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six Legates, who are cardinals, one president, and fourteen prelates, who are styled delegates. Each of these is assisted by several advisers.

Lastly, the Directory gives statistics of the population from Easter 1800 to Easter 1840. We give the following extract:

Year.

Births.

Deaths.

1800

5,193

1810

5,091

1820

4,215

1830

4,690

1831

4,725

1832

5,045

1833

4,465

1834

1835

1836

1837

1838

1839

1840

4,554

5,142

4,373

4,718

4,665

4,333

4,932

8,457

3,224

4,838

4,995

5,102

4,649

3,629

3,480

3,977

3,275

3,404

12,563

3,663

4,140

INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT IN INDIA.

Living.
153,004

123,023

135,046

147,285

150,666

148,458

149,920

150,016

152,457

153,678

156,552

148,903

153,720

154,632

SOME public documents, descriptive of the works of public improvement in Bengal, have been lately published in England, which show that a great advance has been made in the course of a few years, in the perfection of the means of communication in that country. The following abstract of a part of these papers, furnished by a correspondent of the London Morning Chronicle, affords very interesting infor mation on this subject, which had not reached us from any other

source.

"The progress of internal communication in Bengal is developed at great length in a report made in the month of August last to the gov ernment authorities by the military board, which, besides containing an account of what has been done during the official year ending April, 1841, gives a general review for the past twenty years. In this review we find the Grand Turk Road from Calcutta, described as the main artery of communication throughout Bengal and Hindostan, extending to a length of 770 miles, with a general breadth of 30 feet, increased in some places to 40. It has already 1,402 bridges of various extent of opening, has cost, exclusively of convict labor, 1,228,000 rupees, and is likely to cost 10 lacs more during the three years required for its completion. The road from Poorce to Bissenpore, which connects Orissa with Bengal, and which is commonly known as the Jugurmath

road, is held to be of the next importance, and has cost about 15 lacs, or at the rate of 5,415 rupees the mile. The expense of the road from Calcutta to Kisnagur is estimated at 2,700,000 rupees, or 4,736 rupees the mile for the 70 miles. The road from Sylhet to Gowhatty, the capital of Assam, across the Cassia hills, was in active preparation, and in this line of communication the two torrents of the Bur-panee and and the Boga-panee are to be spanned with suspension-bridges. The Deccan road from Mirzapore to Jubbulpore, a distance of 239 miles, and commenced in 1824, had been completed lately; its cost in the fifteen years, exclusive of the labor of convicts, had been eight lacs of rupees. Another road, small in point of expense, but of great importance, was also in progress from the eastern frontier of Bengal, through Cachar, and across the Munipore hills to the limits of the Burmese empire. Besides these roads, which are stated to be the most prominent, a variety of district roads have added greatly to the local convenience of the people, and have proportionately occupied attention. The total outlay for all the roads to which allusion is made has been 5,734,223 rupees, and from which there is no return. A toll on a road is unknown.

The canals, which fringe the eastern part of the city of Calcutta, and connected with the Isamuttee river, are of the highest importance to the welfare of the city, as the produce of all the eastern districts is thus brought to it with little or no risk. These have cost in the whole about 16 1-2 lacs of rupees, which now includes the erection of five suspension bridges. To improve Tolly's Nullah, seven suspension bridges have been thrown across it at a cost of 179,381 rupees. The canals west of the Jumna have been repaired at an expense of 1,566,500 rupees, which, with a farther outlay on the Dooab Canal, west of the Jumna, of 579,164 rupees, makes, with other expenditure, a total outlay of 4,963,288 rupees in constructing and repairing canals in the presidency. The canals are very productive of revenue, for the tolls on those in the vicinity of Calcutta are said to yield on an average 121,800 rupees a year, while the annual average charge for their maintenance appears to be about 45,000 rupees. Hence it is argued, that the Government cannot do better than lay out funds for their extension and improvement. In reference to these canals it is remarked, that while the toll remained at the rate of one rupee the 100 maunds, the proceeds were 126,000 rupees; but when the Government liberally reduced the levy by one half, they fell in the succeeding year to about 60,000 rupees. This fall, it was ultimately discovered, arose mainly from the corruption of the native collectors, which had been so far remedied by close observance, that in the last year (1840) the collection again rose to 122,000 rupees, showing that the state receives the same return as when the impost was double its present amount. The canals east and west of the Jumna exhibit the most gratifying results, not only in respect of the means they supply to the agricultural community for the irrigation of upwards of 100,000 acres of land, but in direct money returns. The sum expended on the canals west of the

