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away. ‹ There is a balm in Gilead, there is a great Physician there.' His ministrations can throw light over the darkest hour. The riches of his grace can pour the oil and wine of heavenly joy into the deepest wound which earthly trouble can inflict; bind up the broken heart; and enable the resigned and lowly Christian to go on his way rejoicing toward that heavenly country, where alone it can be safe to be without sorrow.' Buddicom, Vol. i. pp. 297-300.
The typical and practical application of Old-Testament histories and emblems, undertaken in such a spirit, we should justly expect would lead to little that is objectionable,and much that is profitable, in the general result. And perhaps to have noticed and pursued the nicer shades of type, analogy, comparison, or simple illustration, to one or other of which the Old-Testament histories may be reduced, was a nicety beyond the necessities of Mr. Buddicom's popular plan. Accordingly we find him most powerful and effective in treating those plain, broad, avowed scriptural types, on the nature of which there can be no question; such as, the Passover, the Manna, the Tabernacle, the Jubilee, and the Brazen Serpent. From the Jubilee, in the second volume, we extract the following spirited portion.
"It was not enough, that the year and day of the great jubilee should come round in silence; lest some dispirited child of Abraham, wearied and worn down with servitude, should allow it to pass by him in listlessness, or doubt, or despair. How then was it proclaimed? Thou shalt call the trumpet of the jubilee to sound in the tenth day of the seventh month; in the day of the atonement shall ye make the trumpet sound throughout all your land.' In like manner is the Gospel merey proclaimed, and the tidings of salvation spread abroad by the voice of its preachers, and after the command of its Almighty Author: Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature.' The trumpet on this glad occasion gave forth a peculiar note throughout the tents and tribes of Israel; whence, probably, the festival had its name. And does the Gospel utter an uncertain sound? Do its glad tidings of great joy resemble any other which have been proclaimed in the history of man? May the message of the Saviour's love-the wonders of his life the overpowering mystery of his death-and all the astonishing circum
stances of his mediatorial work, from the
"The Jewish trumpet sounded through
"Imagine the delight with which the debtor, the bondman, the poor outcast from the lot of his fathers, would listen to the trumpet peal on this day of liberty and restoration! What then, should be the joy, what the delight, what the overflowing rapture, with which you should hear the offers of the Gospel made, with this individual application, Men and brethren, unto each of you is the word of this salvation sent!' Would the slave, fainting be
neath his burden, would the poor destitute spendthrift, on whom poverty and want had come, like an armed man, have slumbered in his chains, unawakened, and minterested by the loud call of the trumpet on this eventful day? And shall they, whom sin and satan have enslaved shall they, to whom the remembrance of their sins should be grievous, and the burden intolerable, remain heedless of the invitation, heedless of their own woeful state, heedless of the Father's grace, the Son's cross, the Spirit's loud and powerful call? The day of jubilee will soon be past, and the offers of mercy will then cease for ever. Behold, now is the accepted time; behold, now is the day of salvation." The proclamation of liberty is made, and the call is gone forth; "Return ye every man to his own inheritance, as a son through the spirit of adoption, and every man to his own family, as a member of the household above.' 6 To-day then, while it is called to-day, harden not your hearts." The Gospel sounds loudly, to solicit your regard. We must lift our voices like a trumpet, and make the most unreserved proclamation of the day of mercy. that ye receive not the grace of God in
"Now is the jubilee of Divine compassion: ere long another trumpet will peal its awful summons through the world, and sound forth the jubilee of eternal judgment. The dead will then be released from the bondage of the grave. And what will then be their glorious lot who shall have been made free from sin, and partakers of a spiritual adoption into the family above; and who shall come from the east, and from the west, and from the north, and from the south, and shall sit down in the kingdom of God? They will join the heavenly jubilee, celebrated by thousands of thousands, and ten thousand times ten thousand of angels, and of the spirits of just men made perfect, who have loved the Lord in this world, and maintained his cause, and proclaimed his glory, evermore praising him, and saying, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and
strength, and honour, and glory, and bless ing.' Captivitywill be no more; sorrow will be unknown; death will be slain; life and peace, joy and bliss, will be uninterrupted; the vision of God entire; the day of blessedness undimmed by a single cloud; the society of the Saviour unbroken and eternal. O, my brethren, with what grateful love should your souls respond to the proclamation of the Gospel Jubilee, with all its unspeakablymomentous consequences!"' Buddicom, vol. ii. pp. 35–39.
