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from the distribution of tracts. My sister, he says, sent me 1000 pages of tracts of the American Tract Society, which I received while making some of our earliest preparations for the location of the college. We had already collected about 70 children into a Sabbath school, whom we instructed, for an hour or two, previous to the public service. While engaged with these children, I found that a large number of young men had collected around us; but it was only to be spectators of our proceedings; for, though only a small part of them could read, they seemed to feel above being taught in a Sabbath school. At length, on receiving the tracts from my sister, I went out among them, and said, Why do you stand gazing about here? Now just take some of these little books, and gather yourselves together in little circles of half a dozen or a dozen each, and let those among you who can read, read to the others. It is better than to be idling away your time in this manner." The invitation was cheerfully complied with; and for successive Sabbaths, says the Bishop, it was one of the most affecting sights I ever witnessed, to see them collected in little groups, and seriously listening to the words of life contained in these precious little tracts.
UNITED STATES RELIGIOUS
A late number of an American weekly paper, entitled the "New York Observer," contains the following schedule of the receipts of the principal benevolent societies in the United States during the last year. The amount is given in dollars.Amer. Education Society, 73,428; Amer. Board of Missions, 67,401; Amer. Bible Society, 64,764; Amer. Sunday School Union, 42,000; Amer. Tract Society, 30,413; Amer. Home Mission Society, 18,140; Amer. Colonization Society, 15,963; Amer. Baptist Board of Missions, 10,987; Amer. Tract Society, Boston, 10,304; Presbyterian Education Society, 8000; Methodist Missionary Society, 6812; Missionary Society of Connecticut, 6215; Reformed Dutch Missionary Society, 3528; West. Dom. Missionary Society, 2577; Amer. Jews Society, 1266. The total amount contributed to the above named fifteen societies during the year was 356,163 dollars; and the total increase above the receipts of the same societies the year preceding, was 142,536 dollars!
"This result," says the editor, "will probably surprise others, as it has ourselves. It indicates an advance in the cause of Christian charity, such as perhaps was not anticipated, even by those best acquainted with the religious movements of the age. Yet we have no hesitation in saying, that thousands who have contributed to these objects, and whose donations are considered liberal, have not done their whole duty."
The same publication, in giving a review of the proceedings of some of the chief of these societies, presents us with the following remarks:
"Of that noble institution, the American Bible Society, we are happy to state, that both the receipts into the treasury, and the issues from the depository, continue to be gradually on the increase. During the last eight months, thirty new Auxiliaries have been recognised by the Society, making the whole number 536. The whole number of Bibles and Testaments issued from the depository since the formation of the Society in 1816, is 485,829. Who can tell how many desponding souls have been comforted by these messengers of mercy; how many sinners have been reclaimed from the error of their ways?"
"The cause of injured Africa is taking a stronger hold on the sympathies and charities of the people, with each succeeding year. Many a benevolent eye is directed to the movements of the American Colonization Society, with the deepest interest. And although it is hoping too much to expect the entire abolition of Slavery throughout the land by the direct efforts of this institution, yet it is impossible to say that its indirect and ultimate effects may not be of this gigantic character. Public opinion in this country is the lever which moves every thing; and by operating upon this, as the Colonization Society is doing, the most efficient method is adopted of accomplishing the grand design which is in view, and will never be lost sight of, by thousands of American citizens. Already are there established, in different parts of the land, more than a hundred Anti-Slavery Societies, seventythree of which are located in slave-holding states. Within about a year past, the Friends' Yearly Meeting in North Carolina have removed to more favourable climes not less than 300 People of Colour, and are making arrangements for still further and larger removals. In the month of January last, thirty-four Coloured emigrants sailed from Boston for Liberia, under the patronage of the American Colonization Society; and in February, 154 from Norfolk, Virginia, for the same destination. Another expedition is fitting out at Baltimore, and will sail in a few days. The popula tion of this flourishing colony is now 500 or 600. In the latter part of 1825, two churches were built by the colonists; and in the spring of 1826, a Missionary Society was formed. Five or six schools are in operation; in which not only the children of emigrants are instructed, but also sixty children of natives. An earnest desire has been expressed by all the Leeward Tribes except one, that schools may be immediately established among them, for the instruction of their children. More than 150 Africans, who had been seized for transportation as slaves, have been rescued by the colonists; and by the same
instrumentality, in connection with that of the British colony at Sierra Leone, the Slave Trade has been banished, almost entirely, from a line of coast three hundred miles in extent."
