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faith deserves an instant's notice, more especially as Mr. Scott has inadvertently mistated a little the exact case, The passage is thus given in the parliamentary debates for April 1825, in the report of the speech of Mr. Canning, on the 21st
of that month:
"The next objection which has been insisted upon, and it is one which I certainly did not expect to have heard, is, that the Roman Catholics ascribe an overweening merit and efficacy to human actions. Be it so. But we who are considering these several tenets only as they af. fect the state, may perhaps be permitted to ask, Are those who lay so much stress on works, likely to be worse or better subjects than those who believe that good works are of no avail, but that faith alone is all in all? I presume not to decide which is the more orthodox opinion; but for a good subject of a state whose safety I am to provide for, I, for my part, would unquestionably prefer the man who insists on the necessity of good works as part of his religious creed, to him who considers himself controlled in all his actions by a preordained and inexorable necessity; and who, provided he believes implicitly, thinks himself irresponsible for his actions." Mr. Scott somewhat misapprehends this passage when he observes,
"The doctrine of the merit of works," we have lately heard it pronounced, and that by Protestants high in office, 'is less to be dreaded than that of justification by faith only!" p. 42.
The error of the statesman was
much more extensive, It proceeds on the notorious mistake that the Protestant doctrine denies or weakens the necessity of good works; it takes for granted, contrary to all experience, that Popery insists more than Protestantism on the importance of human actions: it insinuates, or rather asserts, in face of the real fact, that Protestants do not teach the necessity of good works, as a part of their religious creed, but consider themselves to be governed by an inexorable fate, and therefore to be irresponsible for their actions. If such deplorable in a Protestant legislature, and mistatements should be often made should pass current amongst the nobles and rulers of our country, the worst effects may be expected to follow. But we have been insensibly drawn into too great length on this topic. Our design was to point the attention of our readers to the real character of the Roman
Catholic Church, as delineated in the volume before us, and the surprising effect which the Reformation has produced, and is producing, directly and incidentally, upon it.
We now leave this first general division of our remarks, which was to furnish such specimens of the work, as might convey a just impression of the period of the History under review; and shall proceed, in our next Number, to shew the manner in which the duties of an ecclesiastical historian have been performed by our author. (To be continued.)
LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE,
GREAT BRITAIN. PREPARING for publication:-A Popular Exposition of the Epistle to the Romans, by the Rev. R. Wilson-The History of the Church of England from the Reformation; by the Rev. J. B. Carwithen;-History of France, by Mr. Hawkesworth ;
Literature and Poetry of Poland; by Mr. Bowring;-The Widow's Tale, a Poem, by Bernard Barton, founded on the melancholy Loss of the Five Wesleyan Missionaries in the Mail Boat, off the Island of Antigua ;-The Principles of Physical, Intellectual, Moral, and Religious
Education; by W. Newnham, Esq.;-Memoirs of the Life of the late Rev. Wm. Grimshaw, compiled from his Diary and other Original Documents; with a Volume of his Works from Original MSS.; by the Rev. J. Everett.
In the press :-Systematic Morality; by W. Jevons;-A Tour through Columbia; by Colonel Hamilton;-Letters of S. S., during her last Illness.
It gives us much pleasure to perceive the great demand which exists for publications, both of a popular and a learned character, for the systematic study of the sacred Scriptures. Mr. Horne's invaluable" Introduction" is in the hands of most biblical students; and has greatly assisted in widely awakening a taste for those studies which it is so well calculated to promote. A work of similar character, divested of learned details, was still wanted for general reading: to supply which, Mr. Carpenter has just published a volume, entitled "A Popular Introduction to the Study of the Holy Scriptures, for the Use of English Readers," with maps and plates. 16s. The work is divided into two Parts. I. Directions for reading the Bible; and II. Helps towards a right Understanding of it. The Second Part is divided into eleven chapters. I. Prefatory Observations on the several Books of Scripture. II. A Sketch of Sacred Geography. III. Political Antiquities of the Jews. IV. Sacred Laws of the Jews, and their Sanctions. V. Sacred Festivals of the Jews. VI. Sacred Places of the Jews. VII. Sacred Things of the Jews. VIII. Members and Officers of the Jewish Church. IX. Of the Corruption of Religion among the Jews. X. National and Domestic Customs of the Jews. XI. Scripture Allusions to various Customs and Opinions. This work is, in a great measure, an unacknowledged plagiarism of Mr. Horne's "Introduction;" and we are therefore glad to find that Mr. Horne has been induced himself to give the world a compendium of his own work (see our list of New Publications), which we strongly recommend to our readers as the most useful book of the kind in the language. It would be superfluous for us to detail its contents, as our readers are doubtless familiar with the larger work, of which it is an abridgment.
