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total of 27,459,522 lbs., besides 1,488,548 | Chinese vessels. The fight began during lbs. on board ships which had not yet the night between several of the British sailed. The exports to the United States ships and the fort of Shaming, which was amounted to 1,524,244 black, and 6,030,- silenced in the morning. Eight new 103 lbs. green, making a total of 7,554,- brass guns were found in it. During the 347 lbs. engagement a fleet of war junks came In the mean time, the Chinese were out of a creek. The Nemesis moved tobusy in making preparations for war. wards them; but, afraid of her thirtyTroops to the number of 50 or 60,000 two pounders, they retreated into the were assembled at Canton and the vicin- creek. Thither the Nemesis pursued ity; cannon were cast; and great efforts them, and during three hours the sailors were made to place the forts in a state of were busy in setting fire to at least forty defence. In addition, several fleets of junks. Having completed the work, the small fire vessels were prepared, for the steamer emerged from the creek, decopurpose of destroying the British men-of-rated with the flags and pendants of the junks. The sailors, too, presented a comical sight. They were dressed in Chinese robes, some with Mandarin caps, and others, particularly one boat's crew, had each a Chinaman's tail hanging at the
On the 10th of May, Capt. Elliot went in a steamer to Canton, where he saw the vigorous preparations which the Chinese were making, and had an interview with the Mandarin Governor. On his return to Hong Kong, he counter-back of their necks. manded an expedition which had been meditated against Amoy, and which had been appointed to proceed in five or six days. On the 17th he proceeded again to Canton, and orders were issued to the fleet, with the troops on board, under the command of Sir Le Fleming Senhouse, and Gen. Sir Hugh Gough, to proceed up the river, and to anchor near the city. On the 20th, the Mandarin Governor Yee issued a proclamation declaring that there was no ground of alarm; but on the following day Capt. Elliot issued a proclamation, announcing the probability of hostilities, and recommending to all foreigners to leave Canton before sunset. The English and American merchants accordingly collected their effects as expeditiously as possible, and by means of boats proceeded down the river to Whampoa, with the exception of two American merchants, Messrs. Coolidge and Morse. As soon as the foreign factories were deserted, the mob broke in and were with difficulty resisted by the soldiers. The two gentlemen who remained were in great danger. They were carried into the city and detained there three or four days, but were then set at liberty. The Chinese proclamation was supposed to be intended to lull the British merchants to security, with a view of seizing them during the night, as every thing was prepared by them for an attack. At 11 o'clock on the night of the 21st they began the attack, by firing at all the British vessels within reach of the forts. The fire-ships were let loose, but the British men-of-war were on the alert, and the steamer Nemesis towed off the
On Sunday, the 23d of May, the squadron and the troops arrived, and the chiefs, Elliot, Senhouse, and Gough, held a conference. They then sent Capt. Belcher, of her Majesty's ship Sulphur, to reconnoitre the river, and to find a place for landing on the north side. This reconnoissance was attacked, but beat off the assailants and burned twenty-eight of their boats. An excellent place for landing the troops and guns was then discovered.