"The interests of the Jews are not forgotten yet we regret to say, that, so far as respects the American Society for meliorating their condition, almost nothing has been done the past year. While a part of the Board of Managers are in favour of the colonizing system, and would adopt measures accordingly, the other part maintain that all the habits and inclinations of Jews are averse to such a course of life; that the scheme is chimerical, and would only be attended with a waste of funds. Instead of this, they would have the society direct its attention to the support of missionaries among the Jews, in the countries where they are now located.
"In the month of January last an institution was established in New York, entitled the American Seaman's Friend Society. The objects contemplated by its constitution are excellent, and worthy of encouragement from every friend of religion, and every lover of his country."
"The United Foreign Missionary Society and the American Board have four stations among the Osage Indians, three among the Indians in New York, one at Mackinaw in Michigan territory; and, if necessary, one on the Maumee river in Ohio, and one in Hayti among the Coloured emigrants from the United States, have been transferred to the Board. These, with two others at Bombay, six in Ceylon, seven among the Cherokees, nine among the Choctaws, one among the Cherokeesof-the-Arkansas, six at the Sandwich Islands, one at Malta, and one at Beyroot in Syria, make a total of forty-three stations, under the care of a Society whose first mission was established in 1813. The whole number of missionaries and assistants is 201. The whole number of
churches organized at the stations is twenty-five; containing an aggregate of more than 200 members. The whole number of schools is about 200; in which are instructed not less than 20,000 scholars; and, in general, such books are made use of as are fitted to instil into their minds the first principles and duties of Christianity. The last year's intelligence,' say the Executive of the Board, was more interesting than that of any previous year, and the last three years embrace more proofs of successful operation than did the twelve which preceded. If we look to the Sandwich Islands, we behold 20,000 people under instruction, 12,000 of whom are able to read the Scriptures-ten or twelve churches built by the natives for the worship of Jehovah, some of which are attended by 4000 people-nine principal chiefs, and many of the common people, professing their faith in Christ2000 families where morning and evening devotions are offered-revivals of religion, or their fruits, in two or three places on the islands-intoxication, theft, and every vice, retiring before the influence of true religion. By the press attached to this mission, and those at Malta and Bombay, it is estimated that in a little more than a year past three millions and half of pages have been printed, and sent forth, or prepared for circulation, rich with the blessings of the Gospel.
"Among the Indians of our own country, particularly the Cherokees, are many fruits of missionary labour. The view we have taken of the operations of the Board, is but a glance: it reveals but a glimpse of its animating prospects. Already 1000 Missionary Associations are pouring their offerings into its treasury, through forty-five Auxiliaries; and every day adds strength to the cause. Yet we trust it will never be forgotten, that this work is to be accomplished, not by might, nor by power,' but by the Spirit of God."
Dr. B.Jenkinson, to be Dean of Durham. Rev. J. Russell, D.D. Preb. of the Metropolitan Church, Canterbury.
Rev. J. H. Seymour, Preb. of Lincoln Cathedral.
Rev. Dr. Wellesley, to the Golden Preb. of Durham.
Rev. L. Vernon, Chanc. of York Cath. Rev. J. Blanchard, Lund V. Beverley, co. York.
Rev. E. T. Bidwell, Orcheston St. Mary R. Wilts.
Rev.T.H.Elwin, East Barnet R. Herts. Rev. G. Evans, Potterspury V. co. Northampton.
Rev. J. Harries, Newcastle Emlyn P. C. Carmar.
