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number of works was entered previously to 1709; but a return has been made of the number, entered from that period up to the end of 1826. This document shews the vast increase of publications within the last few years. The number of works entered at Stationers'-hall in 1709 was only 87. In the next three years the number was somewhat above 110; but · from that period up to 1766 the average yearly was not 50. At the commencement of the present century the number continued at about 300 up to the year 1814, when it amounted to 541. In the next year (owing to Lord Ellenborough's construction of the copyright act) the number was more than doubled. From that period to 1826 the number has never been under 1000. The lowest number ever entered was 17 (in 1732), and the highest 1,454 (in 1822).
At the last annual meeting of the Royal Society of Literature, the Bishop of Salis. bury, the president, continued his inquiry Vinto the authenticity of the treatise De Doctrinâ Christianâ, ascribed to Milton, but which his Lordship maintains is of foreign origin. The Society's two gold medals for the present year were adjudged to Sir Walter Scott, "for his Illustrations of the Manners, Antiquities, and History of Scotland, in many works of pre-eminent genius, both in verse and prose, particularly the Lady of the Lake, and Waverley;" and to Dr. Southey, "Author of the History of Brazil, and of several other distinguished works in English Literature."
LONDON UNIVERSITY.-The following is a list of the professors already appointed of the London University.
Greek Language, Literature, and Antiquities Mr. Long, of Trinity college, Cambridge, Professor of Greek in the University of Charlotteville, America. Natural Philosophy and Astronomy: The Rev. Dr. D. Lardner, of Trinity college, Dublin.Jurisprudence and Law of Nations: Mr. Austin, Barrister. English Law Mr. Amos, Barrister.-Political Economy Mr. M'Culloch.-Botany and Vegetable Physiology: Dr. William Jack son Hooker, Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow.-Zoology: Dr. R. E. Grant.-Anatomy and Physiology, Morbid and Comparative Anatomy, Surgery: Mr. Charles Bell, Professor to the Royal College of Surgeons; Dr. John Frederick Meckell, Professor of Anatomy and Physiology in the University of Halle, in Saxony; Mr. Patterson, late Professor of
Anatomy and Surgery in the University of Maryland, U. S.-Nature and Treatment of Diseases: Dr. J. Conolly.-Midwifery, and the Diseases of Women and Children: Dr. D. Davis.-Materia Medica and Pharmacy: Dr. A. Thomson.-On Engineering and the Application of Mechanical Philosophy to the Arts: Mr. Millington. FRANCE.
At the Court of Cassation of Paris a point of jurisprudence has just been decided, which, it is hoped, may tend to check the practice of duelling, at least as far as married men and fathers of families are concerned. A Mr. Lelorrain was tried for the murder of a Mr. Garel in a duel. Lelorrain was acquitted of the murder, but sentenced, at the suit of the widow, to the payment of damages to the amount of 20,000 francs to her, and 4,000 francs to her children, to be paid when they come of age, with interest until that period.
M.. Champollion deduces the following conclusions from the discoveries made in Egyptian antiquities by means of the newly discovered hieroglyphical alphabet: 1st, that the Egyptian form of worship was publicly exercised, and retained all its external splendour, under the empire of the Cæsars; 2dly, that the great mass of buildings adorned with hieroglyphic inscriptions, to which a date was assigned anterior to the conquest of the Persians, are far more modern; and, 3dly, that this system of characters was always used in monumental writings amongst the Egyptians, till their entire conversion to Christianity. The names of most of the Roman emperors are found on these monuments. The most recent name is that of the Emperor Commodus, on the little temple of Contra-Lato, which shews in its style the decay of Egyptian art. The name of the unworthy son of Marcus Aurelius is found four times on the famous zodiac of Esné, which had been fondly imagined to surpass the earliest limits of history.
The following advertisement, which strikingly exhibits the absurdity of popish pilgrimages and vicarious good works, lately appeared in a French newspaper.— "A pious person, who has made a vow to go on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, but is prevented by ill-health, offers 25,000 francs to any one who would undertake this journey with purely religious intentions. No person will be accepted who is under forty years of age, and who is not of a robust constitution, so as to leave no doubt of his fulfilment of the vow.
The individual, who would undertake this journey, must engage to do it on foot and barefoot, to enter no inn, tavern, or hotel, and to receive on his way his lodging and food of but pious persons alone. He will be forbidden to embark in France, and must proceed by Lyons and Chamberry; cross the Alps; go to Rome, where he will perform some religious practices; continue by La Romagna and the March of Ancona; and embark at some port of Calabria for Joppa or St. John d'Acre, from whence he will go to Jerusalem. His return must also be effected in the same manner. Apply, by sealed letters, to X., at the Memorial office, Douay."
