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grain, 88,259,596 roubles; hemp, 3,571,768 poods; flax, 2,234,203 do; tallow, 3,994,296 do; iron, 1,073,908 do; leather, 8,715,882 roubles. The principal imports were raw cotton and twist, 800,649 poods; raw sugar, 1,594,207 poods; dye stuffs, 20,947,380 roubles; wine, 20,288,829 do; silk, cotton, linen and woollen stuffs, 88,708,377 do. The excess of exports over imports, has enhanced the value of roubles banco, compared with silver.

KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA.

The late King Frederic William III., died on the 7th of June, 1840, and was succeeded by his son Frederic William IV., who was born Aug. 3, 1770. The present King was married, Nov. 29, 1823, to

Elizabeth Louisa, daughter of Maximilian Joseph, late king of Bavaria, who was born Nov. 13, 1801. They have no children. The brothers and sisters of the King are

1. Prince Frederic William Louis, Prince of Prussia, and Lieut. General, and Commandant of the corps of Guards, born March 22, 1797. He was married June 11, 1829, to Maria Louisa Augusta Catherine, daughter of the Grand Duke Charles Frederic of Saxe Weimar, who was born Sept. 30, 1811. Their children are: 1, Frederic William Nicolas Charles, born Oct. 18, 1831, and 2, Louisa Maria Elizabeth, born Dec. 3, 1838.

2. The Empress of Russia.

3. Prince Frederic Charles Alexander, born June 29, 1901, Lieut. Gen. Commandant of the 4th Corps d' Armée. He was married May 26, 1827, to Maria Louisa Alexandrina, daughter of the Grand Duke Charles Frederic of Saxe Weimar, who was born Feb. 3, 1808. Their childrenare: Frederic Charles Nicolas, born March 20, 1828; 2, Maria Louisa Anne, born March 1, 1829, and 3, Maria Anne Frederica, born May 17, 1836.

4. The Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg Schwerin.

5. Louisa Augusta Wilhelmine Amelia, wife of Prince Frederic of the Netherlands, brother of the King, was born Feb. 1, 1808.

6. Prince Frederic Henry Albert, Maj. Gen., and Commander of the 2d Brigade of Cavalry of the Guards, born Oct. 4, 1809, and married Sept. 14, 1830, to Wilhelmine Frederica Louisa Charlotte Marianne, sister of the King of the Netherlands, who was born May 9, 1810. Their children are 1, Frederica Louisa Wilhelmina Marianne Charlotte, born June 21, 1831, 2, Frederic William Nicholas Albert, born May 8, 1837, and 3, a princess, Aug. 27, 1840, at Camenz, in Silesia.

There are living, two uncles of the present King, Prince Frederic Henry Charles, General of Infantry, born Dec. 30, 1781, and Frederic William Charles, General of Cavalry, born July 3, 1783; an aunt, the Electress of Hesse Cassel; and a large number of cousins; also the second wife of the late king, by a morganatic marriage, Augusta, Princess of Liegnitz, daughter of Count Ferdinand of Harrach, born Aug. 30, 1800, and married Nov. 9, 1824.

The Superior Authorities of the Government consist 1st of the Council of State. This council consists of a great number of members, embracing the chief officers of the State, the princes of the

Royal family, who have reached the 18th year of their age-the Ministers of State and of the Departments-the Commandant General of the Provinces-the Presidents in chief of the Provinces when summoned and many other members specially appointed. The President of the Council of State is Baron Muffling, General of Infantry, and Governor of Berlin. The other principal councils and classes of public officers are

2. The Ministry of State, composed of the Prince of Prussia, and the Ministers of State specially named, with the President of the Council of State.

