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D'Anville, there would be a population of 6,222 persons per square league, which would present 350,000 deaths per annum. These corpses must be gotten rid of either by burning or by interment: if the latter, they must be buried around the inhabited spots, or in those which were inundated by the Nile, and then the decomposition of these bodies would have have been a source of destruction; and for burning there was an insufficiency of wood. But the soil of Egypt abounds in springs of natron (subcarbonate of soda); and as this substance is a perfect antiseptic, the inhabitants were naturally led to preserve with it the corpses of the dead. In support of the opinion that sanitary views alone were the cause of embalment down to the third century before the Christian æra, when the practice was abandoned, M. Fontenelle observes, that during the whole of that period, the plague was unknown in Egypt, where it is now endemic.

IONIAN ISLANDS.

Mr. A. Kalvos, a native of one of the Ionian islands, exhibits the following picture of the improving condition of the literature of his country, in a letter to a friend in Paris.

"When Lord Guildford, in 1820, made a tour in these islands, for the purpose of ascertaining the proper methods of secur ing the prosperity of various establishments for public instruction, he found only a small number of schools, and these in a deplorable state. The schools of mutual instruction at the present day are twentynine in number, and contain 1,733 scholars, out of a population of 176,392 persons. The university of the Ionian islands was not opened till the autumn of 1823. In that year it contained sixteen professors, most of whom were of the first order. Almost all these young professors have studied in the most celebrated universities, at the expense of Lord Guildford; so that we have collected in our university a selection of learned men, whose minds are stored with knowledge acquired in England, Germany, France, and Italy. The following is a list of thirtyone chairs which are provisionally divided among the acting professors: Theology, 3; civil law, 3; medicine, 3; botany, 1; agriculture, 1; chemistry, 1; mathematics, 5; philosophy, 2; music, I; rhetoric, 1; Greek literature, 2; English language and literature, 2; Latin literature, 1; history, 3; archæology, 1; physics, 1.

"All the lessons are given in Greek, and the students are beginning to diffuse beyond the precincts of the university,

forms of language richer and more elegant than those which are employed in continental Greece. In ten-or fifteen years to come, our language will be fixed; then the ridiculous custom will disappear of employing in a Greek city a corrupted Italian jargon, even in the courts and the National Assembly. See what we owe to the worthy chancellor of our university, to Lord Guildford alone! But this is not the limit of his benevolence. Whilst Government provides at its own expense for the instruction in theology of one hundred young ecclesiastics, who will one day spread instruction in the country, and sustain the enlightened piety of the faithful, his lordship provides, at his own expense, for the instruction of forty youths, destined to be either learned judges, just and honourable merchants, or industrious cultivators. The library, which had no existence two years ago, already contains 30,000 volumes of choice works, of which a great number are the property of our benefactor. We have lately formed a small botanical garden, which promises to become an object of curiosity.

"The school of design and sculpture has already produced some works which want perhaps only the varnish of antiquity to be viewed with admiration. I cannot tell you the influence which these early attempts have already exerted upon the manners and industry of the country.” INDIA.

The chief justice of Calcutta has just given a decision, that the statutes of mortmain do not apply to the colonies. The decision was called for in determining the appropriation of Claudine's education fund. Claude Martine was a native of Lyons, who deserted from Lally's army at Pondicherry, entered the British service, and subsequently rose to the rank of majorgeneral, and to the possession of immense wealth at Lucknow. Among the bequests in his will were two hundred thousand sicca rupees to the town of Calcutta, for a school to educate a certain number of children of both sexes, to put them out as-apprentices, and other benevolent purposes.

The Agricultural and Horticultural Society of Calcutta, have awarded prizes to various native gardeners for the culture of European vegetables. About fifty baskets of vegetables were lately submitted to the Society, containing samples of cauliflowers, cabbages, peas, potatoes, endive, celery, beet, turnips, &c. The distribution of good seeds by the Society has contributed materially to the improved produce of native gardening.

BURMAH.