We deem it very questionable, whether, in any sense analogous to the above types, it is possible to consider Moses, with Mr. Buddi
com in Sermon V. vol. i., as a type of Jesus Christ. In that sermon he views the several characters of Moses, as a deliverer, a mediator, a lawgiver, a guide; and as such he regards him as a type of our great Deliverer, Mediator, Lawgiver, and Guide. Now that much of similarity existed between the two cases is perfectly clear; and the comparison is exceedingly well, and to much edification, drawn out by Mr. Buddicom. Thus far too is justified by the declaration properly quoted from Moses himself:
"The Lord said unto me, I will raise up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee; and I will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I command him." Buddicom, vol. i. p. 88.
But allowing this likeness, we are still inclined to view it as an historical, so to speak, or incidental, rather than an actually typical, parallelism. On the contrary, we might say that the dispensation of Moses, if a type at all, is rather a typi cal contrast to all the mercies of the Gospel. Moses, it is true, delivered the Israelites out of Egypt; but it was in effect to perish, and himself along with them, in the wilderness. Moses was a mediator between God and man; but of so terrible an aspect, that his countenance dazzled the Israelites, and they trembled at his appearance at the foot of Mount Sinai. Moses delivered a law, but it was a law received from Mount Sinai, proclaiming death without life, and terrors without hope. "The law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ." Moses, in fine, was a guide; but whither? Not to Canaan, but in strange circuits, and mysterious retrogressions through the wilderness; till the whole congregation led out from Egypt,except Caleb and Joshua, had come to the end which the severities of the law*, acting on their rebel
• Mr. Buddicom, however, we shall see
hereafter, treats these severities a little too severely, in seriously likening them to the taskmasters of Egypt, requiring bricks without straw.
lious spirit, had prepared for them. "Unto whom I sware in my wrath, they shall not enter into my rest." Then, and not till then, came the true typical deliverer and guide: the mysterious" Jesus," or "Joshua," who gave them rest, the rest which was itself but typical, yet a type in its fullest sense, of the "rest which yet remaineth to the people of God." In the mean time, Moses had been "faithful in all his house as a servant," and "for a testimony;" but Christ came afterwards "as a Son over his own house." Moses ministered, it is true, not only the law of condemnation, but the types of redemption. He announced the sacrifices of atonement, and erected the altars of incense. He nominated his brother Aaron to the typical office of the priesthood, who became, for the time then present, the figurative mediator between the dead and the living, to stay the plague. He, finally, gave place in fulness of time to the typical Joshua, the real and effective deliverer, and guide to Canaan; and looking at Joshua, in something of the same spirit as John the Baptist afterwards, we may imagine, looked on Jesus himself, we may also suppose him using language typically similar: "he must increase, but I must decrease." "I am not the deliverer, but I am sent before him." In short, it appears to us, that much of the character both of Moses and the Prophets was revived in the character of John the Baptistrevived, so as to act like the forerunner, the schoolmaster, to bring us unto Christ. And though in the character of John the Baptist, many incidental analogies might be traced to the character of Jesus; such as, the preaching of repentance, the office of baptising, declaring the remission of sins, and the enunciation of a pure and heartsearching code of morals; yet we should say, in all these several departments he was rather the messenger, to go before the face of the Lord to prepare his way, than
CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 304.
either type or counterpart of the Saviour himself. Mr. Buddicom wisely drops the type in toto, when treating of the death of Moses, vol. ii. Sermon XIII.; a very unsatisfactory conclusion to his life, if considered as a type, but most beautiful and instructive as the death of an eminent patriarch and servant of God, employed in a high and holy office, now resigning his office and breath at once to the common curse, and to the peculiar sentence under which he laboured.
