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put our charities on short allowance. One thing let Englishmen always bear in mind -the possession of a right carries with it a corresponding duty. As, in this country, the voice of the people is all-powerful with the government, I hope that every man who hears me will feel himself bound, by the expression of his individual sentiments, to encourage, to stimulate, to urge, if it be necessary, the zeal of government in the effectual discharge of its first duty towards our colonies. I trust that, in future, no colony will ever be sent out from this country without the means of spiritual instruction in its train. I trust, too, that on every fit occasion Englishmen will be always ready, both collectively and individually, to stand up and speak in favour of the propagation of those truths on which all our temporal and spiritual happiness is founded."
The Bishop of Chester expressed the satisfaction which he felt in being called upon to present himself on such an occasion. The time was now come, which required that vigorous efforts should be made to set before the public, not obtrusively, but plainly and modestly, and, he trusted, effectually, the claims and the wants of this society; to make known to the Christian world what they had done; what they were doing; what they desired to do, and were prevented from doing only by the insufficiency of their means. With respect to the two great departments of the society's labours, he observed, it was impossible not to look with an intense and anxious interest to the gradual expanding of that dawn of Gospel light, which had long glimmered in the Eastern hemisphere. Yet they would form but a very incorrect and inadequate notion of the society's claims upon the support of a Christian public, if they were to look merely to its labours in the East, or to its designs and intentions towards that department of the Lord's vineyard. No, its merits were to be judged of from the faithfulness with which it had fulfilled the original purposes of its institution: its claims were founded upon its past services; upon the fruits which it gathered, and the harvest which it reaped; as well as the diligence with which it was now scattering the good seed in a new and more extensive field. And what were those past services to which he referred? That pure religion subsists in the United States of America; or, if that be too bold an assumption, that it subsists there with the advantages of Apostolical regimen and discipline; that in our North American colonies Christianity is professed in purity and practised with faithfulness; that tribes of Indians, bordering upon our territories, have been brought to a knowledge of the truth as it is in Jesus. This, under the blessing of God, was the praise of the society. At the present time, and in the present state of those provinces,
it is difficult to estimate the good which resulted from its exertions. Whoever would be at the pains to turn over the records of its early proceedings would see many affecting appeals from the settlers, who were destitute of the means of religious edification and comfort; appeals which were promptly answered by the society, to the extent of its means. It would suffice to observe, that where it found only five churches, in the course of a few years it had raised, or contributed to the raising of, two hundred and fifty; and in countries where the inhabitants, little more than a century ago, were in a state of spiritual destitution, the society was now supporting one hundred and three missionaries, and one hundred and thirteen schoolmasters. The time no doubt would come, when the government of this country would be able to perform the duty incumbent upon it, of providing for the religious instruction of our colonies, or of obliging the colonies, when they became sufficiently wealthy, to form and support religious establishments for themselves; and he thought he saw, in the signs of the times, some symptoms and tokens of an approach towards that desirable consummation. But in the mean time, until a happy combination of circumstances should bring that event to pass, the society must continue to do its duty, and use every possible exertion to supply the deficiency. A deficiency there still was, and that to a lamentable extent; for, after all that had been done, many parts of the North American colonies were still in a state which might almost be termed a state of destitution, with respect to Christian instruction, and Christian ordinances and discipline.