The list of works of the late literary veteran, Mr. Nichols, the editor of the Gentleman's Magazine, amounts to no less than sixty-seven. The Bishop of Salisbury, Dr. Burgess, has just completed his hundredth publication.
In consequence of the wide diffusion of a taste for reading, publishers are beginning to find their account in printing interesting works, at a very cheap rate. An extensive series of this kind is now in a course of periodical publication, from the Edinburgh press; the first article of which is Captain Hall's Voyage to Loo-Choo. Captain Hall has added, in this edition, the particulars of an interview to which he was admitted with Bonaparte, at St. Helena. Bonaparte was greatly perplexed at hearing that the Loo-Choo islanders had no arms. "No arms!-you mean no cannon-they have muskets.” “No-not even muskets.” “Well, but they must have spears, or at least bows and arrows." "No, neither.” “Nor poignards ?” cried he with increasing vehemence. "No, nothing of the kind." He clenched his fist and raised his voice to a loud pitch: "No arms!-how can they fight then?" They never fight-they have no wars." "No wars!" returned he with scorn and incredulity; as if the existence of a people who did not wage war was an anomaly in the creation.
From a table drawn up by the House of Commons' Committee on the Poor Laws in 1818, and lately ordered to be reprinted, it appears, that the money raised for the poor during 1776, was to that raised for the same purpose in 1815, as 17 to 81; from 1785 to 1803, the rate was in the proportion of 21 to 53; and from 1803 to 1815, in the proportion of 53 to 81. The total number of persons relieved in 1803 and 1815, was as 7 to 9. Thus it appears that the expenditure for the poor had increased four times in 40 years, or doubled itself in 20 years. The law expenses had been doubled in a period of every 12 years. The increase of paupers between 1803 and 1815, was nearly one-third, and that of the population of England and Wales between 1776 and 1815, was gradual from seven and a half millions, to 10,000,000, or about a third.
At a late meeting of the Royal Society of Literature, a paper by Sir W. Ouseley was read, in which several fabulous stories relating to Alexander the Great, and generally considered to be of Eastern origin, are attributed by Sir William to Julius Valerius, who wrote in the third or fourth century. Sir William claims, in favour of the Oriental writers, several popular fictions; such as Pope's January and May, Parnell's Hermit, the Tale of Whittington and his Cat, and Shakspeare's Taming of the Shrew.
At a meeting of the Mechanics' Institu tion, the President announced, that the
purse of ten pounds, for writing the best essay on one of the mechanic powers, had been adjudged to Thomas Holmes, a journeyman shoemaker. He had attended the lectures regularly; and the result of his assiduity was an essay, which the President characterised as containing one of the best explanations of the properties of the bent lever he had ever seen.-The purse of ten guineas, for the invention of the most useful machine, was adjudged to George Lyne, who had invented a machine-principally for cutting combs, but which may be applied to numerous other purposes.-The Duke of Sussex delivered the prizes to the successful candidates.
The use of East-Indian sugar having become very extensive among the conscientious opposers of slavery, the following directions have been drawn up for clarifying it:-"Take six pounds of East-India sugar and the whites of six eggs beaten up in a quart of water. Mix all well together, and simmer it for about three quarters of an hour. Take the scum off as it rises. The scum (to prevent waste) may be boiled again with half a pint of water, for about half an hour, and strained through a cloth. This will produce a clear and delicious syrup, which may be used at the breakfast and tea table, and for all domestic purposes, as a complete substitute for the best refined West-India sugar, than which it will be found to be considerably cheaper." A leaf of the Tallipot tree, lately brought over from the island of Ceylon, and now in the possession of a clergyman at Hampstead, measures eleven feet in length, sixteen feet across its widest spread, and forty feet in circumference. In Ceylon it is used as a canopy to defend the natives from the rays of the sun.
By the late Act to regulate the duties on silk manufactures, from the 5th of January, 1827, East-India bandannas are to pay Is. each handkerchief; and plain taffeties and China crapes, 10s. the pound weight; and crape, flowered or tamboured, Il. 4s. the pound.
A carpet has been completed at Axminster, measuring 400 square yards, at two guineas per yard; to be sent as a present from his Majesty, to the Grand Seignor of Turkey.
It is stated that the company of pastors have come to a resolution, according to which all persons above 21 years of age may henceforward be admitted to the communion without any previous formality, on the mere declaration that they desire to participate in the Protestant worship.
In Germany, for a population of about thirty-six millions, there are twenty-two universities; six belonging to Prussia, three to Bavaria, two to the Austrian states, two to the grand duchy of Baden, two to the electorate of Hesse Cassel, and one to each of the following states-Saxony, Wirtemburg, Denmark, Hanover, the great duchies of Mecklenburg Schwerin and Saxe-Weimar, and Switzerland. The Roman-Catholic part of Germany, containing about nineteen millions of inhabitants, possesses only six universities; while the Protestant part, for seventeen millions of inhabitants, has no less than seventeen.
