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head and right hand to be cut off, and exposed to public view on a pole.
"Hendrik, slave of P. S. Tesselaar, on a charge of grossly ill-treating his wife, in consequence of which she was delivered of a dead child: condemned to be exposed to public view, with a rope round his neck, under the gallows; then scourged and branded; and afterwards to labour in irons without wages, on the public works at Robben Island for life.
"Jasmyn, slave of Dirk Clocté, on a charge of preferring a false complaint against the Landdrost of Stellenbosch, to his Majesty's Fiscal, condemned to be severely flogged.
"Asia, slave of Isaac Coetzee, for having brought forward a false charge against his mistress, for ill-treatment of the female slave Diana, which was alleged to be the cause of her death: condemned to be severely flogged.
Saptoe (a convict slave), on a charge of secretly entering a house, with the presumed intention of stealing: prisoner condemned to be flogged, branded, and confined to labour ten years in irons.
"Slaves v. Masters.
"Johannes J.Synders, for the cruel treatment of a slave, who was said to have died in consequence: condemned to six months' imprisonment.
"C. Jansen, European servant of J. R. Louw, on a charge of ill-treatment preferred against him by Diedrik and Joseph, slaves of said Louw: condemned in a penalty of fifty rixdollars (31. 15s.) on behalf of the poor's box at the Paarl.
"C. A. Marais, on a charge of ill-treatment, preferred against him by his female slave Kaatje: defendant sentenced in a penalty of twenty-five rixdollars, and severely reprimanded.
"A. P. Zeeman and his wife, on a charge of serious ill-treatment, preferred against them by their female slave Theresa: by sentence said slave to be judicially sold, and never to come again into possession of
defendants or their relatives.
"O.C. Mostert, for cruel treatment of a female slave, in consequence of which
she died: condemned to be banished from this colonyand its dependencies for twentyfive years.
"P. J. de Villiers, on a charge of illtreatment of his slave April: condemned to a confinement of three months in the
prison of Stellenbosch. Which sentence, however, his Excellency the Governor commuted to a pecuniary fine.
"P. S. Bosman, on a charge of ill-treatment preferred against him by his slave July. The complaint having been proved groundless, the plaintiff condemned to be flogged [This case exhibits the most usual result of complaints by slaves against their masters.]
"D. Malang, on a charge of excessive ill-treatment of one of his slaves, of which
his death was the consequence. Defendant acquitted of said charge, and the plaintiff, Adam, condemned to be flogged.
"Johannes Tobias Laubscher, on a charge of ill-treatment preferred against him by his slaves Stephen, Marthinus, and Solon: the first and second plaintiffs sentenced to receive each thirty lashes, and the confinement suffered by the third deemed an adequate punishment. The defendant was also sentenced, for reasons moving the Court, in a penalty of thirty rixdollars. (1/. 10s.)"
"Such are a few-a very few specimens of the outrages continually recurring on the part either of the oppressor or the oppressed, in a country where slavery is said to assume its mildest aspect. Yet, wretched as is this state of reciprocal enmity and suspicion, still more deplorable, if possible, is the dreadfully demoralizing influence of slavery upon the young, alike of the free and the enthralled population. Marriage and baptism, systematically discouraged by the masters in general, are rare among the slaves. Promiscuous intercourse is common. Illicit connexions with the White men are encouraged among the young female slaves-frequently even prescribed by their Christian' owners. In Cape Town it is notorious as noon-day, that the rearing and educating of handsome female slaves, as objects of licentious traffic with the European, and especially with the rich Indian, residents, is extensively practised among slaveholders. If such transactions are now managed with some greater regard to outward decorum than formerly, they are not on that account the less frequent; and I feel no hesitation in asserting, in the face of the authoritative dicta of the 'Quarterly Review,' that the practice of this disgraceful traffic is still common in the colony.
"While the female slaves are thus bred up to prostitution, the reaction of their depravity upon the morals of the White population is equally obvious and frightful. Brought up from infancy in collision with a brutalized race of beings, from whom all enjoyments but those
of the senses are debarred, what can the youth of either sex learn earliest but the knowledge of evil-the lan guage and the lessons of licentiousness? Who that has resided at the Cape can be ignorant of the general and premature profligacy of manners among the young men? Who, in deed, but must be sensible that the
ruling classes in every slave colony, are (and must necessarily be) depraved to an appalling extent by the early and uncontrolled indulgence of almost all the worst pro-. pensities of our nature? - by sensuality, unfeeling selfishness, arrogauce, rage, revenge!"
REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
The Book of Genesis considered and illustrated, in a Series of Historical Discourses preached in Trinity Church, Cheltenham. By the Rev. FRANCIS CLOSE, A.M. &c. 1 vol. 8vo. 12s. London. 1826. The Christian Exodus; or the Deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt practically considered, in a Series of Discourses. By the Rev. R. P. BUDDICOM, M.A., F.A.S., Minister of St. George's, Liverpool. 2 vols. 8vo. 1 1s. London. 1826.
We can have no better evidence of the growing attention of the age to the study of the Holy Scriptures, than the appearance of volumes like the present. Scripture is here viewed in its larger masses, and more general bearings. The Old Testament is brought forward in its legitimate force, as a book of religious instruction, and as immediately connected with the New Testament. The whole mass of truth is investigated from appropriate illustrations and analogies; and the preacher is bound down to the happy necessity of instructing his audience by comparing spiritual things with spiritual. A great variety of subjects is, or may be, by this plan, brought to notice, which would otherwise have lain in comparative obscurity: and the exhaustless fulness of Scriptural doctrine and Scriptural morality, both by precept and example, becomes more prominent and more
The difficulties of
This method of presenting to us Scripture in large unbroken masses, has undergone various modifications from the Hora Homileticæ of Chrysostom, to the Hora Homileticæ of Mr. Simeon. The direct expository form, with a brief practical address at the end, did but slightly deviate from the form of a running comment. Such was the plan of the great Constantinopolitan, Chrysostom himself; whose ethics have the peculiar property of being generally as wide as possible from the original matter, or text, of his homily. Of this plan, a fair modern specimen occurs in Adam's truly pious Lectures on St. Matthew. Of the more direct expository discourse we find an admirable specimen in the Lectures on the same Gospel by Bishop Porteus. We might mention various
other works of the same class, of later date; such, for example, as Mr. Gisborne's discourses on the Colossians: these approximate to the ancient Tractates of Austin on St. John, or his Enarrationes on the Psalms; while Calvin, whose Commentary on the Scriptures is his best work, has deviated into the same style, in his Conciones on the First Book of Samuel, and the Book of Job*. These purport to have been taken down from his lips in the pulpit. Such works as Owen on the Hebrews, and Leighton on St. Peter, hold a middle rank in this style of composition: whilst, in coming down to Mr. Simeon's Hora Homileticæ,we return to the genuine plan of sermon-writing, though in the skeleton form, to which it has been his practice to reduce his truly scriptural matter. In the actual and expanded form of sermons, we must expect a more detached execution of this consecutive plan. And whilst we are thankful for this beginning of the sacred volume, by Mr. Close on Genesis, and Mr. Buddicom on the remaining Books of Moses, and as far as Joshua; we must still acknowledge many an omission, even within their narrower limits; and many a brake unbeaten on the ground they have respectively assumed. Such is the exuberance of the sacred record, that however narrow the limits we assign to ourselves, to select judiciously, rather than wholly to exhaust the topics
Very appropriate to the privileges of the present times are the remarks on those of the Reformation, by Beza, the learned prefacer to the above Conciones on Job: "Vere ingens et insigne est illud Opt. Max. Dei beneficium, quo nostris istis temporibus ecclesiam affecit: tot excitatis, una cum linguarum, etiam peregrinarum, et bonarum artium cognitione, sacrarum literarum doctissimis interpretibus: in quibus, non judicii acumen, non docendi methodus, non diligentia in sacris voluminibus, modo perpetuis commentariis, modo brevioribus scholiis, modo paraphrasibus, modo habitis ad populum concionibus, perspicue, erudite, sanctè, explicandis desideratur."-Beza Lectori ad Caly. Conc. in
embraced in them, must be our hope. and it is to this selection, as made by our present authors, that we shall now turn our attention.
We should say further, however, in touching their necessary deficiencies in selection, that one deficiency we think needs not have existed in their respectiveworks; namely, a want of continuity and connexion in arrangement. It would have added a considerable spirit and reality to their various portraitures, could they have been seen more in a family or historical piece, and had there been, as there might have been, a notice of the succession and the mutual bearings of one subject upon another. In this respect Mr. Close has not done himself justice in his table of contents. For perhaps, as far as his long strides across the whole Book of Genesis, which he perambulates in twenty-nine sermons, would admit, he has observed this continuity; at least he has given us a very agreeable idea of consecutiveness in his different details. This, however, no one would reasonably guess from the table of contents, which we shall proceed to lay before our readers.