The members of the late political mission to Ava have greatly enlarged the stores of information respecting that country. Dr. Wallich has collected about 13,000 plants, of which he considers at least one-third new. The mineral collections are equally extensive, especially in ores, marbles, petrifactions, and fossil remains.

CHINA.

Dr. Morrison has translated the follow ing Maxims from a treatise attributed to Kwan-foo-tsze. They compose the code of Chinese morality.

"Venerate heaven and earth; perform the rites to the gods. Worship your ancestors; be dutiful to your parents. Keep the king's laws; revere your teacher and superiors. Love your brothers; be true to your friends. Live in harmony with your kindred; agree with your neighbours;--Let husband and wife mind their respective duties, and teach their children and grandchildren. Do what is good for others; multiply acts of charity;-Assist those who are in trouble and adversity; pity the fatherless and poor. Build and repair temples; make and print moral and religious books. Give medicine and tea; avoid killing animals, and give them liberty. Contribute money to promote good designs; give instruction to the ignorant. Make peace between enemies;

úse just measures and balances. Approach near to the virtuous; keep aloof from the bad. Conceal men's vices, and publish their virtues; do good to all, and help the common people. Make bridges and repair roads; have compassion on the widow and oppressed. Be moderate in plenty; remove the difficulties and disputes of others, Turn the mind to right principles; reform errors, and renew yourself. Cherish benevolence and kindness; retain no vicious thought. Be sincere in virtue, and reverently practise it. Though man see not thy deeds, they are exposed to the gods."

SUMATRA.

Among the fruits of the restoration of the Dutch dominion in the Archipelago, has been the suppression of the schools which Sir Stamford Raffles had so wisely and humanely established at Padang for the education of the natives. These, it is said, the present governor has shut up, pointing to the state of affairs in Java "as a proof that the progress of education and the safety and permanence of the Dutch rule are incompatible."

NEW SOUTH WALES.

A meeting of the free inhabitants of this colony has been held, for the purpose of petitioning the King and both Houses of Parliament to grant them the benefits of trial by jury and a house of assembly.

LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.

THEOLOGY.

The Burial and Resurrection of Jesus Christ; from the German of Michaelis. 1 vol. 6s. 6d.

The Doctrine of Justification by Faith only, as held by the Church of England, and explained by Bp. Bull. By the Rev. C. M. Mount, A. M. 3s.

A Father's Reasons for not baptizing his Children.

The Evils of the Race Course. A Sermon. By Rev. F. Close.

A Sermon preached at Haileybury. By the Rev. Prof. Walter, 1s. 6d.

Immortality or Annihilation. 8s. 6d. Pilgrims of the Nineteenth Century. By J. Ivimey. 3s. 6d.

Vindication of Bp. Bull against Archbp. Browne. By Archn. Daubeny. 6s. Chronicles of Wesleyan Methodism. By S. Warren, S.L.D. 2 vols. 12s. The Case of the Church and Dissenters. By the Rev. F. Merewether, M. A. 6s. Biographical History of the Christian Church, during the first fourteen Centuries, or to the time of Wickliffe the Reformer. By J. W. Morris. 2 vols. 8vo.

16s.

The Sea-Side: a Series of Short Essays and Poems, on various Subjects, suggested by a temporary Residence at a Watering Place. By the Rev. John East. 12mo. 8s.

The Character and Conduct of the Apostles considered as an Evidence of Christianity; being the Bampton Lecture for 1827. By the Rev. H. H, Milman. 8vo. 10s. 6d.

The Connection of Sacred and Profane History; from the Death of Joshua, to the Decline of the Kingdoms of Israel. By the Rev. Dr. Russell. 2 vols. 8vo. ll. 8s.

An Essay on the Philosophical Evidence of Christianity. By the Rev. R. D. Hampden. 8vo. 9s 6d.

Lectures on the Psalms. By the late Rev. J. Ewart. 3 vols. 8vo. Il. 11s. 6d. Infant Baptism. A Charge by Archn. Pott 1s. 6d.