The established church of France is composed of four cardinals, three archbishops, sixty-six bishops, 600 canons or prebendaries, 2917 cures or rectors, 22,316 deservans or curates. The expense of the establishment, including annuities to the infirm clergy, is estimated at 25,650,000 francs, or 2,137,4981. Of the Protestant clergy, there are Calvinist ministers 295, Lutheran ministers 220. The sum-total paid for the support of Protestant clergy is 58,083. This sum is paid by the French government: but there are many Protestant clergymen in France who do not receive any stipend from the government, it being a regulation not to make any grant where the Protestant population does not amount to a thousand. The proportion of the expense of the Protestant, to the expense of the Catholic church, is about one to fourteen. SPAIN.
In some new documents relative to Columbus, recently published by authority of the Spanish government, it is urged that the island which Columbus first discovered in America, and to which he gave the name of San Salvador, is not the Island now called St. Salvador, or Cat Island, but Turk's Island.
Of thirty thousand dollars, the amount of state tax to be raised in New Jersey this year, ten thousand are designed for the School fund.
An original letter of Dr. Franklin's has just been published, in which he requests from his correspondent a list of a few good books, to the value of about twenty-five pounds, such as are most proper to inculcate principles of sound religion and just government. "A new town," he says, "in the state of Massachusetts, having done me the honour of naming itself after me, and proposing to build a steeple to CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 308.
their meeting-house, if I would give them a bell, I have advised the sparing themselves the expense of a steeple at present, and that they would accept of books instead of a bell, sense being preferable to sound, These are, therefore, intended as the commencement of a little parochial library, for the use of a society of intelligent respectable farmers, such as our country people generally consist of." He 66 on the recomparticularly mentions, "Stennet's mendation of his sister," Discourses on Personal Religion."
The Medical Association of New-Haven county, Connecticut, have published a statement, that more than one-third of the deaths which occur among persons over twenty years of age in New Haven are caused or hastened, directly or indirectly, by intemperance! yet it is added, as an undisputed fact, that less intemperance exists in New Haven than in almost any other city of equal population.—At a general meeting of the students of Yale College, resolutions have been unanimously adopted of their intention, during their stay in college, as well as ever afterwards, to use every honourable means for the suppression of the vice of intemperance.The Presbytery of Genessee have passed resolutions approving of the plan of the American Society for the Promotion of Temperance, and have resolved to abstain entirely from the use of ardent spirits themselves, except in cases of bodily infirmity; and not to allow the use of them in their families, or to provide them for the entertainment of friends, or for persons in their employment. They recommend the formation of Anti-IntoxicationAssociations in the churches and societies under their care.
The first steam-boat ever brought into successful operation, was the Clermont, built by Fulton, which started from New York for Albany, Sept.10, 1807, with twelve passengers. She performed the passage in thirty-two hours. There are now nearly 400 steam-boats on the waters of the United States.
"We have lotteries," says the American Christian Spectator, "for schools and for bridges, for colleges and monuments, lotteries for churches, and lotteries for bishops. Religion, which has so clean escaped from the pollutions of the old world as to abhor the connexion of church and state, has found in this freer hemisphere a new ally. If things go on happily, we may live to behold our waste villages with a church at one end for the support of religion, and a 3 S
lottery-office at the other for the support of the minister.”
An association has been formed in Connecticut, for the improvement of the pub lic schools throughout the Union; and measures are to be taken to effect such changes in the present system as may
Mr. Sparks, the editor of the North American Review, has made arrangements with Judge Washington for publishing General Washington's state papers, official correspondence, and such of his private letters as may be deemed suited for publication, with notes and illustrations. Washington had all his important papers arranged with the greatest order in fifty folio volumes-some of them copied by his own hand, and others by secretaries.
A gold ring was lately found by a farmer, while ploughing a part of the ground where the battle of Cowpens, in South Caro lina, was fought in 1781. It was lying
among some wasted fragments of human bones. On the interior surface, the following inscription is legible :-" This and the giver are yours for ever, 1722." It is conjectured to have belonged to some officer in the British or American army; and the present owner would gladly restore it, as a family relic, if a just claimant can be found.
Messrs. Harpers, of New York, have just published the first complete edition of the Works of the Rev. John Wesley ever printed in the United States. It is printed in ten volumes, at about half the price of the London editions. INDIA.