Importance of the Old Testament Creation-The Fall of Man-The Promise of a Saviour-Cain and Abel-Enoch The Deluge-God's Covenant with Noah-On the Sins of Believers-The Confusion of Tongues-The Calling of Abram-Lot-Melchisedec-The Faith of cession-The Destruction of Sodom Abram-Hagar-Family Religion-InterAbraham offering Isaac-The Marriage
of Isaac-Esau's Profaneness-Jacob's Vision-The blessed Influence of the Righteous-Prayer-Excessive SorrowGodliness profitable for all Things-The certain Exposure of Sin-The Shortness of Life-The Compassion of Christ." Close, pp. xi-xx.
It would be a true enigma to any Edipus, to discover, for example, the appropriateness of the last sermon, on "the Compassion of Christ," to a closing discourse on the Book of Genesis; whereas all might have been made perfectly clear, if the title had run thus, "the Conduct of Joseph to his Brethern illustrative of the Compassion of Christ." The
shorter and the truer title might have been "the Compassion of Joseph." Mr. Buddicom has not attempted any thing like a consecutive series, otherwise than as pursuing the order of the several chapters which furnish his subjects, in the last four Books of Moses, and the Book of Joshua. He assures us that he had not seen Seaton's Church in the Wilderness and Church in Canaan, before he began, We wish he had; for his Discourses would have gained in interest, if he had exhibited something like a geographical delineation of the journeying of Israel from one encampment to another; and had marked the several events of each to which he refers, as the parts of one whole, the parts of a whole to which the history of the world affords no parallel. That an individual like Moses, "who could not speak, for he was a child," should nevertheless have succeeded in leading an immense host, an entire nation, out of one country, and in its course towards another; detaining them by Divine command forty years within the narrow limits of an uninhabited desert, till the first generation had actually passed away, and, with two exceptions, their children alone could enter the promised land; was one continued miracle, a miracle, indeed, only to have been effected then, or to be credited now, by the means and on the authority of those other signs, marvels, and significant traditions with which it was accompanied.
In a word, as Mr. Close had to detail the genealogies and the history of a family, so Mr. Buddicom had to detail the events and progress of a journey, or, as we may say, a divinely appointed Anabasis. And to pursue the obvious allusion to an ancient author which the last word suggests to us, we should say, that Mr. Close's series might have been made more classically as well as theologically interesting, by study ing the unities of Xenophon, in the famous delineation of his hero, Cyrus the elder; as Mr. Buddicom
might have profitably employed his known erudition in modelling after that historian's celebrated Expedi tion of the Ten Thousand, under Cyrus the Younger. The erudite and elegant Calvin, whose work on the First Book of Samuel nearly forms a sequel to Mr. Buddicom, has not omitted this advantage of historical arrangement.
As we have given the table of contents in Mr. Close's volume, we shall proceed to do the same for Mr. Buddicom's two volumes; in which we think our readers will observe a similar derangement to that which we have before noticed in Mr. Close.
"The History of Israel between Egypt and Canaan, typical of the Christian Lifeapplied to the Spiritual Bondage of Men The Captivity of the Israelites in Egypt in Nature and Sin-The Mercy of God towards the Israelites when they cried to Him for deliverance-The Miracle of the considered-The Typical Character of Burning Bush, typically and practically Moses considered, as the Deliverer, Mediator, Lawgiver, and Guide of Israel The Opposition of Pharaoh to the Liberation of Israel; and the Manner in which it was eventually overruled-The World and Satan opposed to the Christian's Spiritual Progress-Discouragements in Promises of God-The Case of Pharaoh Religion productive of Unbelief in the
considered-The Passover instituted. The Character and Conduct of the mixed Multitude that left Egypt with the Chil dren of Israel-The Tender Consideration manifested by God towards the Israelites -The Pillar of the Cloud and of Fire-The Deliverance of the Israelites, and the Destruction struction of the Egyptians, at the Red Sea
The Waters of Marah-The Fall of Manna typically and practically considered-The Rock in Horeb smitten by the Rod of Mosest-The Battle between Israel and Amalek-The Law delivered from Mount Sinai-The Israelites commanded to build the Tabernacle—The Idolatrous
• This, we presume, should rather have been" The Opposition of Pharaoh, illustra4 tive of the Opposition by the World and Satan," &c.
practically considered," the rock being as Why not here also "typically and much so as the manna? In truth, the above words need not to have been ever inserted by Mr. Buddicom, as his plan preaccordingly it will be observed they do not supposed that mode of treatment: and occur in the second volume at all.