The Christian Ministry. A Sermon. By the Rev. C. Musgrave. ls.

A Clergyman's Address to English Protestants, on their Duties towards their fellow-Countrymen of the Church of Rome. By the Rev. E. Jacob.

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Fashionable Amusements. Cr. 8vo. 6s. Sketch of the Life and Journal of the Rev. J. Wolff, Missionary to Palestine nd Persia. 12mo. 3s.

A Practical Treatise on Banking, &c. 2s. 6d.

Little Frank, the Irish Boy. By Charlotte Elizabeth, Author of the System, &c. 1 vol. 18mo. 1s. 6d.

Bibliotheca Sussexiana; a Descriptive Catalogue, accompanied by Historical and Biographical Notices of the Manuscripts and printed Books in the Library of the Duke of Sussex. By T. J. Pettigrew. Vol. I. in two Parts. Imperial 8vo. 3. 13s. 6d.

Specimens of Polish Poets. By John Bowring. 12mo. 8s. boards.

The Draught of Immortality, and other Poems. By H. M. Parker. 8vo. 10s. 6d.

RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE.

BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE have to issue, in a bound state, under the

SOCIETY.

THE following is the official abstract of the last Report of this most important society; a society which has been the instrument of conferring greater benefits on the world than any other human institution, ancient or modern. We trust, that the society is rapidly recovering from the ill effects of the late painful discussions; and that it will not only stand more firm than ever in the affections of its tried friends, but conciliate large accessions of public confidence and patronage, and prove, by the blessing of God, "a praise in the whole earth."

The introduction to the Report states, that it has been the anxious and unanimous wish of the committee, during the past year, to carry into full effect the regulations adopted at the annual meeting in 1826 respecting the Apocrypha. In doing this, they have laid down an additional regulation, viz.

"That all grants of the Scriptures to societies which circulate the Apocrypha, be made under the express condition that they be sold or distributed without alteration or addition, and that the proceeds of the sales of any such copies of the Scriptures be held at the disposal of the British and Foreign Bible Society."

direction of the committee.

The Report then notices the charges tee, and the documents which they had in that have been made against the commitconsequence thought it their duty to publish; and says, that without any further attempts to vindicate themselves, the committee leave the facts, as stated in the documents referred to, to the judgment of the society.

Referring to the lamented resignation of their foreign secretary, Dr. Steinkopff, the committee introduce the resolution passed in December last, which has already appeared in our pages.

The issues from the society's depository at Paris, under the care of Professor Kieffer, have been considerable. Three editions of De Sacy's Testament have been printed, and two of the Protestant Bible have been commenced. In La Lozère has been found a numerous Protestant population, animated by the pure and holy faith of the ancient inhabitants of the Cevennes, in the most urgent want of the sacred Scriptures. They have been supplied with 1000 copies.-Several other grants have been made. On the recommendation of the Rev. F. Cunningham, 2000 Testaments have been sent to a minister in the south of France.

The Rev. F. Cunningham also says,— "I have seen the Testaments of this The committee have also restricted society in various important schools in themselves to the issue of bound books to France; in the hands of the sick, and in all individuals, as well as societies. But the wards of the hospital. I have known they have not deemed it any contravention them carried to the infirm and dying by of the principle of the law to entrust to those who are so emphatically called the their own accredited agents the superin-Sisters of Charity. Much of the fruit tendence of the binding of the copies of the Scriptures, which they will afterwards

will be discovered only on the great day, when the secrets of all hearts shall be dis

closed; but no man can follow the course it was before a useless piece of furniture, of the Bible without perceiving benefits resulting from its circulation."

The total issues in the year from the depository of the society at Paris have amounted to 45,117 copies. An individual is engaged in preparing a version of the New Testament in the Breton dialect, which bears a great affinity to the Welsh.

The Gospel of St. Matthew, in the Basque language, has been circulated. It has been received and read with much earnestness, though opposed. The society at Orthez has, in consequence, numerous calls for the Scriptures, which both Protestants and Catholics are anxious to examine for themselves.