There are many characters, and many incidents in the course of the Patriarchial and Exodial history, respecting which it may be difficult to ascertain whether they are types or not of future and spiritual things. Mr. Buddicom very properly makes such a distinction, in his opening remarks on the cities of refuge, Sermon XII. vol. ii. After describing the ancient sanctuary or asylum, he proceeds,
"These cities, however, had a reference more remote and spiritual, than any institution merely political. They are not, indeed, decidedly quoted by prophets under the old economy, with minute and positive appropriation to Him who should appear in the fulness of time, as the sinner's only hope of mercy. Nor does either the Saviour himself, or the apostles of his Gospel, pointedly, and by name, apply them to the great mystery of exclusive salvation, by the death of Christ. Yet, they are so plainly alluded to by the mind of the Holy Ghost, both in the Old and New Testament, that we are not permitted to doubt the typical character of their appointment. Turn ye to the strong hold, ye prisoners of hope,' saith the Voice of Mercy, by the inspiration of Zechariah; alluding no doubt to the protection which the manslayer would obtain if he gained the city of refuge. St. Paul describes the strong consolation of 'fleeing for refuge to ing for refuge to the hope set before us,' associated with the gracious appointment in a passage which universal consent has of the cities of refuge. With such a guide as that great Apostle, we may safely include both views of the subject." Buddicom, vol. ii. pp. 249, 250.
With this license he proceeds in his best manner :
"If the antitype excel the type-if the inward spiritual grace surpass the outward visible sign-if the substance be more worthy than the shadow, however
bright its hues, graceful its form, or imposing its magnificence, then the rich mercies of salvation, through the mediation of Jesus Christ, prefigured by these appointed cities, demand our most attentive regard. The Gospel redemption is admirably adapted to promote and secure our safety, as transgressors, whom the pursuit of vengeance closely tracks, and whom the hand of justice is uplifted to destroy.
"Did the ancient city rear its towers of safety on high, to attract the regard of those who sought its true defence? Raise your eyes, and survey the deliverance effected for you, on the mount of crucifixion. See Jesus Christ lifted up on the cross, as an ensign to the people,—as a standard of safety,—as an impregnable munition of rocks, to the penitent and fear-stricken offender. Direct your view higher still, even to the seat of everlasting dominion in heaven. Is not Jesus Christ 'exalted at the right hand of his Father, to be a Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance and remission of sins? The word is not distant. The word is nigh unto all, even the word of eternal salvation, soliciting the guilty to speed their way, and standing, like a city upon a hill, to guide their footsteps rightly in that The Lord is nigh unto all them that call upon him, to all them that call faithfully. Eternal life is freely set before you; and he who sees it not, must either close his eyes in wilful darkness, or be so bent and bowed down among the low pursuits, and poor sensualities of this life, that he cannot elevate his gaze, either to the cross or to the throne; either to Jesus Christ upon Calvary, or in heaven, as the guide of his endangered soul, into the way of pardon, peace, and everlasting bliss.
"Was the road broad, plain, straight, and smooth, so that nothing, except his own breathless haste, might impede the flying man-slayer? And doth face answer to face in a glass with more minuteness, than the highway of salvation, through the crucified Son of God, resembles the smooth, plain, and spacious path to the city of refuge? The wayfaring men, though fools, shall not err therein. Even such a way, did the evangelical prophet proclaim, as he pointed to the salvation of Christ, through the dim vista of coming ages. Prepare ye the way of the Lord; make straight in the desert a highway for our God. Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low; and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough places plain; and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed.' Survey the path that leads you to the Redeemer. Except your own sins, your worldliness, thoughtlessness, self-righteousness, or security, what other hindrance lies before you? Is not that road to salvation, which God the Father hath provided, in the merits and sacrifice of his
beloved Son, so vast, so spacious, so comprehensive, that all the tribes, and kindreds, and tongues, and languages, of mankind have room to press forward along it? The way of Christian holiness and duty, indeed, is strait and narrow, but the sinner's way to Christ is broad as his soul can wish. Is there any stumblingstone, and rock of offence, to be found, except those which an evil heart of unbelief casts down, for its own fall and destruction? Behold the thousands of your fellow-sinners, convinced of their danger, and hastening to the Lord Jesus Christ, as the city of their sure and eternal refuge. Have they occupied the highway to your exclusion? They have not. Yet there is room-room enough for you. Enter upon the road; traverse it in earnestness, simplicity, and fervour, looking to Jesus, as to the tower and strong hold of your salvation. Be assured, that unchangeable mercy and truth, infinite and eternal compassion formed it; and that, like the illimitable love which fills the heart of your Saviour, it can readily receive all who come to God through him." Buddicom, vol. ii. pp. 253 -256.
It would be impossible to resist such sentiments, and many more of a like kind so naturally suggested by the cities of refuge, had we even no direct scriptural warrant whatever for the association.