With a view to prevent unnecessary oaths, the Court of Directors have ordered, that, in administering the business of the military fund for the widows of officers, solemn declarations on honour shall be substituted for affidavits, in all ordinary cases, where there is no suspicion of unfairness.
LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
Hymns written and adapted to the Weekly Church Service of the Year. By the Right Rev. Reginald Heber, D. D., late Lord Bishop of Calcutta. 8vo. 7s. 6d.
The Connection of Sacred and Profane History from the Death of Joshua until the Decline of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah. By the Rev. M. Russell, LL.D. 2 vols. 8vo. 11. 8s.
The Case between the Church and the Dissenters impartially and practically considered. By the Rev, F. Merewether,
M.A. 8vo. 6s.
A Vindication of the Character of Bishop Bull, against the Archdeacon of Ely. By the Ven. Charles Daubeny, D.D., Archdeacon of Sarum. 8vo. 63.
A Summary View of Christian Principles. By T. Finch. 5s. 6d.
The Nature and Ministry of the Holy Angels. 2s. 6d.
A Sermon preached before the London Missionary Society. By the Rev. R. W. Sibthorp. 1s. 6d.
The Gentiles gathered to the Fold of Christ a Sermon. By the Rev. T. Raffles, LL.D. 1s. 6d.
Original Sermons. By the late Rev. H. King. 8vo. 10s.
The Reasons of the Laws of Moses, from the More Nevochim" of Maimonides. With Notes, Dissertations, and a Life of the Author; by the Rev. J. Townley, D.D. 8vo. 10s. 6d.
Exposition of the CXIXth Psalm. the Rev. C. Bridges. 6s.
Nature and Grace. By Mrs. Stevens. 6s.
Lady of the Manor. By Mrs. Sherwood. Vol. V. 12mo. 7s.
A Journal from Buenos Ayres to Potosi. By Captain Andrews. 2 vols. Post 8vo.
Two Years in New South Wales. By P. Cunningham, R. N. 2 vols. Post 8vo. 18s
Tour through France, Italy, and Switzerland. By J. Johnson, R. N. 1. vol. 12mo. 6s.
Rambles in Madeira and Portugal, Post 8vo, 9s. 6d.
Historical View of the Revolutions of Portugal. 8vo. 12s. 6d.
An Apology for the Waldenses. By the Rev. T. Sims. 2s. 15.1
St. Helena Memoirs. By-T. Robson. 3s. The Guilty Tongue. 2s.
History of the War in the Peninsula under Napoleon. By General Foy. Vol. 1. 14s.
The History and Antiquities of Weston Favell, in the County of Northampton. By J. Cole. Svo. 5s. 6d.
Chronicles of London Bridge; with 56 engravings on wood. Crown 8vo. 28s. History of the Battle of Agincourt, from contemporary Authorities. By N. H. Ni-. colas, Barrister at Law, F.S.A.
***CONTINENTAL BIBLE SO
IN our Number for June we gave an outline of the Rev. F. Cunningham's statements respecting the Bible Societies in France. The following is the substance of his communications respecting the Valleys of Piedmont, Switzerland, and Germany.
"In Italy I found the same obstacles to exist against the free circulation of the word of God, of which other travellers have complained. One exception however may be stated, and that with regard to a people whose cause has excited a warm and most honourable interest in this country-the Protestant inhabitants of Piedmont. They, in common with the other Protestant subjects of the King of Sardinia, are now permitted to receive books of every kind, on payment of duty, and on the condition that they are nei ther sold, lent, nor given to Catholics. This concession came at a time of peculiar importance, as it facilitated the introduction of the large grant of Bibles lately made by the British and Foreign Bible Society to the Protestant inhabitants of the Valleys. And I learned from the principal agent of the Bible Society in those quarters, that they had received * 2397 Bibles and 2436 Testaments from different institutions. These grants are of greater value at this moment, when the Vaudois Committee in London is so wisely and assiduously labouring to establish schools of various kinds in these valleys.
"The next point to which I would call the attention of this Committee, is Geneva. The character and services of the Bible Society in that city have, it appears to me, been grievously misrepresented in some of the recent publications in this country on the Apocryphal controversy. From the fact of the society in Geneva not discovering much zeal for the distribution of the Geneva version of 1805, of which the orthodoxy was called in ques
tion, the consequence has arisen, that the friends of that version have gradually seceded from the ranks of the institution. And let it be recorded to the praise of the society at Geneva, that when the great mass of the continental Bible Societies were anxious, by establishing counter resolutions of their own, to manifest a spirit of resistance to the AntiApocryphal resolution of the London committee, the Geneva Society opposed this measure, and publicly manifested its fidelity towards the British and Foreign Bible Society. That the committee is not framed upon a more comprehensive and generous principle, is to be regretted; but it labours assiduously and successfully as to the great object for which it is brought together.