Rev. G. Harris, Letterston R. co. Pembroke.
Rev. W. Hewitt, Ancroft R. co. Durham.
Horne, Hotham R. co. York. Rev. J. Hughes, St. Michael P. C. Aberystwith, Wales.
Rev. J. Leach, Tweedmouth R. co. Durham.
Rev. R. Lucas, Edith Weston R. Rutland.
Rev. J. C. Matchett, Catton V. Norfolk. Rev. H. Roberts, Baxterley R. co. Warwick.
Rev. J. H. Robertson, Church and Parish of Caldingham, Presbytery of Churnside, co. Berwick.
Rev. J. Blanchard, Chap. to the Earl Ferrers.
Rev. J. Griffith, Chaplain to the Lord Chancellor.
Rev. J. Morris, Chap. to Ld. Lynedoch. Rev. T. Symonds, Chaplain to Lord Colnbrook.
VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.
FRANCE. It is afflicting, to every friend of an enlightened freedom, to witness the enslaved state of the French press. The tyranny of the censorship is exercised in the most rigorous, and sometimes apparently capricious, manner. The metropolitan journals may not copy articles from provincial papers without a new exercise of censorship, though those articles had already passed the local ordeal. What is permitted in one place may be rejected in another. But it is evidently the purpose that in no journal should any thing appear which is seriously offensive to the executive government or the Catholic priesthood. The censors have even forbidden the publication of a list of the subscribers for a medal to be struck in Paris in memory of Mr. Canning, on account of that statesman's name being associated in France with the obnoxious maxim of " Civil and religious liberty all over the world."
SPAIN AND PORTUGAL.-There are no facts of a very tangible nature to adduce as illustrative of the state of affairs in these two countries; but it is clear, from the whole complexion of events, that they are both far from being in a state of political repose. In Portugal, the enemies of the Charter, as far as they dare venture, are fomenting the public animosities; while in Spain a counter party appears to be actively at work to bring back a constitutional government. The struggle in these countries is the more important, on account of the opposite line of policy pursued by France and England; but we still hope, that, by the wisdom and firmness of our government, the affairs of both nations will be eventually placed upon a just and salutary footing, without either bloodshed or undue foreign interference.
GREECE AND TURKEY.-The Turkish government has peremptorily refused to acquiese in the propositions made to it by the European cabinets, for the repose of Greece. It pleads that Turkey conquered Greece by force of arms, but that it exercised its power with mildness, considering the Greeks as subjects, not as slaves; and it adds, that nothing shall induce the Sublime Porte to change its present course of policy, or prevent its CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 308.
punishing the Greeks as rebels and traitors. The only argument of any weight is, that some of the remonstrating powers. themselves sided at the commencement of the struggle with Turkey, and offered to assist that power in coercing the ́ Greeks. Our own conduct in this matter, we fear, was not at that period altogether' unexceptionable, for the chains of the Holy Alliance were suffered by Lord Londonderry to press somewhat tightly around us; but, now that we are fairly emancipated from them, we cordially hope that nothing will prevent our pursuing towards Greece and her oppressors that wise and liberal policy which the principles of Christianity, the dictates of humanity, and our best feelings as members of a free and enlightened empire, equally demand. Whatever may be the merits or the faults of the departed statesman, whose sudden decease has astounded the whole nation, not less his foes than his friends, we trust that the important benefits which he was so anxious to secure for Greece, for Portugal, and for South America, will never be lost sight of by his successors, his fellow-countrymen, or the world at large.