On the 24th, at two o'clock in the af ternoon, the troops being in the boats, the steamers proceeded to tow them to their destination. The Atalanta took the right column, under the command of Major Pratt, of her Majesty's 26th regiment, to seize and hold the factories on the bank of the river to the south of the city, while the Nemesis towed the left column towards Tsing-hae, five miles up the river. The guns were landed during the night. The right column, under Col. Mountain, arrived at their destination in time to prevent, for the present, the foreign factories being destroyed, the inhabitants and soldiers (Chinese) being engaged in carrying off whatever came in their way; but the Dutch and British Hongs were completely plundered of every thing they contained, amongst the rest a large quantity of woollens, stored in the company's godowns, before their arrival. The left column, under Sir H. Gough, comprising 117 officers, 2,276 rank and file, and 13 guns, arrived at the village of Tsing-hae, their point of debarkation, about dusk. The general and the 49th regiment, consist
ing of 28 officers and 273 rank and file, | commander of the British forces, he landed for the purpose of reconnoitring, would treat with no other than the combut a few straggling parties alone were mander of the Chinese army; but that seen. During the night guns were land- he would suspend hostilities for two ed, and the next morning the landing of hours, to allow of the Chinese general the remainder of the column was effect- meeting him; that if he did not receive ed, and the whole moved forward a little a communication from her Majesty's after day-light. The commander, having plenipotentiary, (who was with the cautiously advanced within range of the squadron south of the city,) or had not a forts, and every thing being prepared for satisfactory interview with him during their attack, about half-past nine the or- that time, hostilities would be resumed. der was given to advance; and in a little The Chinese general not making his ap more than half an hour the eastern and pearance, the interval was made use of western forts were in our possession, and to bring up the guns, &c. During the our troops looked down on Canton with- night of the 26th, every thing was prein one hundred yards of its walls. A pared in the British camp; orders were spirited fire was kept up from the city prepared to open the batteries at seven, walls from heavy ordnance, zinjalls, and and to commence the attack at eight next matchlocks, during the greater part of morning in four columns. On the mornthe day. After the troops had landed ing of the 27th, when our troops were and proceeded on their way, a large body about to commence operations, an officer of Tartar troops thought of capturing the of the royal navy arrived in the camp, Nemesis, and made a rush to the water's who had been travelling all night, having edge for that purpose; but her command- lost his way, with a communication from er allowed them to approach within range Captain Elliot, containing instructions to of his guns, when he opened such a suspend all hostilities, as the inhabitants volley of grape upon them that they were of Canton had agreed to ransom the city. fain to retire, leaving a great number In compliance with these orders, (though dead behind them. To the northeast of greatly to his mortification,) Sir H. the city was a strongly intrenched camp, Gough was obliged to countermand his containing about 4,000 of the enemy, order for the attack. The conditions which was separated from the heights by upon which Captain Elliot agreed with a tract of paddy land, from which repeat- the Chinese for the ransom of Canton, ed attacks were made, and as frequently were, repulsed by her Majesty's 49th regiment. About 3, P. M. it was evident a mandarin of rank had reached their camp, (afterwards understood to be Yang, the Tartar general,) and that the Chinese meditated a fresh attack; in consequence of which Major-General Burrell was despatched to repel it, and follow up the enemy across a narrow causeway, and destroy their encampment, which duty was gallantly performed by her Majesty's 18th and 46th regiments, and a company of Royal Marines, though not without considerable loss, from the troops being exposed to a heavy fire from the north east face of the city wall. The enemy fled; the encampment was set on fire; several magazines were blown up, and the permanent buildings destroyed. The general now determined to carry the city by storin, for which every necessary measure was effected; but a flag of truce appearing the next morning on the city walls, Mr. Thorn, (the interpreter,) was deputed to ascertain the cause, when a mandarin stated that they were anxious for peace. The general had it explained that, as
1. That all soldiers other than those of the province, with the three imperial commissioners, should quit the city in six days, and retire sixty miles.
2 Six millions of dollars to be paid for the use of the Crown of England, counting from 27th May-one million payable before sunset of that day.
3. For the present, the British troops to remain in their actual positions; no additional preparations for hostilities to be made on either side. If the sum agreed upon be not paid within seven days, it shall be increased to seven millions; if not within fourteen days, to eight millions; if not within twenty days, nine millions. When the whole shall be paid, all the British forces to return without the Bocca Tigris and the Wangtong, and all fortified places within the river to be restored, and not to be rearmed till all affairs are settled between the two nations.
4. Losses occasioned by the plunder of the factories, and by the destruction of the Spanish brig Bilbanio in 1839, to be paid within one week.
5. It is required that the Kwang-chowfoo shall produce full powers to conclude this arrangement on the part of the three Commissioners -the general of the Tartar garrison, the governor-general, and the fooyun of Kwangtung.
At ten o'clock, at the request of Yang, the Tartar general, a conference was held between Sir H. Gough, (accompanied by Sir F. Senhouse and himself,) when a long parley ensued. Sir Hugh explained to him that Her Majesty's plenipotentiary having resumed negotiations with the local authorities, he should await a further communication from him.