The printing of the Carshun, and the Syriac and Carshnu New Testaments at Paris, is nearly completed.

The Rev. F. Cunningham having stated to the committee his intention of making a tour on the Continent, 200 Bibles and 2000 Testaments were granted to him. Of these he has rendered an interesting account. At his recommendation, the committee engaged an individual, already well known to the society, to visit different parts of the south of France. The following are extracts from the correspondence of this gentleman :

"A proprietor of immense forges will consider it a pleasure and a duty to serve the good cause of the New Testament. This respectable citizen assured me, that his workmen, since they have read the Scriptures, conduct themselves better, and give themselves less to dissipation." Of a prison he states: "Several criminals, who, being in other prisons, had received a copy from the turnkeys, to whom I had sent some, said to their companions in misfortune,- While we employ ourselves in reading the Gospels of our Lord, our misfortunes are less grievous to us.-Do as we, my friend, said a man condemned to the galleys for life, and you will see how much lighter and more supportable the weight of your chains will become."" At

one place, the mistress of the school related to him, that "a poor old man, at the point of death, begged to address his twelve children on the great advantage of reading the New Testament. This scene, he adds, was touching; for the sick man quitted this world blessing your excellent undertaking, and saying to his children, In this book I leave you the best legacy to promote your happiness.'

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This gentleman has distributed about 15,000 Testaments.

The last printed Report of the Paris Bible Society contains many interesting details.

The society at Castres observes, “That in the first year they had but 300 subscribers, in the second 800, and at present 1500." Indifference to the Bible has in many instances been successfully overcome. The number of families in which

is much diminished. Desire to read the sacred lume has been so awakened among servants and work-people, that, in some instances, what may be called family schools have been established for mutual instruction. These domestics and workmen being chiefly from the mountains, were involved in a considerable degree of ignorance, till their attention to the subject was thus happily excited.

Brussels.-Nearly 1000 copies of the Scriptures in French, Flemish, and German, have been distributed.

At Brussels, Antwerp, and other places, the zeal of pious and active individuals has been encouraged by grants of the Scrip.

tures.

Lubeck. The committee of the society there, in compliance with the suggestion of Dr. Pinkerton in 1825, have commenced inquiries from house to house, and have been surprised to find how great a deficiency of the Scriptures still exists. To meet these newly discovered wants, 500 Bibles have been sent.

The Rostock Society has received 200 Bibles.

Various delays occurred in bringing the negociations with Dr. Van Ess to a close; and his labours were, consequently, in some measure suspended. Five thousand Testaments were ordered for him, which have long since been distributed; and as soon as the arrangements with him were completed, orders were given for supplying the depository over which he is placed, with 20,000 copies of his New Testament; also 800 Lutheran Bibles, without the Apocrypha, which the committee rejoice to say he is perfectly willing to circulate. The stock thus provided will last but a short time, as the committee have received a series of letters from his different correspondents, requesting more than 18,000 copies of the New Testament. He has already received instructions for the issue of 11,800 copies. The following are extracts from some of these letters:

Bible

"A few days ago, several bargemen visited me, to whom I had given a copy of the New Testament last year, and they could not sufficiently testify their delight at the perusal of the interesting Book,' as they termed it, assuring me, at the same time, that, by lending it about in the places where they principally resided, a general desire had been created to obtain it."-" Urged by a similar wish, a person in affluent circumstances came to me, from a distance of sixteen hours' walk, and requested me to sell him a copy of your New Testament. Being somewhat anxious to know what led him to apply to me, I questioned him on the subject, and learned, that having accidentally seen a New Testament in the hands of a private soldier, to whom I had given it, he had in vain attempted to persuade him to sell it; not succeeding, and finding that I

had originally furnished the book to the soldier, he was determined to apply at the fountain head, and took the journey accordingly." Another correspondent writes, In the whole parish I have not been able to discover either a Bible or a New Testament: many have not a notion of them.