The Rev. Mr. Dealtry expressed his satisfaction in learning that the missionaries in North America, although amidst many privations and discouragements, have rendered, and by the blessing of God continue to render, important services to the Christian cause; preserving in the true principles of the Gospel many congregations, which would otherwise be as sheep without a shepherd, and training up many children in the fear of God. "But it is not without emotions of a different kind," added he, " that we hear of the utter inadequacy of the means of instruction at present existing, and reflect further upon the loud call thus addressed to the Church of England, to lend, if possible, more effective aid. The Report mentions one county in New Brunswick as having the benefit of only a single missionary. By the Report of last year it appears that the whole province is in a state of great religious destitution: for a popu lation of nearly 80,000 souls, connected with the Church of England, there were only sixteen resident clergymen, scattered over a country of more than 27,000
square miles, and twenty-six churches, some of which were in an unfinished state. When we advert to accounts of this description, and listen to the urgent demands in both those extensive dioceses for additional missionaries, it is impossible not to join in the wish expressed by the Committee, that the funds of the society were more equal to the exigencies of the case. Upon the laborious nature of the episcopal office in those parts of the world, and its influence in promoting Christian knowledge, there can be no difference of judgment among those who look at the extent of the countries to be visited, and the various duties which devolve upon the bishop. We know the value of episeopal superintendence in this country, and it cannot be less valuable there." "We cannot but admire," continued Mr. Dealtry," the wisdom and prudence of those excellent men who instituted this society. It was from no restricted views, either of the value of Divine truth, or of our bounden duty to propagate it through the world; it was from no narrow or limited principle of charity, that they turned, in the first instance, to the colonies of Great Britain. These have, doubtless, the first claim upon this Christian church: they were, nominally at least, of the household of faith; and where would have been the charity, or where the good sense, of looking at the heathen world, and leaving those who were so closely connected with us, to incur the hazard of relapsing into a state little better than heathenism, to the utter scandal and disgrace of the Christian name? Perhaps, in the formation of this society, its founders bore in mind, that the Apostles addressed themselves in the first instance to the Jews-' beginning at Jerusalem' perhaps they looked to One yet greater than the Apostles, who declared himself to be especially sent to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.' We cannot hesitate to say, therefore, that they acted well and wisely. The Epis copal churches in the United States, and in the dioceses of Nova Scotia and Quebec, prove that, unostentatious as were the labours of the society, the effects of them have been of no ordinary magnitude; and when the religion of Christ shall, in future times, be extended through the whole of North America, the historian of that day will not fail to point to this society as the main instrument in the promotion of that blessed work."
The Bishop of Durham, in alluding to the college at Calcutta, stated that Bishops Middleton and Heber had considered it deserving of their especial attention, as forming the basis and groundwork of their best expectations with regard to the main purpose they were labouring to promote. It was obvious, that, without such an institution, no reasonable hope could be
entertained of carrying the great object in view completely into effect. The quali fications of a proper missionary for India were of a very complicated description. He must be not only full of piety and zeal, devoted to the work he had undertaken, and relying upon the Divine blessing for the success of his labours, but also a man of extensive and solid acquirements, of considerable knowledge of mankind, of great perseverance, and moreover of sound judgment, discretion, and moderation. He must not look back when he had put his hand to the plough. He must be content to sacrifice what might be most dear to him in this country. And when it is considered that the man who possesses such qualifications might fairly look forward to adequate remunerations in his own country, it was hardly to be expected that a succession of such persons could be found willing to forego these prospects for the toils and perils of a far-distant mission. It was therefore of great importance to form an establishment in India, where, in due time, not only young students from this country, but native students also, might be trained to the ministry, under the guidance of able and approved instruetors from England. The college at Calcutta appeared to be in a very promising condition. At present it could accommodate only ten students, but Bishop Heber had expressed his wish that it might be made capable of admitting thirty or forty, and was of opinion, that, when the expense of such an enlargement of the building had been provided for, the increased annual expense of supporting it would be inconsiderable, compared with the increased benefit which would result from it. The Society had therefore resolved upon this enlargement, trusting to the public for the means of effecting it. It was satisfactory also to know, that this object of the society had been much encouraged by the munificent aid of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, which had contributed 50004. towards the first foundation of the college, and had afterwards added 60001. more for the endowment of an additional number of studentships. Church Missionary Society had also presented a donation of 5000l. and subsequently two grants of 1000%. each, with an intimation that further annual supplies to the same amount might be expected. The British and Foreign Bible Society had also contributed 20007. towards translations of the Scriptures into the native languages of India. It was not only due to those societies gratefully to acknowledge such liberal benefactions, but it was also gratifying to observe, on the part of public bodies not immediately connected with our own, and constituted upon somewhat different views and principles, such a mark of confidence and of good feeling towards it.