At twelve o'clock A. M., Captain Elliot arrived in camp, when all further active operations ceased. The day fol lowing, (the 28th,) a conference was held with the Kwang-chow-foo under the walls of the city, when every arrangement was made for the evacuation of the city, by as large a body of the Tartar troops as could be got ready, and a mandarin of rank was permitted to pass through the British ranks to procure quarters for them.
accompany him. Captain Moore, of the 34th Bengal N. I., volunteered to do so, and they were quite successful, as the enemy entirely dispersed on learning the reason of their coming. Sir H. Gough, finding that five millions of dollars had been paid, and that Captain Elliot was satisfied with the security for the remaining million for the ransom of Canton; that fourteen thousand five hundred Tartar troops had marched out of the town; that three thousand had gone by water, and that the remainder were prepared to follow, when carriage could be procured, acceded to the wish of Her Majesty's plenipotentiary to reembark the troops, the Chinese finding coolies to convey the guns and ammunition.
The coolies being furnished on the 1st of June, the troops and guns were embarked, the British flag was lowered in the four forts, and the expedition returned to Tsing-hae.
The next day, (29th,) a large body of troops, apparently regulars, numbering about five thousand, armed with long spears, shields, and swords, were collected on the heights, and were rapidly increasing. The general advanced against them with a wing of the 26th, three companies of the 49th, the 37th Madras N. I, and the Bengal volunteers, supported by the royal marines. The enemy were dispersed with some difficulty, on account of a thunder-storm that came on, and which wetted the muskets of the troops so that they would not go off. The heat of the sun was at this time so insupportable, that Major Beecher, deputy quarter-master-general, fell from exhaustion, and expired in a few minutes. Indeed, both officers and men were nearly exhausted. The next day, a similar force of the enemy had assembled, and meditated an attack on our camp; upon which Sir H. Gough sent to the Kwang-chow-foo, stating that he would resume hostilities if a similar insult should again be offered.
The loss of the British in these operations consisted of Major Beecher, who died from over-fatigue, Lieutenant Fox of the Nimrod, and thirteen soldiers and seamen killed, and fifteen officers and ninety-seven privates wounded. A few days afterwards, June 14, Sir Humphrey le Fleming Senhouse, who commanded the naval forces, died on board the Blenheim, of fever caused by excessive fatigue, and was buried at his request at Macao. Capt. Elliot issued a proclama. tion, notifying the inhabitants of Canton that they might return, and continue their peaceful pursuits in security, so long as the high officers continued to fulfil their engagements. He called on the foreigners who had suffered losses from the pillage of the factories to bring in a statement of the amount, with an inventory of the particulars. He warned British subjects that he did not consider it safe for them to enter the river with their shipping, and recommended to them to proceed to Hongkong, where they would receive protection from the officers of the British nation. He gave notice, that if there should be any obstruction to the freedom of Hongkong, there would be an immediate embargo upon the port of Canton. The five millions of dollars paid for the ransom of Canton were delivered on board the government ship Nimrod, and by her conveyed to Cal
On Captain Elliot joining the camp, a meeting was held with the prefect, who declared that the conduct of the soldiers was contrary to the wishes of the author-cutta. She sailed from Macao June 8. ities, and that he would soon disperse There was considerable sickness on board them by sending off hisown assistant, if the British fleet, particularly in the ship the general would depute an officer to Conway. Capt. Elliot laid out sites for
houses in a projected town on the island of Hongkong, and the lots were advertised to be disposed of by public sale. Sir G. Bremer arrived at Hongkong near the end of June, and the steamer from Bombay, having on board Sir Henry Pottinger, who is appointed plenipotentiary to supersede Capt. Elliot, with Admiral Sir William Parker, who is to take the command of the fleet, was spoken in the straits of Malacca on the 28th of July. It was anticipated, that on the arrival of Admiral Parker, if not before, the British forces would proceed to the northward, and take possession of some place on the eastern coast, probably Ningpo.
