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Queen Donna Maria II. da Gloria, daughter of Don Pedro I., late emperor of Brazil, was born April 4, 1819. She was declared Queen of Portugal, on the abdication of her father, May 2, 1826, and under his direction and government, she entered Lisbon, Sept. 23, 1833. She married Dec. 1, 1834, by procuration, and Jan. 26, 1835, in person, Duke Augustus of Leuchtenberg, who died on the 28th of March following. She was again married, Jan. 1, 1836, by procuration, and April 9 in person, to Ferdinand Augustus Francis Anthony, Duke of Saxe Coburg Gotha, who was born Oct. 29, 1816, a nephew of the reigning Prince of Saxe Coburg, and cousin of Queen Victoria of Great Britain, and of Prince Albert her husband. They have three children:
1, Don Pedro of Alcantara, Prince Royal, born Sept. 16, 1837; 2, Louis Philip, Duke of Oporto, born Oct 31, 1838.
The Queen of Portugal has a brother, viz., the Emperor Don Pedro II., Emperor of Brazil, and three sisters, princesses of Brazil.
Her other near relations are Don Miguel, the brother of her father, who for many years claimed the right to the throne of Portugal, but was compelled to abandon the country June 1, 1834; and three sisters of her father, Maria Theresa, Princess of Beira; Isabella Maria, late Regent of Portugal; and Anne, wife of the Marquis of Loulé.
The Ministry consists of the Count of Bomfin, President, and Minister of War; Viscount de Carreira, Minister of Foreign Affairs; Rodrigo da Fonseca Magalhaens, Minister of the Interior; Antonio da Costa Cobral, Minister of Justice and of Wor ship; and Pereira Ferraz, Minister of the Finances.
Among the Grand officers of the court are the Marquis of Sampaio, Grand Mas. ter; the Duchess of Ficalho, Grand Mistress; the Marshal Duke of Terceira, Grand Equerry; Grand Master of the Ceremonies, the Count de Subserra; Captain of the Guards, the Duke of Palmella.
Possessions of Portugal, their Extent and Population.
Possessions in Africa.
On the Continent.
Islands in the Atlantic.
The Azores, Madeira and Cape de Verds,
Possessions in Asia.
Goa, Dilli in Timor, and Macao,
The Army consists of 21,500 Infantry,
The Marine consists of 2 ships of the line, 4 frigates, and 6 brigs.
Charles Albert Amedeus, King of Sardinia, was born Oct. 2, 1798; succeeded his father Aug. 16, 1800, in the line of Savoy Carignan, and Charles Felix Joseph in the Kingdom of Sardinia, April 27, 1801. He married the Grand Duchess Maria Theresa, daughter of Ferdinand, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Sept. 30, 1817, and has two sons, viz.:
1. Victor Emanuel, Duke of Savoy, born March 14, 1820.
2. Ferdinand, Duke of Genoa, born Nov. 15, 1822.
There are many relatives of King Charles Albert, who are connected by various degrees of consanguinity with most of the reigning families of Italy.
The superior authorities of Sardinia are the Council of Ministers; the Council of State; the Military Governors of Divisions; and the Royal Superior Council for the Affairs of Sardinia.
Minister of Foreign Affairs, Count Solaro della Margarita; of the Interior, Count Beraudo de Pralormo; of Finances, Count Gallina; of War and the Marine, and of the Affairs of Sardinia, Chevalier Pes de Villamarina, Lieut. General; Keeper of the Seals, President-Minister of State of Ecclesiastical Affairs, and of Grace and Justice, Count Barharoux; Viceroy-Lieut. and Capt. General of Sardinia, Chevalier Joseph Montiglio de Villanuova; Regent of the Royal Chancelry, Count Pic
Extent of Territory and Population.
Provinces on the Continent,
The annual revenues and expenditures of the State are about 79,000,000 francs. The public debt amounts to 145,000,000 francs.
The army in time of peace numbers 25,000 men. The marine 26 vessels of all descriptions.
THE TWO SICILIES.
Ferdinand II., King of the Two Sicilies, or of Naples and Sicily, was born Jan. 12, 1810; succeeded his father, Francis I., Nov. 8, 1830; married 1, a daughter of the late king of Sardinia, and 2, Jan. 9, 1837, Maria Theresa Isabella, daughter of the Archduke Charles of Austria. He has three children, viz. :
1, By the first marriage, Francis d'Asis Maria Leopold, hereditary Prince, Duke of Calabria, born Jan. 16, 1836. 2, Charles Louis, Count of Trani, born Aug. 1, 1838. 3, Albert Maria Francis, Count of Castrogiovanni, born Sept. 17, 1839.
King Ferdinand has twelve brothers and sisters now living, among whom are
Louisa the Duchess dowager of Berry, of France; Christina, the Queen dowager, and late Queen Regent of Spain; Antoinette, Grand Duchess of Tuscany; and Charles Ferdinand, Prince of Capua, who married Miss Penelope Smith, an English lady.
There is in the government of the Sicilies, a Council of State, and a Council of Ministers. The Ministers are members of the Council of State, of which there are also members without a portfolio.
The President of the Council of State, Marquis Joseph Cera Grimaldi. Minister Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Prince D. Fulco Ruffo di Calabria.