A third correspondent writes," You can scarcely conceive the joy which manifested itself throughout my parish, on our learning the arrival of the New Testaments which you sent us. From the time of their reaching us in the evening, till ten o'clock the next morning, I was overrun with applications for them, so that I could only with difficulty keep back a few copies, which had long before been promised." A fourth states; "Besides attending to the children in the manufactories, I endeavour to put the word of life into the hands of workmen and common labourers, and have, in several instances, had the pleasure to perceive that it has manifested its saving power upon them. It is true, I cannot speak of a thorough change in sentiment and character; but still it affords me pleasure to perceive that our Catholic brethren read and receive the sacred word in singleness of heart, and take it as it is, without judging it ac cording to the rules of man's wisdom." From a fifth letter the following is an extract: :-"The Rev. Mr. wishes much to be able to distribute the sacred volume among his parishioners. They reside in about thirty different places; and partly owing to their living so far remote from the parish church, and partly in consequence of the frequency of bad weather, they are obliged to spend many a Sunday without divine service."

Through this indefatigable agent, hun dreds of thousands of copies have been distributed, yet hundreds of thousands more are still wanted! And if such be the state of the places within the circle of Dr. Van Ess's labours, what must be the state of those who have no such active friend to care and provide for them!

The society of Frankfort has not judged it right to adopt the new regulations. Three respectable individuals have, however, undertaken to distribute the Canonical Scriptures; and 2800 Testaments have been voted to them. They made a commencement with fifty Bibles; and, finding that the difficulties in the way of their distribution did not prove so great as had been anticipated, they have received 300 additional copies.

To the societies at Weimar, Hanau, Basle, Bern, and several other places, grants of copies of the Scriptures have been made.

At Nyon, in the vicinity of Lausanne, a society has arisen, which combines different pious objects, but which will cheerfully circulate the canonical Scriptures exclusively with much satisfaction the

committee have placed at its disposal 200 Bibles and 300 Testaments.

Dr. Steinkopff, in a private visit to Swit zerland, encouraged the zealous friends of scriptural distribution by several small grants.

At Herrnhut, Bishop Fabricius has been successful in his attempts to distribute Bibles conformably to the rules of the society. 1000 Bibles have been placed at his disposal.

The Prussian Bible Society at Berlin has not felt at liberty to accede to the exclusion of the Apocrypha from its Bibles, but it still maintains its regard for the British and Foreign Bible Society; and the committee have had the pleasure of presenting it with 5000 copies of the New Testament and the Book of Psalms.

Individual clergymen, connected with the society at Buntzlau, have undertaken to make the trial of 200 copies of the Bible without the Apocrypha. To that society 500 copies of Gossner's German Testament have been granted.

A cavalry officer in Pomerania has stated the desire of many among his troops to posses the New Testament, with the Book of Psalms. The committee sent the applicants 600 copies.

At Neuwied the result of Dr. Pinkerton's visit is still felt: inquiries are making at this place. One thousand and fifty Bibles have been granted to this society; and the secretary writes,

"We shall, probably, in the course of this year, be enabled to accomplish the important object of our desire; and that there will be no cottage within the limits of our society destitute of the word of God."

The friends of the society at Cologne have opened (according to Dr. Pinkerton's suggestions when visiting them) various small depôts which have answered their expectations. The hospitals, the barracks, and the prisons, have engaged their attention. They have received 1800 of Gossner's Testaments, and 600 Bibles without the Apocrypha.

To the Berg Bible Society, to Dusseldorf, Warsaw, the Danish Bible Society, and several other societies and individuals in those districts, grants have been made.

A gentleman has rendered an account of the distribution of a grant during a voyage along the shores of Norway, in the last summer. Intending to visit such places in the ensuing summer as he was not able to reach before, and which extend along the coast for 500 or 600 miles, he has been furnished with 1000 Danish Testaments.

Sweden.-Five hundred Testaments have been cheerfully accepted; and it has been determined to print in this country an edition of the Swedish New-Testament, consisting of 5000 copies. The printing of the whole Bible, in the same language, is under consideration.

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