Jumna by the British Government has been 1,566,500 rupees, and the annual amount levied as water rent is 258,826 rupees, or more than 16 1-2 per cent. While the outlay has therefore been in the whole 15 1-2 lacs of rupees, the returns up to the end of the year 1840 had been 21 1-2 lacs. In restoring the Dooab Canal, the cost to the Gorernment was 5 lacs and 80,000 rupees. The direct return in rupees up to the end of 1840 has been 5 lacs and 13,000 rupees. At the end of the official year, the whole sum expended by the Government had been reimbursed to the public coffers, and an annual income of 6,000 rupees might be expected for the future. The tolls on the Nuddea rivers produce a clear annual surplus of 1 lac and 12,000 rupees. And now, adverting more particularly to what has been done during the official year of 1840, we find that in the department of canals the Government has sanctioned an outlay of 23,000 rupees for deepening a canal in the Hidgelee district for the express object of facilitating the transportation of salt. The other expenses in connexion with canals have been incurred partly in reference to those near Calcutta, and partly to those on the east and west of the Jumna. The former appear to have cost in necessary repairs a sum of about 14,000 rupees, independently of an iron suspension bridge at Ooltadanga, over the circular canal, amounting to 12,000 rupees. On the Dooab canal has been expended 71,500 rupees in the construction of aqueducts, with the view to the further extension of the benefits of irrigation. The total amount of money expended in canals during the year under consideration was 2,57,813 rupees; the returns 4,69,197 rupees, being a clear profit of 2,11,384 rupees. The new roads were progressing steadily. The road from Burdwar to Benares is completed as far as regards earth-work, to its full height and width. On this undertaking there had been an outlay of 6,00,000 rupees, and it will require an equal outlay to complete it. The road from Patna to Gya would have the benefit of a grant of 70,000 rupees, and for the road to Darjeching a revised estimate of 28,000 rupees would be appropriated. The proposed road from Agra to Bombay had been negatived from the fact of the enormous expense it would entail. The total outlay in public works for that period was 9,69,6×6 rupees, which produced a return of 4,69,197 rupecs, thus learing 5,00,489 rupees as the difference between expenditure and return. On this the India journals remark, that it is an expenditure of less than one per cent. on the land revenues of these provinces, and that however much the public may be grateful for these improvements, it exhibits much niggardness as compared with the revenue the Government au thorities derive from the territory of which they are the useful and necessary embellishment.

A correspondent, who compliments us on the satisfactory account we gave of the progress of Arracan a few days ago, wishes it to be stated, and which was not noticed among the causes which were laid before us as contributing to the increase in the wealth and population of that province, that slavery was abolished there in the year 1834. He states farther, that Arracan is the only province in India where slavery has been totally abolished.

CHRONOLOGY.

FOREIGN.

CHINA. We have news from China nearly two months later than that given in the last Number of the Chronicle, [p. 470] up to the 24th of August, on which day the steamer Atalanta sailed from Canton for Bombay, with Sir Gordon Bremer, the late commander of the fleet in the China seas, and Capt. Charles Elliot on board. The new plenipotentiary, Sir Henry Pottinger, and Admiral Sir William Parker, arrived at Macao, August 9, in the steamboat Sesostris. They made their passage, with their respective suites, from England, in the very short period of 67 days, including a stay of ten days in Bombay.

The new plenipotentiary on the 13th despatched his Secretary, Major Mal colm, to Canton, with intelligence of his arrival, and a copy of the British demands to be despatched to the Emperor. The Kwang-Chow-Foo, (Mayor of Canton,) intimated a wish to receive the despatch in person, and the Secretary had an interview with him at the hall of the Company's Factory.

The Kwang-Chow-Foo a few days afterwards went to Macao attended by a linguist, for the purpose of having an interview with Sir Henry Pottinger, who, however, declined seeing him, and deputed his secretary to hold a conference. His object was said to be to offer ten millions of dollars, or even a larger sum, as an inducement to the plenipotentiary to relinquish the intention of proceeding to the northward with his military force; but the proposition was not listened to.

The purport of the communication addressed by the plenipotentiary to the emperor of China is not known from of ficial authority, but the London Times states that according to a private letter from Macao, dated August 22, "which is deemed in the city very good authority," he had demanded under his instructions from the government, the assent of the Chinese government to the following conditions, as the basis of a treaty of peace between the two powers.

"1st. The opening of all the Chinese ports situated on the eastern coast to all European nations, without exception,

who will be permitted to trade freely, subject to a moderate duty on the entry and departure of their vessels. 2d. The abolition of the monopoly hitherto enjoyed by the Hong merchants. 3d. The appointment of an English ambassador to reside at the Court of Pekin. 4th. Indemnity to the British merchants for the loss sustained by the destruction of opium and the abolition of the trade."

As had been generally anticipated, a force was despatched from Macao to act against the northern provinces, compris. ing the whole available military and naval force of the British in those regions. It sailed for Amoy, on the 21st, consisting of 9 ships of war, 4 armed steamers, and 22 transports, carrying in all about 3,000 men.