Worship of the Golden Calf-The Veil of Moses." Buddicom, vol. i. pp. xixix. "The Sin and Punishment of Nadab and Abihu-The Character of the Jubilee, and the Mode of its. Proclamation-The Invitation given by Moses to Hobab-The Supply of Quails, attended with the Wrath of God against the Discontent of IsraelThe Report of the Spies, after their Return from searching out the Land of PromiseThe Sabbath-breaker stoned-The Guilt and Punishment of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram-Punishment denounced against Moses and Aaron-The Brazen SerpentConsiderations on the Character of Balaam-The Reproof of Moses to the Tribes of Gad and Reuben-Considerations on the Cities of Refuge-The Death of Moses-The Passage of Jordan-Jericho taken-The Sin and Punishment of Achan The Stratagem aud Success of the Gibeonites The Victory obtained by Joshua over the confederated Kings of Canaan-The Promised Land divided by Lot among the Israelites-Joshua's Remonstrance with the Israelites upon their Want of Exertion, to finish the War, and to take Possession of the Promised Land Joshua's Dying Testimony to the Fidelity of God in the accomplishment of his Promises." Buddicom, vol. ii. pp. v-xii.
Mr. Buddicom's undertaking, as being the largest and most critical, will demand our largest measure of notice in detail. He has entered on the arduous field of scriptural, and Old-Testament types. With what judgment,however, and caution he has entered, will appear from the following extract from Sermon XV. on the Waters of Marah, to which we may also direct our readers as a fair specimen of the affecting, impressive, serious, and experimental tones of which Mr. Buddicom shews himself in these volumes a not incompetent master.
"Moses cried unto the Lord, and the Lord shewed him a tree, which when he had cast into the waters the waters were made sweet.' Some commentators have considered the tree as typical of the Saviour's cross, whereby the world is crucified to the believer, and the believer to the world; and by which every affliction is over-ruled for his sanctification, hope, peace, and joy. I can see no ground for such a reference; and am unwilling in these discourses to adopt any spiritual application beyond that which the Holy Ghost has made by express allusion, or manifest deduction. One inference is undeniable, an inference on which a suffer
ing, tried, tempted Christian, whose heart sinks within him, and whose spirit faileth for waiting so long upon his God, may rest with delighted confidence. The unfailing compassion of that God who is able to supply all our need according to his riches in glory by Christ Jesus,' will provide a full and sure consolation and deliverance to his people in the hour of their affliction, and in answer to their prayers. That relief and redemption will also be afforded in a manner unequivocally exhibiting the riches of his power, and the unfathomable resources of his wisdom. There was no virtue inherent in the tree to sweeten waters which might suffice to supply the thirsting multitudes of Israel, their wives, their children, and their cattle. The salt cast by the prophet into the spring of Jericho which healed its noxious waters, and bade them fertilize the land around, was in its own nature unequal to the wondrous transformation. The meal which the same man of God bade the sons of the prophets cast into the pot, and which instantaneously corrected the poisonous qualities, of the gourds of the wild vine, was incapable, by its own agency, of producing a change so effectual, and so instantaneous. Whence then did they derive their efficacy? From the secret but sure operation of God's almighty power-from the fullness of his blessing upon means which he had revealed and commanded to be emplo ployed. If then, consolation and joy succeeding to affliction should fill the spirit of a Christian, and rise above his trouble, as the restored sun above the waters of the deluged world, let him remember that he owes the mercy, not to any inherent efficacy in earthly sources of comfort, but simply to an exertion of power and tenderness on the part of God, which the means are only channels to convey. The tree may be near our hands, but God must point it out to our notice: and when we cast it into the bitter and troubled waters
of our affliction, his almighty sufficiency, The peace of God shed abroad in the soul must gift it with the power of healing. of a Christian, keeping his mind through Christ Jesus,-the blessed assurance conveyed through the gracious ministrations and influences of the Spirit, that all things work together for good to them that love God,-the influences of the Comforter, sent by the Father, in the name of his crucified and risen Son, form the real virtue of the tree which the Christian casts into the waters of bitterness, whatever be the external character and form of his consolations. And as the Most High honoured Moses by shewing him the tree, and employing his ministration to heal the waters, so does the Father of mercies use the agency of his Son to sanctify all the sources of happiness to a holy mourner. He thus pours within such a wounded spirit the unfailing tide of that peace, which the world can neither give nor take