"The Bible Society of the Canton de Vaud has acted upon the principle of securing to itself a permanent income for the perpetual distribution of the Holy Scriptures, independent of new contributions, by funding its capital. This measure has displeased many individuals in the canton; and has probably assisted to give birth to other societies, in Lausanne and its neighbourhood, acting upon a different principle. I speak from pretty accurate knowledge of that canton, when I say, that the state of religion is very remarkably improved in it. I visited no place where the spirit of religious inquiry was more alive, and where the taste was more extended for simple Biblical reading. The severity of the government has in a great measure relaxed. The piety of the people has increased. Is it unfair to consider as one of the instruments of this improvement, that, in addition to the number of Bibles before in circulation, there has been circulated, by the Bible Society of that place, 15,000 copies of the word of God, amongst a population of 160,000 persons?
"As to the newly revised edition of Osterwald's Bible, published at Lausanne, it is impossible not to condemn in it both
the deviations from the original, and the employment, in what are called the improvements, of a great deal of paraphrastic language. In speaking of that edition of the Bible, I think it right, however, to bear my humble testimony to the general character of the authors of this revision."
"The next Bible Society of importance which I visited was that of Basle. I was there soon brought into communication with the committee on the subject of their temporary estrangement from your society on the ground of the late resolution as to the Apocryphal Books. When they found that the decision of the London committee was the result, not of prejudice, but of conscience, they at once gave up their own resolutions, and acquiesced in the proposal which was made to them. They passed a resolution expressive of their kind sympathy towards the British and Foreign Bible Society; and they undertook still to serve it as agents; although, at the same time, they could not, according to their judgment of the question, consent personally, and for themselves, to circulate Bibles without the Apocryphal Books. I cannot easily con-vey to you the high opinion which I formed of the committee of the Bible Society of Basle, and of its venerable president, the Antistes. The interest which they feel, and the labour which they devote to the distribution of the Scriptures, is what I have never seen exceeded in any other place; and I can have no doubt, that whatever commission you are pleased to entrust to them will be judiciously and faithfully executed.
"It is my wish, in the last place, to say something on the state of Germany. And here the few observations I have to offer will be of a somewhat more general nature, or, at least, less confined to particular societies.
"The German societies labour under great difficulty respecting the Apocryphal Books; and the greater part of them are not at present disposed to give them up. But their reasons are founded rather on views of expediency, than conscience; and are not therefore to be put in comparison with the great principle involved in this question, and which has directed the decision of the London committee, namely, whether that which is not the word of God ought to be put on a level with that which is. cannot but think, that if our Christian brethren in Germany were led to this
view of the question; that if the writers on the subject in this country were to di rect a little of their zeal to their instruc tion upon this point; the more pious part of our neighbours would be induced, at no distant period, to adopt the resolution which we have established. In the mean time, there are very many persons and districts, as the correspondence of the society may testify, who, even now, are willing to receive and distribute the Bible without the Apocryphal writings. The example of these societies will, I doubt not, work powerfully upon others.
"From all that I was able to learn in Germany, it appeared to me that to every class of Protestants the resolution of your committee respecting the Apoerypha will be attended with immense advantage. Great benefit may result from this resolution to the general theo+ logical teaching of that country. A large proportion of the errors of the German divines, appear to me to have originated in breaking down the boundaries of in spiration. Now the anti-apocryphal resolution of the committee will conceive, go far to suggest for each man's consideration this important questionWhat is, and what is not the Bible?! and thus a primary and most important question will be discussed, one which must stand at the basis of all sound theo logy; and this, if rightly determined, will assist to bring back the German divines from the wild notions they have so generally adopted; and the benefit resulting from this resolution will proba bly be a larger distribution of the Bible itself. With respect to the Catholic population, any considerable distribution of the Old Testament will undoubtedly be prevented by the anti-apocryphal resolution. But this needs not hinder the circulation of the New Testament. This indeed may be distributed in larger abun dance than before! Leander Van Ess told me, that he had then before him applications for 30,000 copies of the Catholic New Testament, whilst he had only 200 or 300 in his depository'; and that he waited only for the direction of your society to increase his circulation to a very great amount.
"It may be desirable to say a few words as to the committees and officers of the German Bible Societies. It has been a subject of grief to me, on my return to this country, to find these individuals reproached, in very general terms, as Infidels,' Neologians, designing men,' who having taken the offices they hold