The Rev. C. W. Le Bas, a professor in the East-India Company's College, said that it had been the aim of the professors of that establishment, so to conduct its concerns that it might send forth into every department of the Indian civil service, men who by their lives, at least, should do the work of evangelists, and who should thus become faithful auxiliaries to this society, in its designs for the happiness of mankind. He exulted with no common joy, in hearing of the prosperity and usefulness of that glorious and kindred foundation, Bishop's College, in India. "Think," said he, " of the hundred millions of Hindoos who are now governed by a few myriads of our countrymen ; and then remember, that Bishop's College was founded to diffuse among those ignorant idolaters the blessings of intelligence, to form a bond of union between our church and the churches which may hereafter arise throughout the vast provinces of India, and to distribute to the very extremities of that weary land the living waters, which alone can give health and purity to the soul! And are not these precisely the purposes which seem to be forced upon us by the very course and order of that Providence, which has placed in our hand the destiny of those innumerable and distant multitudes? Can our country look towards Hindostan without feeling bowed down under the weight of her own glory? Can her children find any rest unto their souls but in aiding her to discharge her vast and imperial responsibilities?"
The Bishop of Gloucester, in speaking of Bishop Heber, remarked, that he had carried with him no ordinary qualifications to the scene of his most useful labours. To the imagination of a poet he added the most solid judgment, and the most ardent zeal and piety. Thus qualified, he proceeded to his task, and answered the fullest expectations that had ever been formed of him. But he was soon called to his reward. His death was untimely to us, and to the church of Christ in India; but to himself death could never be unseasonable. His successor had expressed his desire to tread in the steps of Heber and Middleton. He hoped that his labours would encourage the growth of Christianity in India; and that, under his government, God may give the increase to that husbandry which a Middleton had planted and a Heber had watered; that our church in India may enlarge the place of her tent, and stretch forth the curtains of her habitation.
Dr. George Barnes (late Archdeacon of Bombay) observed, that, from his connexion with the Indian Missions, he might well say that the Gospel had made great progress in India under Bishops Middleton and Heber. He wished, however, for the sake of the successor, that the labour had been divided. Bishop
Middleton was ready to sink under it; and although Bishop Heber did not complain, still it was well known that he was anxious that the diocese should be divided. But the successor would find those in India who would cheerfully co-operate with him. With respect to the propagation of the Gospel in India, it was to be observed that it was not idolatry alone with which we had there to contend. Over idolatry the Gospel had always triumphed. But his code of religious belief had imposed on the Hindoo the distinction of caste under the fear of punishment temporal and eternal. Thus he grew up in prejudice; and it was our policy to have but few Europeans in India; the consequence of which was, that the ordinances of our religion were not exhibited to them in the manner most calculated to be attended with beneficial effect. The only means, therefore, that could be employed was, that of sending out missionaries and establishing schools, and the appointment of chaplains in distant situations. Bishop's College, in Calcutta, contained in itself the means of supplying these important auxiliaries; and he rejoiced in the liberality of so many societies, especially of the Church Missionary Society, to that institution. The fruit might not appear for some time, but the good seed had been sown, and would not perish.
The Bishop of Calcutta, after dwelling upon the character and labours of his predecessors, added: "For myself, my path is clear and open: an humbler task, and yet one which, if Heaven spares me a term of years, may not pass without fruit: be it mine to aim at producing a closer union of the Christian body in general, and to endeavour to present a less broken phalanx than heretofore to the enemies of the cross. It is for this purpose that honour, wealth, and dignity, are given to the station to which it has pleased his Majesty's government to appoint me: it is for this purpose, to produce Christian harmony and union, that every true church esta blishment is formed; not by a system of terror, not by inquisitorial means, but by that mild and genial influence which such institutions shed on those around."