UNITED STATES.-The law for the extinction of the last traces of slavery in the state of New York, came into operation on the fourth of last July, the anniversary of American independence. A meeting of the People of Colour was previously held at New York, at which it was determined that the day should be celebrated as a holy festival of gratitude to God. Thus, to use Mr. Buxton's expressive allusion, is slavery dying away in the socket, in one part of the world after another, without any of those fearful consequences which some West-Indian gentlemen predict from its abolition in our own dominions. Yet still it exists, and widely too; holding in its iron grasp two millions of victims, even within the boasted ring-fence of the United States; among a people so jealous for their own liberty, that the very terms master and servant are odious. But, happily, a better spirit on the subject of slavery is very widely spreading among our Transatlantic brethren, many honourable proofs of which have been already noticed in our pages. Even in the slave states bene3 U
volent individuals are springing up on every side, to bear their testimony against this enormity. The state of Maryland has just repealed an odious law, which authorised selling out of the state Coloured Persons convicted of petty offences. The legislature of Alabama has also just passed an act to prohibit the importation of slaves into that state for sale or hire; though, by the way, they may still be imported for the use of the importers, and may be sold after a period of two years. We might mention other enactments; all of which, though of little or doubtful individual value, shew at least that a spirit of inquiry is awake, which, we are persuaded, will ultimately be satisfied with nothing short of the entire abolition of slavery itself.
MEXICO. The following memoranda throw light upon the circumstances of this new republic. The arrivals of vessels in the port of Mexico during last year were 1267, of which 49 were from France, 55 from England, 399 from the United States, and the remainder native property. The receipts of the public treasury, which four years since were but 5,000,000 dollars, had increased last year to 14,000,000. The army contains, nominally, 58,000 men, of whom 32,000 are under arms. The navy is almost in its infancy. There are ten bishopricks in Mexico, of which seven are vacant; the ., envoy, who was sent to Europe to arrange matters with the Pope on the subject, not yet having received his final instructions from the Mexican congress for settling a concordat. There are 1194 parishes, and 3677 secular priests, of whom only one third are actually engaged in pastoral concerns. There are five orders of monks, which include nearly 2000 individuals they have one hundred and fifty monasteries, and an income of about 600,000 dollars. There are fifty-seven convents, containing nearly 2000 nuns, with an annual rental of 800,000 dollars.
The late disturbance in the Province of Texas, which has been noticed in our journals, is stated in the American papers to have originated in the following circumstances. For obvious reasons, we copy the account verbatim from a New York journal." The revolt in the Mexican province of Texas appears to have been occasioned by the new law prohibiting the importation of slaves into the Mexican dominions; or, as some accounts say, abolishing slavery altogether. Certain slave-holders from the United States, who had gone thither with the expectation of amassing great fortunes
by means of the sinews and traffic of slaves, and now finding their craft in danger, resolved, in the true spirit of Governor Troup, to set up a government of their own, which they called the Republic of Fredonia. Now it happened, that the neighbouring Indians, on whose aid they had mainly relied for the accomplishment of their purposes, nearly all took sides with the Mexicans. Being thus left to their own resources, and unable to cope with the troops sent against them by the Mexican government, these advocates for the liberty of enslaving others, found plenty of business upon their hands, and are at length either captured or dispersed. No other result could have been reasonably anticipated; and if the cause of the revolt is such as has been suggested, no other could be desired by the friends of genuine freedom. The truth is, the new republics of North and South America have set us an example, on the subject of slavery, which we should do well to imitate, under such modifications as our peculiar circumstances render necessary. If we remember right, the last slave in Columbia is to be emancipated within the present year. Peru has essentially. lightened the burdens which for centuries had oppressed the poor Indians; and Mexico evinces, by her decision in enforcing the law in behalf of enslaved Africans, that she is determined not to be behind her sister republics in this cause of justice, humanity, and religion. Meanwhile the United States, where the torch of liberty was first kindled-the United States, who claim to be the freest. and happiest people on the face of the earth-are cherishing in their bosom nearly 2,000,000 of wretched slaves, and, as a nation, are doing nothing to mitigate the evil!"