3. THE MINISTERS OF DEPARTMENTS, viz. 1, of Worship, Public Instruction, and Medical Affairs, de Ladenberg; 2, Minister of the House of the King, 1st dep. Chief, Prince de Sayn Wittgenstein, Minister of State and Grand Chamberlain; Director, de Tschoppe. 2d dep. Adm. of Domains and Forests, Chief, de Ladenberg, Director, Thoma. 3, Bureau of the Keeping of the Books, and Administration of the Treasury, Chief, Count Lottum, and Count Alvensleben. 4, Ministry of Justice, de Kamptz, and Muhler, and in the Provinces of the Rhine, Ruppenthal. 5, Ministry of the Interior and of the Police, Chief, de Rochow; Director, de Meding. 6, Ministry of the Finances, Chief, Count d'Alvensleben; Directors, Kuhlmeyer and Beuth. 7, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Chief, Baron de Werther; Director, Eichhorn. 8, Ministry of War, Chief, Gen. of Infantry, de Rauch, Minister of Stato, and of War: in the 1st dep. Major General de Reyher; 2d dep. Major General de Kosel.

4. Superior Authorities, co-ordinate with the departments of the Ministry. 1, Court of Accounts, Chief, Aschenborn. 2, Direction General of the Posts, Chief, de Nagler. Grand Master of the Posts. 3, Administration General of the Debts of the State, Chief, Rother. 4, Commission General of Orders, Lieut. Gen. de Thiele.

5. Cabinet of the King, Civil branch, Counsellor Reporter, Muller; Military branch, Couns. Rep. Maj. Gen. de Lindheim.

6. General Institutes. 1, General direction of the Society of Maritime Commerce, Chief, Minister of State, Rother. 2, General Bank at Berlin, President, de Lamprecht.

7. Central Authorities, subordinate to the Ministerial Departments. 1, General Bureau of the Censorship, subordinate to the Ministers of Foreign Affairs, of the Interior, and of Worship and Public Instruction; President, 2, Bureau of Statistics, under the Ministry of State; Director, de Hoffmann. 3, Direction of Public Buildings and Monuments; under the Minister of the Finances; Director General of Architecture, Schinkel. 4, Consultative Committee of Arts and Manufac tures, under the Minister of the Finances, Director, Beuth. 5, General Direction of the Lottery, under the Finance Minister, Chief, Paalzow. 6, Archives of the State and of the Cabinet; under the Minister of the King's House, and of Foreign Af fairs; First Archivist of State, Hoefer. 7, Committee of Commission Examiners, President, Koehler.

Besides the foregoing Departments and Officers, there are the Grand Officers of the Court, Grand Chamberlain, Grand Marshal, &c., the Presidents in Chief of the eight Provinces of the Kingdom, and the Commandants General of the Guards, stationed at Berlin, of the Provinces, and of the eight Corps d'Arme stationed in the several provinces.

are,

Among the Corps Diplomatique, the ministers of some of the principal powers from the United States, Henry Wheaton, Min. Plenipo. and Theodore S. Fay, Sec. Leg; Austria, Count Joseph de Trauttmansdorff Weinsberg, Min. Plen., Baron de Erberg, Cons. of Leg., Count Maurice Esterhazy, Sec. of Emb., and Count Giorgi, Sec. of Leg.; France, Count Charles Bresson, Peer of France, Min. Plen., de Lutteroth, and Jules Humann, Sec. of Emb.; Great Britain, Lord George Wm. Russell, Min. Plen., Sir George Bailly Hamilton, Sec. of Leg., Henry Howard, and Lord Augustus Loftus, Atts.; Russia, Baron Peter de Meyendorff, Min. Plen., de Ozeroff, and de Vegesack, Secs. of Leg.

PROVINCES.

The Kingdom of Prussia consists of a number of States, formerly under different governments, which have become by inheritance or succession constituent parts of the monarchy. A part of these States are within the limits of the old Germanic empire; in consequence of which they are subject to the obligations of the Germanic Confederacy, and Prussia is represented in the Germanic Diet, in which body she has four votes of the seventy, in full meeting; and one vote in the smaller assembly of seventeen. One large portion of the territories of the kingdom, forming the provinces of Westphalia and the Rhine, is detached from the rest, by the intervention of the dominions of Hanover, Hesse, and Saxony. With the exception of this separation, the dominions are mostly compact and thickly peopled. The Kingdom is divided into eight grand Provinces, which, with the exception of Posen, have each a Provincial Assembly of States under special charters. These assemblies meet for the discussion of subjects of local interest, and of laws proposed to them by the King. These debates are not public. Each province has a President in Chief, appointed by the King, and a military Commandant. The following table shows the geographical extent, with the population of each of the provinces, at the end of the year 1838, together with the arrondissements into which they are subdivided.