The Earl of Winchelsea moved that the Meeting, considering the immense field of the society's operations, and the absolute necessity of a great addition to its means, to enable it to meet the continually increasing demands for missionaries in every part of the British colonies, earnestly presses its claims for support, if not upon every Christian, at least upon every member of the Church of England; and especially recommends the general formation of District Committees, to extend the knowledge of its designs, and obtain contributions to its revenues. The Bishop of Landaff, in seconding this resolution, said that the Report had afforded ample
data for the necessity of such an appeal. Had it contained but the single fact, that the province of New Brunswick alone stood in need of thirty-three additional missionaries for the work of evangelism in that quarter, there would be enough to excite them to join heart and hand, and to stimulate to fervent prayer that the Lord of the harvest, who alone could bless the increase, would send forth more labourers into his vineyard. This, however, was the call of one single bishop, from one single province; and in ministering to his wants to the utmost of the requisition, the no less pressing demands of other British colonies were still left unsatisfied. In proof of this, his Lordship read extracts of a letter from Dr. Morrison, which he had that day received from China; from which it appeared that Dr. Morrison was then the only Protestant minister in China, and that he expressed a strong desire that missionaries of the English Church should be sent to the Straits of Malacca, Penang, and Sincapore; observing, that "the harvest, indeed, was great, but the labourers, alas, how few!" His Lordship recommended the general formation of District Committees, from his own experience of the expediency of resorting to this method of enlarging the means of the society. In Glamorganshire he found, last year, only two annual subscribers to the society. After recommending the formation of a District Society, and writing letters to the principal laity of the county, a meeting took place, when the designs of the society were explained, and a collection of more than 1301. was made, consisting almost entirely of annual subscriptions. Scanty as are the resources of the parochial clergy in that part of Wales, no fewer than forty-six incumbents and curates, in that single county, are now found in the list of the District Committee. He had said thus much of the success of one humble attempt, in the hope of holding out some encouragement to the more efficient endeavours of others. The Church of England was under strong obligations to exert herself in the work of evangelizing the world. She first led the way, by sending the first Protestant Mission to India. It became her now to enlarge her sphere; and, standing, as she does, like a Pharos among the nations, to be herself, by God's blessing, the principal means of diffusing light throughout the world.
Lord Kenyon, having eulogized the conduct of the Most Rev. Chairman, his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom he had found not less than four times that week presiding at meetings called for similar purposes; the Archbishop returned thanks; adding, that it was but right to state to the meeting, that his presidency there, or at any meeting assembling with like views, was merely in the performance of his duty as a Christian minister.
PROGRESS OF CHRISTIANITY
Mr. Bennett and the Rev. D. Tyerman, who have been employed by the London Missionary Society for examining the state of their Missions in various parts of the world, have lately visited India. They conclude the report of their inves tigation with the following encouraging facts.
"Having now given some account of the state of things, as we have seen them in Calcutta, Kidderpore, Chinsurah, Berhampore, and Benares, we would remark generally, that our expectations respecting the missionary good that has been effected, and the prospects of more good being done, have been greatly exceeded by what we have found, and by what, under the blessing of God, we may reasonably hope. Our faith respecting the conversion of the Hindoos has been much increased by what we have seen both in Bengal and in the Upper Provinces, and from the concurrent testimony of wise and observing men, who describe the great difference there is between the state of things now and what it was some years ago, both among the rich and poor Hindoos, and among the Brahmins, many of whom begin to be ashamed of the gross impositions they have long practised, and of the oppressions which, by prescription, they have inflicted on the inferior castes. The reverential regard, reaching to actual adoration, with which these inferior castes treated the Brahmins, is very much lessened. We think we see the fetters of caste very much weakened; and we do cheerfully hope that the whole series of the links of this cruel chain will be for ever broken, under the commendable moderation and prudence of our enlightened Government, and especially by the blessing of God on the efforts of prudent Christian members and missionaries, who, while they preach the Gospel, very widely and faithfully exhibit a scriptural temper and conduct towards each other, towards the European inhabitants, and towards the heathen population; and who are also zealously engaged in superintending the education of the young of both sexes; in writing, printing, and distributing useful books, especially the Scriptures, to so very great an extent. The effects which have been already produced on the native population, by the introduction of an increased number of wise and good missionaries, and members of religion not being missionaries, have already been great, directly, in various parts of India; nor less so indirectly, by having effected so manifest a moral improvement in the resident British population in these parts. This change is so great and so valuable, that no reflecting person can help seeing it, and no benevolent person can avoid rejoicing in it."