The highly intolerant spirit of the see of Rome is strongly shewn in a circular, just issued by the pope, ordering all Jews to dismiss their Christian servants, females as well as males, not excepting such of the former as may be employed as nurses. This papal bull also prohibits introducing into the houses of Jews, any Christian for the purpose of lighting fires on Friday evenings, on Saturdays, or on any Hebrew festival whatever. The violators of this inquisitorial order are liable to severe penalties, to be inflicted "at the pleasure of the Supreme Holy Congregation."
Amongst the presents made to the museum of the Calcutta Asiatic Society, are various drawings of Buddha shrines and temples in Nepal: the drawings are the work of a native artist. The artists of Nepal commence their education at ten years of age, and hence acquire great manual dexterity: their apparatus is only a piece of charcoal, an iron style, and one small brush made of goat's hair. The government have agreed to make over to the Asiatic Society, for publication, all documents of a description calculated to illustrate the geography, statistics, or history of India.
The grand jury of Madras, amidst various other grievances, have taken the
liberty to present, as a nuisance," the expense of law proceedings !"
BURMESE EMPIRE. Among the chief natural products of the Burman empire, which are articles of exportation, or likely to become so, are rice, cotton, indigo, cardamoms, pepper, aloes, sugar, saltpeter, salt, teak timber, stieklae, terra japonica, areca nuts, fustic, honey, bees'-wax, ivory, rubies, and sapphires. The mineral products are iron, copper, lead, gold, silver, antimony, white marble, lime-stone, and coal. The teak forests are described to be equal to any
possible demand, for a period beyond computation.
So great is the progress of civilization in those South-Sea islands which have embraced Christianity, that a missionary at the Sandwich Islands states, that for the last three years, not less than one hundred ships have annually visited this group, mostly whale-ships; and the government have employed one or two vessels of their own, in the sealing business, with tolera ble success. Sandal wood and salt are the only exports.
LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
A Compendious Introduction to the Study of the Bible. By the Rev. T. H. Horne, with maps and engravings; being an Analysis of his "Critical Introduction. Sermons. By the Hon. and Venerable A. G. Spencer,
Ezekiel's Temple; being an Attempt to delineate the Structure of the Holy Edifice, with plates. By J. Israels. 10. 6d.
The Genius and Design of the Domestic Constitution. By C. Anderson. 10s. 6d. Parochial Sermons. By the Rev. C. Bradley. 1 vol. 8vo. 10s. 6d.
The Rev. E. Bickersteth's Christian Hearer, abridged by the Author. 6d.
The Book of Ecclesiasticus translated from the Latin Vulgate. By Luke Howard, Discourses on the Duties and Consolations of the Aged. By the Rev. H. Bel. frage, D.D. 8s.
A Sermon for the Parochial Schools of St. Luke's. By the Rev. W. Pritchard. Is. Old-Testament Stories in Rhyme. 1s. Christ, est il divisé? par P. Filleul, On the Indexes, Prohibitory and Ex purgatory of the Church of Rome. By the Rev. J. Mendham. 7s.
Protestant Church Corruption. By N. Highmore, D.C.L.
Specimens of Sacred and Serious Poetry from Chaucer, to the presen Day. By J. Johnstone, 5s. 6d.
Three Sermons preached before the Judges at the Surrey Assizes in 1816. By the Rev. Hugh M'Neile, 3s.
Sacred Melodies, &c. By S. Warring, Letters on the Moral and Religious State of South America. By J. Thomson. Sermons chiefly designed to display the Connexion between a Sound Faith and a Holy Life, By the Rev. E, Patterson, M.A. Bro. 10s. 6d.
Contemplations on the Sufferings of Jesus Christ. By C. E. Sturm; translated from the German, by W. Johnstone, A.M.; with a Life of Sturm. 8vo. 9s.
Practical and Familiar Sermons, designed for Parochial and Domestic In
struction. By the Rev. E. Cooper. Vol. VII. 6s.
The Christian contemplated; in a Series of Lectures. By the Rev. W. Jay. 1 vol. 8vo. 12s.
The Sixth and last Part of Sermons and Plans of Sermons, selected from the Manuscripts of the late Joseph Benson. 8vo. 6s. With the Preface, Indexes, &e. to the whole work 11. 14s.
Miscellaneous Pieces on Various Religious Subjects. Written by the Rev. Andrew Fuller. Collected and arranged, with occasional Notes. By J. W. Morris.