Square Miles.

Arrondissements.

Prussia,-Koenigsburg, Gumbinnen, Dantzick and

Marienverder,

Posen,-Posen and Bromberg,

Brandenburg-Berlin, Potzdam and Frankfort,
Pomerania,-Stettin, Coeslin, and Stralsund,
Saxony,-Magdeburgh, Merseburgh and Erfurth,
Silesia,-Breslau, Oppeln and Liegnitz,
Westphalia,-Munster, Minden and Orensberg.
The Rhine, Cologne, Dusseldorf, Coblentz,
Treves, and Aix La Chapelle,

24,973
11,374

15,497

12,179

9,765

15,725

7,802

10,135

107,450

Population.

2,172,550

1,190,970

1,765,072

1,007,195

1,582,620

2,708,851

1,341,627

2,502,645

14,271,530

This enumeration gives an average population of 133 to every square mile of territory.

The population of the kingdom by an enumeration made at the end of 1837, was 14,098,125, of whom 8,604,748 were of the Reformed Church, 5,294,003 Roman Catholic, 1,300 Greek, 14,495 Menonites, and 183,579 Jews. The estimated population at the end of 1839, including 61,884 for the principality of Neuchatel in Switzerland, was 14,416,365.

The revenues of the Kingdom, according to the last triennial publication of the state of the finances, amount to 52,681,000 rix dollars, of which 44,153,000 are derived from imposts and customs; 9,847,000 from the land tax; 6,502 from a personal tax; 4,083,000 from the royal domains and forests, &c.

The expenditures, including 2,681,000 extraordinary, amounted to the same sum. The principal items of expenditure are 8,578,000 for interest of the public debt and sinking fund; 2,468,000 for pensions; 293,000 for the cabinet of the king, and bureau of Ministers; 2,817,000, for the Ministry of Worship, &c.; 23,436,000 for the Ministry of War; 2,166,000 for the Ministry of Justice; and 2,925,000 for the Ministry of Roads and Bridges.

The public debt amounted nominally, June 1, 1835, to 174,368,830 rix dollars, subject however to considerable deduction by the sinking fund. The present amount of actual debt does not exceed 130,000,000 dollars.

The army consists of 87,256 infantry, 19,960 cavalry, and 14,700 artillery, making 121,416. Besides, the landwehr of the first levy numbers 250,000 men, and of the second 180,000, making a total of 551,916 men.

THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE.

Ferdinand I. Charles Leopold Joseph Francis Marcellin, Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia, King of Lombardy and Venice, of Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia, Lodomeria and Illyria, and Archduke of Austria, was born April 19, 1793. He succeeded his father Francis I., March 2, 1835, having been crowned King of Hungary, Sept. 28, 1830. He was crowned as King of Bohemia, Sept. 7, 1836, and as King of Lombardy and Venice, Sept. 6, 1838. He was married Feb. 27, 1831, to

Maria Anne Caroline Pia, daughter of Victor Emanuel, King of Sardinia, who was born Sept. 19, 1803. They have no children.

The brothers and sisters of the Emperor are,

1. The Archduchess Maria Louisa, born Dec. 12, 1791, married April 2, 1810, to Napoleon, Emperor of the French; declared Duchess of Parma, Placentia, and Guastalla, by the treaty of Paris, May 30, 1814; became a widow, May 5, 1821.

2. The wife of Prince Leopold of the two Sicilies.

3. Archduke Francis Charles Joseph, born Dec. 7, 1802, married Nov. 4, 1824, to Princess Sophia Dorothea, daughter of the late King of Bavaria, who was born Jan. 27, 1805. Their children are 1, Archduke Francis Joseph Charles, born Aug. 18, 1830; 2, Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph, born July 6, 1832; 3, Archduke Charles Louis Joseph Maria, born July 30, 1833.

4. Archduchess Maria Anne Frances Theresa, Josepha Medarda, born June 8, 1804.

The Empress dowager, Caroline Augusta, 4th wife of the late Emperor Francis I., and daughter of the late King Maximilian Joseph of Bavaria, was born Feb. 8, 1792, was married Nov. 10, 1816, and crowned Queen of Hungary, September 25,

1825.