It was currently believed, that Amoy would first be captured, and its fortifieations destroyed, and that Ningpo and Tinghae would share the same fate.

A notification was presented to each merchant at Canton, that as hostilities would probably soon recommence at the north, they must keep themselves and property out of the way of mischief. In the mean time, the truce entered into by Captain Elliot on the 27th of May, continued in force, and down to the latest date the trade was open, and vessels went up to Whampoa.

Buildings had been begun at Hong Kong, on lands lately purchased by the merchants. There were a few British and several American merchants at Canton. Business was at a stand still, the city having been completely drained of money. Of the Chinese ransom, 2,500,000 dollars were sent iu the Calliope to Calcutta, and 1,500,000 in the Convoy to London.

On the 21st and 26th of July there were two most violent and destructive typhoons in the bay of Canton. The British cutter Louisa, in which Admiral Bremer and Capt. Elliot had sailed from Macao on the 29th for Hong Kong, was wrecked on the island of Kowlan. Their Excellencies, after escaping the dangers of the tempest, received some rough treatment from the Chinese, but a compassionate individual, who called himself a comprador, was induced to take them to

his house and give them refreshment, and subsequently to carry them back in a small Chinese boat to Canton, where he received $3,000 for his services.

MEXICO, September. For sore weeks General Santa Anna had been at the head of a military movement for effecting a dissolution of the government, and its reorganization under himself on the basis of the constitution of 1824. On the second of September he arrived at the capital and took by assault the fort of t. Francisco. Some farther skirmishing ensued, which continued for some weeks, each party having a force in the city, and each quite willing to wait for reinforcements.

Matters did not remain long, however, in this undecided state; and without the intervention of an action, Bustamente yielded the supreme power to Santa Anna. After a good deal of explanation on each side of the burning attachment to liberty which signalized the high contracting parties, and their resolution to abjure for the future all civil discord, Santa Anna, by the agreement which he himself proposed on the 28th of September, was to name a Congress for the formation of a new constitution, by which to settle all difficulties of the government. This arrangement was completed on the 6th of October, and Santa Anna accordingly selected a number of deputies, of course all attached to himself, who proceeded to act as the Congress of the different states of the republic. One of the professions by which he attained power was his zeal for the federal constitution of 1824. It has not yet appeared how sacredly he will regard that instrument, but he has sent to Yucatan certain commissioners to treat respecting the return to the confederacy of that republic, which left it nominally on account of the violation of that constitution.

The following names are given as the appointments in the new Ministry: Tornel, Minister of War; Pedraza, of the Navy; Castillon, of the Interior; and Garcia, of Finance.

CONSTANTINOPLE, September 23. The steamer Nile arrived from Alexandria, bringing five million piastres in tribute from Mehemet Ali.

ADEN. Serious disasters have occurred in this new settlement. Our advices are to the 15th September. A fire on the 5th had burned down five officers houses and the lines of the 10th regiment. Every thing was destroyed, and some people in

jured. On the 7th a tremendous rain came down, and the mountain streams carried away a boy into the sea. On the 11th the Arabs attacked the town, but were repulsed. They intended shortly to make another attempt in stronger force.

SPAIN, October. In this month an extensive conspiracy broke out, which appears to have been directed by the queen mother Christina, now in Paris, or by her immediate advisers. It had for its object her restoration to the office of Regent.

A concerted rising was planned to take place in various parts of Spain, arrangements being made that the different movements should be properly connected. The first movement was made in Pampe luna, on the morning of the first of October, when Gen. Leopold O'Donnell, whe appears to have been commissioned from Christina, in Paris, but a few weeks before, took possession of the citadel of that town. The citadel was regularly garrisoned by two divisions of troops, who did duty on alternate days in rotation with each other. O'Donnell secured both of these by bribes and promises, and at the head of one of them, presented himself at the gate and demanded admission of the other, which was immediately granted him, and he found himself therefore at the head of one thousand men and one of the strongest fortresses in Europe, which he could probably maintain for a considerable time if properly provisioned.

Ribiero, however, the Viceroy of the Province of Navarre, took no part in these insurrectionary movements. There yet remained a battalion in Pampeluna faithful to the government, and at the head of this, the National Guard, and such other force as he could collect, Ribiero attempt ed to shut up O'Donnell in the citadel, which is in the centre of the town, of which he had taken possession. This blockade, however, was nothing more than a close observation of the place, for whenever Ribiero attempted any force on the adherents of O'Donnell within or without the citadel, he retaliated by a bombardment of the town, which was so effective that all offensive proceedings were at once suspended.

O'Donnell was in communication with Ortigosa, formerly a brigadier in the Carlist army, and at this time at the head of six hundred men near the town. On the 12th, General Ayerbe, who su perseded Ribiero in the service of gor ernment, entered Pampeluna, having

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