the Old Testament; and by the faith which that law pointed out, the elders under it obtained a good report.
One remark more : how different the worship in the worldly sanctuary from the worship in general use in this CHRISTIAN COUNTRY ! We shall be told, and, so far, told truly, that the ritual of Moses iß waxen old, the priesthood of Aaron's house is now abolished. But is THE TRUTH, which that ritual and priesthood preached, waxen old? God forbid! What cause can be given for this, that every or, dinance from morning to evening, on the Sabbath, or week day, af new moon, or holiday, resounded with BLOOD? How comes it, that what may in fact be called the essence of all modern worship, HEARING SERMON, is not once mentioned in the law of Moses. We will be told, that the priests were preachers, for the priests lips should • keep knowledge. Be it so ; we have none of the old sermons recorded, but we may very shrewdly guess at the subject of them. The priest could not put on his garments
, nor move one step in his office, without being reminded of Christ and him crucified; and it is not overstepping probability to assert, that in all his doctrine, it beho. ved him to preach nothing else. We can scarcely suppose any thing equally strange, as to suppose a Levitical priest coming out of the holy place, his hands yet stained with the blood of the innocent victim, and hear him deliver such a sermon as would be listened to with any degree of patience by a modern polite Christian congregation !
CHAP. IX.-commences the 26th section of the law. On the eighth day, viz. the first day after the week of their consecration, the newly consecrated priests enter upon their office. All creatures re. quired seven days for consecration, and were perfected on the eighth ; so, children after circumcision, Lev. xii. 2, 3. ; young beasts for sa. crifice, Lev. xxii. 27. ; persons unclean by issues, leprosy, &c. Lev. xiv. 8, 9. xv. 13, 14. and Numb. vi. 9, 10, In like manner here, priests were not allowed to minister in their office till the eighth day. By this the perfection of the Great Priest was distinctly shadowed forth. On che day after the seventh-day sabbath, he arose perfect.