Annotations, Ecclesiastical and Deyotional, to illustrate the Liturgy, and the Thirty-Nine Articles of the United Church of England and Ireland. By Thomas Harwood, D.D.,F.S.A. Small 8vo. 6s. 6d.
Three Letters, addressed to the Archbishop of Cashel, on the Apocryphal Publications of his Grace, in which are demonstrated the late age of the Zohar, and the propriety of applying the Cab balistic Scheme of the Sephiroth, to the illustration and confirmation of the Trinitarian hypothesis. Ry the Rev. J. Oxlee.
Historical Review of Papal and Conciliar Infallibility. By the Rev. W. Keary. The Sunday School Catechist. By the Widow of a Clergyman. 18mo. Is. 6d.
The timid Christian encouraged to come to the Holy Communion, a Sermon. By the Rev. E. Vardon.
Plain and Practical Sermons. By the Rev. T. Howard. 5s.
An Evening at Home; or a Holiday Present. By the Author of " Pity the Negro." 18mo. 6d
The Parliamentary History and Review for 1826. Royal 8vo.
Instructions in Reading the Liturgy. By the Rev. J. Howlett. 9s.
Advice to Governesses, 3s,
Art of Memory, on a new System. 5s. 6d.
Outalissi, a Tale of Dutch Guiana, dedicated to Mr. Wilberforce. 9s. 6d.
A Letter to the Right Hon. Lord Bexley. By the Rev. A. Thomson, D.D. Historical Antiquities of Hertfordshire. By Sir H. Chauncey. 2 vols. 8vo. 36s. royal, 45s.
Roman Tablets; translated from the French. Post Svo. 6s. 6d.
A Visit to the Falls of Niagara. By J. Maude, Esq. 31s. 6d.
Old English Sayings newly expounded, in Prose and Verse. By Jefferys Taylor, author of Harry's Holiday, &c. 12mo. 4s.
Narrative of the Burmese War. With a map. By Major Snodgrass. 8vo. 12s. The Correspondence of Mde. de Mainte non and the Princess des Ursins, from the original MS. 3 vols. 8vo. 36s.
SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE. Is the Appendix to our last volume we have presented our readers with an abridgment of the society's last Report, and with some extracts from the excellent and impressive sermon preached before the society at its last anniversary, by the present Bishop of Llandaff. There are several very interesting appendices to the Report which we may take another opportunity of noticing.
We have great pleasure in laying before our readers, the following resolutions passed unanimously at a numerous meeting of the friends and supporters of the society held on the 6th of December, for the purpose of considering what steps it was necessary to take in consequence of the lamented death of the late Bishop of Calcutta. The chair being taken by the Archbishop of Canterbury, the secretary fead a report relating to the death of Bishop Heber, and to the exertions he had made in India for the propagation of the Gospel; also letters from India, recommending two scholarships to be established in Bishop's College, Calcutta, and stating that the episcopal duties in that country required the exertions of three instead of one bishop. It was then resolved unanimously,
"That the society deeply deplores the sudden death of the late Bishop of Calcatta, which has deprived this institution of a valuable friend, the Indian diocese of an unwearied and truly primitive prelate, and the church at large of one of its brightest ornaments:
"That this loss has been peculiarly aggravated to the society by its having occurred at a time when the effect of Bishop Heber's presence was beginning to be felt in the missions in Southern India, so long under the superintendence of the society of which he often emphati
eally said, that the strength of the Christian cause in India was there :' "That the society, being anxious to record its sense of the zeal and energy of this lamented prelate, is of opinion, that the best tribute which it can pay to his memory will be, to prosecute the im portant measures which cothe recommended to its adoption as his last wishes!
"That the society, having reference to à desire strongly expressed by the late Bishop of Calcutta, that members of the Asiatic Episcopal churches not in subordination to the see of Rome, should be admitted into Bishop's College, dó agree to place the sum of 2,000l. at the dispos sal of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, for the foundation of two scholarships for that purpose-provided they be for ever called Bishop Heber's Scholarships:
"That, in deference to the farther suggestion of Bishop Heber, the Madras district committee be authorised to draw upon the society for a sum not exceeding 2,000, for the enlargement of the church at Tanjore; and for building, repairing, and enlarging churches, schools and houses for schoolmasters, catechists, and missionaries, in other parts of Southern India:
"That Bishop Heber having likewise strongly recommended an extension of the society's printing establishment in South ern India, and it appearing that such a measure may greatly conduce, as well to the immediate advancement of native education, as to the future support of native schools, it be further agreed, that a sum not exceeding 500, be expended out of the native school fund, in enlarging the society's ancient press at Vepery; and that the profits be applied, under the di rection of the Madras district committee, for the benefit of native schools in that presidency
“That the society, in thus testifying its