UNITED STATES EPISCOPAL
It is a truly pleasing and hopeful feature in the aspect of the present times, that every communion of Christians has become deeply sensible of the duty of promoting Christian missions throughout the world. Our own church, we rejoice to say, is becoming increasingly alive to the importance of this duty; and our sister Episcopal Church in the United States is marching hand in hand with us in this object of Christian mercy. In proof of this we adduce the following report of the standing committee appointed by that church to investigate the affairs of the United States Episcopal Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society. Having examined the proceedings of the society, they state, that "They find that something has been done towards the accomplishment of the objects of the society, by the establishment of domestic missions within the territories of the United States, and the forming of auxiliary societies in several different dioceses; but they regret to find that no missionary has yet been sent from this institution to any foreign land. The committee are persuaded that this has not arisen from an unwillingness to encourage foreign missions on the part of the members of our church, because it appears that a large proportion of the funds which have come into the treasury was contributed for this particular object; nearly 2000 dollars having been subscribed for a mission to the western coast of Africa, and other considerable sums for establishing missions in other parts of the world. Nor are the committee willing to believe that the failure to establish a foreign mission, or missions, has arisen from any indifference to that important object, or unwillingness to carry into effect the designs of the general convention, on the part of the board of directors, or of the executive committee; but they are disposed to attribute it to unpropitious circumstances, which neither of those bodies could controul. The committee, however, are unanimously of opinion, that regard to the reputation and interests of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States, as well as justice to the benevolent intentions of the general convention which formed the society, and to the many friends who have contributed to its support, demand that missionaries should, without delay, be sent from this church to foreign lands, to be her agents in promoting the Redeemer's glory, and fulfilling that solemn command, which is no less obligatory on us than it was on those to whom it was originally addressed, Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature.
The committee strongly recommend the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society to the prayers and best efforts of every friend of religion. The clerical and lay
deputies of this church have resolved, "that the directors of the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society be requested to establish, and as soon as possible occupy, a missionary station at Liberia, the American colony on the western coast of Africa; and also at Buenos Ayres, or its vicinity, in South America; and that the several bishops be respectfully requested to recommend, in their respective dioceses, such measures as they may deem proper, for collecting funds for this society, and rendering its operations effective."
KENYON COLLEGE IN OHIO.
We are rejoiced to witness the success of Bishop Chase's benevolent and enlightened plans. Besides the collections which he made in Great Britain, he has received large sums among his own countrymen for building and endowing his college. The contributors are not confined to his own denomination; but many other persons, particularly the Presbyterians, are mingling their gifts with those of their Episcopalian brethren. One gentleman of this denomination has not only given 100 dollars towards the erection of the college, but has subscribed one thousand dollars towards founding a professorship, to be called the Milnor Professorship, out of respect to the Rev. Dr. Milnor, Rector of St. George's church in New York.
The following is an extract from a recent letter from the Right Rev. Alexander V. Griswold, bishop of the Eastern diocese, to Bishop Chase.
Right Rev. and Dear Sir,-Though it is somewhat discouraging, that so many of our young men of this diocese leave us for the southward and westward; yet, not knowing what may be the Lord's will, nor where their labours may most profitably be bestowed, I make no objections to their removal; but leave them to go whither the Lord shall direct, or their own best judgment shall lead them. I have particularly desired that your diocese may be supplied, and that the services and administrations of what we (and I think justly) deem the most orthodox and pure church, may be extended through that new and fast rising world. Your new college, when in full operation, is likely to be the most effectual instrument, under God, for effecting so vast and desirable an object. Such efforts as you have made (and I doubt not from the best motives), will, I trust, be eventually blessed. Indeed we have much reason to bless God for the success which you have had in making collections, since I last saw you. That it will please the Lord to inspire us with constant and increasing zeal for his glory, and bless our humble efforts to build up the Redeemer's kingdom, is the prayer of, "Right Rev. and dear Sir, very sincerely,
"Your friend and brother,
"ALEXANDER V. GRISWOLD." Bishop Chase finds great benefit arising