There are living several uncles and cousins of the present emperor, sons and grandsons of the late Emperor Leopold II., who died March 1, 1792; viz. 1, the Grand Duke Leopold II. of Tuscany, born Oct. 3, 1797, son and successor of the Grand Duke Ferdinand III., Archduke Ferdinand of Austria; 2, Archduke Charles, Field Marshal, born Sep. 5, 1771, who has four sons and two daughters; 3, Archduke Joseph, Governor and Capt. General of Hungary, born March 9, 1776, who has two sons and three daughters; 4, Archduke John, Field Marshal and Director General of Engineers and Fortifications, born Jan. 20, 1782; 5, Archduke Reinier, Viceroy of the Kingdoms of Lombardy and Venice, who has five sons and two daughters; and 6, Archduke Louis, Gen. Field Marshal, born Dec. 13, 1784.

There are also other branches of the family more remote, who are connected with some of the other reigning families of Europe.

The government of Austria in all the states of the empire is monarchical; in some of them it is in form nearly absolute; while in

ethers the power is limited by constitutions, granting to local states and assemblies important prerogatives. There is a material difference in the laws, and form of local administration in different parts of the empire. The principal functionaries, and members of the Superior Councils and Tribunals, who all hold their appointment from the Emperor are the following:

1. Ministers of State and of Conference. Prince Clement de Metternich.

Count Henry Bellegarde, Field Marshal.
Count Francis Kolowrat Liebsteinsky.
Count Michael Nadasd.

Baron Joseph Miske de Magyar Csestve Mugyar.

2. Conference of State.

Archduke Francis Charles.

Archduke Louis.

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Prince Metternich, Chancellor of the House, the Court and of State.
Minister of State and of Conference, Kolowrat Liebsteinsky.

The above are permanent members. The following take part in the labors of the Conference for the objects of their respective departments, viz.

The Ministers of State and of Conference.

Chiefs of the Sections of the Council of State.

The Counsellors of State.

The Presidents of the Supreme Courts.

9

3. Council of State for Affairs of the Interior Chiefs of Sections.

Count de Nadasd, for the Finances.

Anthony Count Cziraki, for Justice.

Field Marsh. Lieut. Adolph Baron de Prochaska, for Military Affairs.

Present Counsellors of State-Norbert de Purkhardt, Josias Aloys de Justel, John de Pilgram, Pancrace Somsich de Saard.

Director of the Cabinet; Counsellor of the Court, Paschinger.

Privy Chancelry of the House, the Court, and of State; Prince de Metternich, Chancellor of the House, of the Court, and of State, and Minister of Foreign Affairs. Counsellor actual of State, Baron d' Ottenfels Gschwind; 8 Aulic Counsellors and 5 Counsellors.

4. Superior Courts and Central Authorities.

1. Chancelry of the United Court; Superior Chancellor Count Anthony Mitrowsky; Charles Count of Inzaghy, Chancellor of the Court; Baron de Pillersdorff, Chancellor ; Vice Chancellor, John Limbeck, Baron of Lielinau, and 16 Aulic Counsellors.

2. Chancelry of the Court of Hungary; Anthony Count Mailath, Chanc.; Baron Louis de Bedekovich, Vice Ch., and 10 Aulic Counsellors.

3. Chancelry of the Court of Transylvania; Alexius Noptsa de Telso Szilvas, Chan., and 4 Aulic Counsellors.

4.

Chamber General of the Court of Finances; Baron de Eichhof, President; Count Frederic Wilczeck, 2d President, with 2 Vice Presidents and 27 Aulic Counsellors.

5. Chamber for Money and the Mines; Prince Augustus de Lobkowitz, and 5 Aulic Counsellors.

6. High Court of Justice; Louis Count Taaffe, President, 2 Vice Presidents, and 32 Aulic Counsellors.

7. President of the High Police and the Censorship; Count de Sedlnitzky, a Vice President, and 4 Aulic Counsellors.

8. Council of War; Gen. of Inf., Count de Hardegg, President. Prince Gusta

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