We need not announce to our readers the death of that highly gifted individual on whom for several months past the eyes of his countrymen and the world. have been intensely fixed, and on whose measures seemed in no slight degree to depend the destinies of the commonwealth of nations. Neither shall we embark at present upon a survey of his political plans or personal character; which have been the subjects alternately of censures and of panegyrics the most strong and unqualified. Would that we could allay that wild uproar of partyspirit which has made the very mention of his name a signal for warfare! a war
intends to their deserts, all professional pugilists, their abettors, who may come before him; but he is far, he says, from wishing to put down the practice of fighting, even though it should lead to manslaughter, where it arises out of anger or provocation. His lordship thinks, that "where an Englishman feels himself offended" he may "fairly vindicate himself" by a pugilistic contest! Boxing, says his lordship,
fare which has chief friends, and plunged the public into those bitter political animosities to which for the last three or four years we have been almost utter strangers. But we forbear entering upon the subject. Personally, the departed statesman is beyond the reach either of human censure or applause. But his measures are public property; and the public have naturally looked with intense anxiety to the appointment of the successor to his office, to determine whether they are likely to be pursued or revoked. The King has virtually decided the question, by commanding Lord Goderich, whose political views coincide generally with those of the late premier, to fill up the blanks in the ministry; himself, of course, succeeding to the vacant post of prime minister. Some of the appointments are understood not to be finally arranged, particularly the Chancellorship of the Exchequer we therefore defer the list till our next number. May the choice fall on men fitted, both by their talents and their virtues, for their high functions! The decease of the late premier, almost immediately after attaining the high summit of his ambition, shews us "what shadows we are and what shadows we pursue!" May the solemn warning lead all who are in authority to make the revealed will of God the guide of their actions; assured that they best promote the happiness of mankind when they begin, continue, and end all their designs under a solemn view of their responsibility to their Creator!
The Duke of Wellington has returned to the post of Commander in Chief; and Lord William Bentinck is appointed Governor-General of India.
A very important cause is before the Court of Admiralty, the result of which will decide, whether a slave, rendered free by coming to England, reverts to a state of slavery on returning to the West Indies. Lord Stowell is to pronounce judgment upon the question; and we cannot allow ourselves to doubt that his decision will be that which reason, and law, and humanity, and Christianity appear to us equally to require.
We have perused with extreme pain the reports of two Charges delivered at the late assizes by Judge Best, in which his lordship has taken especial pains to vindicate and encourage the unchristian, illegal, and disgraceful practice of settling disputes by blows. His lordship indeed strongly discountenances prizefighting; and we are glad to find that he
keeps up the spirit of Englishmen!" Thus anger and revenge are judicially canonized; and to be "an Englishman" is to be exactly what " a Christian ought not to be! But brute bull-dog spirit surely needs nothing to "keep it up; "and as for any better spirit, boxing neither produces nor fosters it. We should not blame a Judge, where a case of death by fighting comes before him, for deciding as favourably as justice allows respecting the surviving delinquent, and for making every lenient allowance for sudden provocation and anger; but to go deliberately out of his way, in two solemn charges, besides some incidental remarks in his summings-up, to vindicate, and, we may say, to incite men to give full scope to their revengeful and malignant passions, is, to say the least, a most indecorous and reprehensible use of the high influence and authority with which he is armed, for a very different and directly contrary purpose. We should not be surprised if settling disputes by the brutal method which Judge Best patronizes, should, under favour of his lordship's authority, become more common than ever, and lead eventually to the sacrifice of many lives; for two powerful men fighting, under the influence of revenge and passion, are more likely to receive or inflict dangerous or mortal wounds, than professional boxers, accustomed to all the rules and precautions of their diabolical art. Should such cases occur, the public will at least know to whose account to lay the blood of their countrymen, and the widow and orphan on whom to vent their bitterest reproaches for their slaughtered relative. It does not require the sagacity of a Judge to know, that, if only time were given for the parties to cool, by prohibiting their proceeding summarily to settle their quarrel at once by blows, many a dispute would be amicably adjusted, which in the impetuosity of the inoment might lead to the most fatal results. We are not surprised, after the above, that Judge Best goes on in his charge to panegyrize the Game Laws; though, by the way, not