The Chinese Official Account of the Attack upon Canton. Report of Yihshan, the imperial nephew and commissioner, dated the 31st of May, sent by couriers at the rate of six hundred le per day, [two hundred miles.]
their extermination; but all on a sudden the number of their vessels was increased by sixteen ships, eight steam boats, and eighty ship's boats, which all pressed forward. The soldiers, on account of the hard fighting during the night, were all fatigued, their guns were few, and, although they had fired several tens of rounds, yet, the barbarian ships being strong and numerous, they could not beat them back. Their soldiers finally got on shore, and rushed to the plunder of the city, entering the forts at the small and large northern gates, and attacking the town on three sides. Their rockets were thrown in masses; their balls hit the people's houses, and they caught fire; all our own soldiers had not a place to stand on; their cannon was melted by the fire of the barbarians; and the buildings destroyed (magazines blown up?). I cannot yet accurately ascertain the Since my arrival in Canton Province, number of all the soldiers and great the forts of Oo chung (first bar), Ty- officers that were killed and wounded. wong-kow (Macao passage fort), Tung. We were hard pressed, and returning wong-kong (Swallow's nest fort), and into the city, myriads of people were other places were lost. I then consulted weeping and wailing; the number of with Lung and Yang, assistant-commis- those who invoked Heaven and begged sioners, and erected on the banks of the for peace covered the roads. When your river in succession, the stone fort or Ny-Minister looked with his own eyes upon ching, (near where the British troops this, his very bowels were torn asunder. landed,) and batteries at Wungsha, at the In stooping down from the wall, I made Singh gate (petition gate), and at inquiries from the barbarians; they all Hung-meou-chuck (a temple of the sub- said, that several millions of taels for the urbs), at Hwangcha, (above Shaming,) surrendered opium had not yet been paid, and at Yih-cha-wih and other places. and therefore they requested the sum of Officers and soldiers guarded them, and one million taels in liquidation thereof, all around we put up sand-bags, palisa- and then they would immediately withdoes, piles of stones and balls; we more- draw their soldiers, and retire outside the over dug trenches for the protection of Bogue; that they had to make no other the soldiers. We also placed sand-bags request; and that then the people might all around the city walls to make them go out in their customary way. I then stronger, and I myself, with the assistant asked them about the surrender of the commissioners, went round to reconnoitre whole territory of Hongkong, and they and inspect the works in different places. replied that Keshen had given it them, Besides, we embodied some of the brave and that an authenticated paper from Fokeen sailors to the number of more him to this effect had been placed on than one thousand men, and prepared record. rafts and straw to make attacks by fire.
Your Minister thought that the city On the evening of the first day of the was in danger; that there had been refourth moon, (21st of May,) the great peated disturbances, and that the whole conflict with the barbarians cominenced people were prostrated in mud and ashes. at the western fort. We attacked them I therefore agreed to this pro tempore. with our guns, burning instantly five of Moreover, I consider again that this was their boats, breaking two of their guns, a solitary city to be fought against, and and smashing two great masts of the that both the fat and liver were greatly barbarian ships. They were now all re-injured. There was, moreover, no battle turning, when your Minister, at the fifth field for deploying a great army, and I watch, (3 o'clock to 5 A. M.) was upon could not do otherwise than beguile them the point of bringing up his soldiers for to go out of the Bogue. Then we shall
Your Ministers beseech your Majesty to deliver us over to the Board that we may be punished, and also to direct that Ke, the Governor, and E, the Lieutenant-Governor, be severely dealt with. Respectfully, we present a petition from all the people asking for peace.
Your Minister is conscious of not being guiltless.
A respectful memorial.
Lord Sydenham's resignation of his post
tion of the success of his mission.
The session of the Legislature closed early in September. We have before given an account of some of its transactions. It took decided measures with respect to the internal improvement of the province according to the plan suggested by the governor in his opening speech, [see Mon. Chron. p. 327.] In many respects, however, it has not been very tractable or subservient to the wishes of the Executive.
The governor's project of a general
BRAZIL. On the 16th of July, at Rio
In the first week of September, Lord
CANADA. On the 18th of August
AUG. 9. The steamboat Erie, Captain Titus, was entirely destroyed by fire on Lake Erie, off the mouth of Cattaraugus Creek, with more than 150 passengers. She had left Buffalo the same afternoon at 3 o'clock, with more than two hundred passengers. She had on board a considerable cargo, among which were several vessels of paints, varnish, &c., belonging to some of the passengers. One of the carboys of varnish, which was placed immediately over the furnace, burst, or was broken, about 8 o'clock in the evening, and the liquid being scattered on all sides, the vessel was almost immediately enveloped in flames, which spread so rapidly as to defy all measures for their extinction. The boats were lowered into the