Minister of the Finances, ad interim, and of Ecclesiastical Affairs, Giovanni d'Andrea.
Of Grace and Justice, Nicola Parisio; of General Police, Francesco Saverio Delcarretto; of the Interior, Nicola Santangelo; Director of the Ministry of War, Joseph di Brocchetti.
Lieut. Gen. in Sicily, de Tchudy.
Kingdom of Naples,
Extent of Territory and Population.
In 1834, there were computed to be 27,144 Priests, 11,680 Monks, and 9,775 nuns. The annual revenues and expenditures of the State are about 26,000,000 ducats. The army consists of
Abdul Medjid Khan, the Grand Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, was born April 19, 1823. He succeeded his father Mahmoud II., July 1, 1839.
The present Sultan has two daughters, the eldest, Mehwibe Sultana, was born May 31, 1840. He has a brother Abdul Azir, born Feb. 9, 1830, and four sisters. The eldest daughter of the late Sultan, Salyha Sultana, was born June 16, 1811, and was married June 1834, to Halil Rifat Pasha, one of the high officers of the government. Two other of the Sultan's sisters are married to officers in the confidence of the government, and at present members of the Council of Ministers.
Grand Dignitaries of the Empire.
Grand Vizier, Raouf Pasha; Minister of Commerce, Ahmet Fethi Pasha, brother in law of the Sultan; Seraskier, or General in Chief of the troops of the line, Mustapha Nourri, Pasha; Capitan Pasha, or Grand Admiral, Mehmed Said Pasha, brother in law of the Sultan; Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mustapha Reschid Pasha; Minister of the Finances, and of the Treasure of the Sultan, Hadji Saib Pasha; First Minister and President of the Council, Mehemed Hacib Pasha; General in Chief of the Guard, and Military Governor of Scutari, Riza Pasha.
Corps Diplomatique resident at Constantinople. United States of America, David
Porter, Res. Min. Austria, Baron de Sturmer, Internuncio. France, Count Edward Pontois, Amb. Great Britain, Viscount Ponsonby, Amb. Prussia, Count Koenigsmark, Env. Ex. Russia, Priv. Couns. Bouteneff.
Territories and Population of the Empire.
Provinces in Europe,
Armenia, Georgia, Curdistan, and Mes
Medina and Mecca,
The Grand Sultan claims also the sovereignty of Tripoli, Tunis, and Morocco, but his authority is at present but slightly recognised by the governors, and still less by the people of those countries.
The government of this institution having recently introduced a change of some importance, in the system of instruction, to which the public attention has been directed, we take this opportunity, for the purpose of giving a more clear view of the extent and object of that change, to present a brief account of the whole course of instruction in the University.
The organization of the government of the University is, we presume, well understood. Its four branches, the College, and the Law, Divinity, and Medical Schools, in themselves entirely distinct, are each under the direction of a Faculty, consisting of several of their professors, who are bound to perform this duty by the tenure of their offices. The President of the University presides over each of these Faculties. The immediate Government of the University is vested in a board denominated the Corporation, consisting of the President of the College, five Fellows, and the Treasurer. With this body rests, in fact, the power of the Government of the Institution. It is, however, responsible to the board of Overseers, which consists of the Governor, Lieut. Governor, Council and Senate of the State, with the Speaker of the House of Representatives, together with thirty members who are elected by the body itself, of
whom fifteen are required to be clergymen of Congregational churches in and near Boston, and fifteen laymen. This board has a veto on all appointments and other measures of the Corporation. The Corporation appoints its own members, subject only to the negative of the Overseers.
The course of study pursued in the academical branch of the University, that is, in Harvard College, properly speaking, has materially changed since its foundation, two hundred years ago. It was then intended and considered by all its friends, rather as an instrument for educating men for the profession of theology than in any other light. They constantly spoke of it as "a school of the prophets," and kept its course of study framed with reference to such objects. A recollection of this original aim of the institution has perhaps been the cause of many of the unkind speeches occasionally made upon it as being behind the age, as being "a vessel moored in the current, to no advantage but to show how fast the water runs by:" expressions which have been freely, perhaps unfairly, used with regard to the English Universities, and which have therefore naturally enough been transferred to this side of the water. In their application however, in this instance, they have been quite inappropriate. The College has in a very great measure thrown off the old bondage by which, as a theological institution, like all the other colleges of its day, it was once controlled.
To take a single instance: it would be difficult to name any more strictly practical branch of study than that laid down in the foundation of the late Count Rumford's professorship, which is devoted to the consideration of the application of the sciences to the useful arts; a professorship whose incumbents have made no small contributions to the general stock of knowledge in the branches to which, by the statutes of the foundation, their attention was called. Dr. Bigelow's well known treatise on Technology, consists of the substance of lectures which he delivered when he filled this chair; and the present professor, Mr. Treadwell, is well known, for the attention he has paid to the practical application of the sciences to the advancement of the useful arts.
This is however merely a branch of the general course of instruction in the physical sciences. In the study of these subjects, the text books prepared by Professor Farrar, chiefly from French originals, for the use of the University, and those more recently published by Professor Pierce, among others, are constantly used. It has frequently been suggested, that some of them are too abstruse to answer their purpose satisfactorily; on this account, we believe more than any other, their use is almost entirely confined to this Institution. The fault, if it be one, is on the right side. The Mathematical stud