Such is clearly and confessedly the case, with some of the topics figuratively handled both by Mr. Buddicom and Mr. Close. We shall instance in one more espe cially from each writer; that of the capture of Jericho, from Mr. Buddicom; and that of the character of Joseph, from Mr. Close. And we select these, because amongst others they have been strongly insisted on by the eminent Jones of Nayland, in his sermons and lectures on the figurative language of Scripture, as cases that bear the clearest stamp and impress of a sublime, spiritual meaning; and are by him carried to a much greater extent of interpretation than by either of the present writers. Mr. Buddicom has confined himself to noticing the apparent inefficiency of the means used against Jericho, and yet their complete success under the power of God; as illustrative of the apparent weakness of the cross of Christ, which is nevertheless the
power of God unto salvation. Mr. Close similarly, in detailing the remarkable circumstances in providence, and in character, attached to the history of Joseph, confines himself to the single circumstance of his weeping over his brethren, as "illustrative," Sermon XXVII., and as "typical," Sermon XXIX., of the compassionate reception given by Christ to the erring and trembling penitent at his feet. We give the former passage as a specimen of Mr. Close's plain and for cible style.
"This story might afford us a beautiful illustration of Christ's dealings with his erring and sinful servants. Like Joseph, the Saviour is described as weeping over the impenitent and unbelieving. Thus he wept over the devoted city of Jerusalem: thus he groaned in spirit when he witnessed the hardness of men's hearts.
And though he chastens his people for their sins, yet he puts their tears into his bottle, and registers their sighs in his book. He does not willingly afflict and grieve the children of men; but as Joseph turned aside to weep, even while he spake roughly to his brethren, so in all their afflictions Christ is afflicted, and while he lays upon them providential or spiritual Scourges to guide back their erring steps to his ways, to humble them, and make them watchful, and of a tender conscience, he, at the same time, considers their infirmities, and remembers that they are dust. And when he has led them through a course of affliction and trial, when he has brought their sins vividly to their recollection, and made them go softly,' and walk in tears, saying within themselves, We are verily guilty' before thee; God hath found out our iniquity,' and when perhaps they are in the last extremity of self-condemnation and despair -when mercy has been so long withheld, that they begin to doubt its final extension to them, then he graciously reveals himself to their souls, he makes known his love, and pity, and compassion to them, and as they stand trembling at his bar, the voice of mercy reaches their ear; and in the person of their justly incensed Judge, they recognize a bleeding, martyred Saviour, smitten for them, though they had sold him for their lusts and pleasures-a captive, a servant of all, afflicted, tormented, for them, for their sins, and for their salvation, but now exalted, not as a fearful judge, but as one gracious and mighty to save,' ready to forgive, and able to deliver. Such is Jesus to wandering sinners, and thus pi. tifully he deals with them." Close, pp. 419, 420.
But the curious reader will find a very different tone of interpretation used by the worthy Jones on both these subjects. On the taking of Jericho, in his "figurative Language of Scripture," Mr. Jones regards the circumstance as illustrating "the establishment of Christianity among the Gentiles." The "voice of the Gospel" was typified by the otherwise unmeaning sound of the rams' horns; and the "fishermen" uttering the former by the priests blowing the latter. And in his sermon on the same subject, he assures us that the Apostle speaks of the future judgment of the world in such terms as certainly allude to this history of Jericho. "The Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God." "Observe here," he continues, "it shall be the Lord himself, not Jesus the servant of Moses, but Jesus the Son God; the true Captain of our salvation, and as the people shouted when Jericho fell, so shall there be a great shout of the host from heaven when this world shall fall." The original application returns in the course of the sermon: "The Gospel is such another weapon as the rams' horns : it is sounded by priests, and with the same effect, &c.*"
In the allegory of Joseph, as explained by this same author in his first lecture on the figurative Language of Scripture, it must suffice to state generally, that we find the assertion of superiority over his brethren by Joseph, compared with similar claims on the part of our
The concluding part of this sermon of Jones's, we must in justice add, in application to Rahab, is as sound and edifying a discourse on the free justification of the sinner through faith in the Saviour, as any we ever met with. Nor, though somewhat inconsistent, and wholly arbitrary in its typical expositions, is this sermon at all to match in its imaginative efforts with the following on the good Samaritan, where the whole parable to its minutest ramification, is allegorised into the most accurate delineation of the fall of man and redemption by Christ.