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Railway, to the 31st of December, 1840, was £5,792,475. The revenue, for the last six months of 1840, was as follows:
Horses, carriages, and dogs,
To Dec. 31, 1838,
June 30, 1839,
Number of Passengers.
Balance of net profit,
A dividend of 4 per cent. for the six months was declared. The average number of passengers daily, during the six months ending Dec. 31, 1840, was 2,146, and the distances travelled by them were equal to 1,258 passengers daily, carried through the whole line. The number of passengers, and distance travelled since Sept. 17, 1838, was as follows:
Coaching, including mails,
£293 185 11 1
£405 964 5 11
Carriage of merchandise,
Rents, interest, &c.
9,461,984 17,391,035 22,284,830
The expense on account of construction upon the Grand Junction Railway, to December 31, 1840, amounted to £2,192,046.
The receipts of income during the last six months of the year were from
£ 29 366
8 733 4 2
£219 321 14 3
Average miles by each.
A dividend was declared of 6 1-2 per cent. for the six months. The number of passengers conveyed on the Grand Junction Railway in the year 1840, was 485,568, without loss of life, or serious injury to any passenger, engineman, conductor, guard, or fireman in charge of them. There were also conveyed 65,289 tons of goods, and 4,741 horses, besides bullion to a large amount, and the whole sums paid for loss or damage to luggage, goods, or horses, amounted to £399 3s. 8d. only.
On the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, in the last six months of 1840, the receipts were, in the coal department, £81,713, merchandise, £54,901, and coal, £2,709, making a total of £139,323. The total of expenses was £68,694; of which were expended for locomotive power, £18,182; the coaching disbursements, £12,092 ; the freighting, £13,127; and the maintenance of way, £5,036. The net profits, exclusive of a previous surplus, amounted to £70,629, and a dividend was declared of 5 per cent., or £5 per share. In the report of the directors upon this half year, it was remarked, that there was a falling off, in the coaching department, of nearly £4000, which was attributed partly to the depression of trade, partly to the diminution of confidence, in consequence of the number of accidents which had occurred on the railways, and partly to the great reduction of postage, which had tended to increase the amount of business transacted by correspondence, in a manner to dispense with personal visits. The expenses were reduced in a somewhat greater ratio than the receipts, so that there was an increase of net receipts.
Of the railways which connect with the London and Birmingham, and extend the line of travel towards the northern part of the kingdom, by a distinct route from the Grand Junction, are the Midland Counties, and the Birmingham and Derby, leading by different routes to Derby. The first of these is, including the branch to Nottingham, 57 miles in length, and was built at a cost of £1,440,000, and the other is 38 miles in length, and cost 853,0441. The line is further extended from Derby to Leeds, by the North Midland Railway, which is 72 1-4 miles in length, and was built at a cost of 2,929,6967.
By the York and North Midland Railway, which is 23 miles in length, diverging from the North Midland near the river Calder, the line is extended to the city of York. The cost of this extension was 446,500l. The line is still further extended by the great North of England Railway, which is already completed from York to Darlington, a distance of 45 miles, and is projected 29 miles further, to Newcastle. The amount already expended on this railway is 814,530l. The same line is further connected with the German Ocean by the Leeds and Selby, and the Hull and Selby Railways, the former of which is 20 miles in length, and cost 340,000l.; the latter is 31 miles in length, and cost 460,000l.
The North Midland Railway is also connected with the town of Manchester, by the Manchester and Leeds Railway, which is 50 miles in length, and cost 2,523,5087.; and it is about to be connected with the same town in another direction, by the Manchester and Sheffield Railway, 40 miles in length, which is yet unfinished, and on which about 400,000l. have been already expended.
There are several other railways connected with this general line, leading towards the principal towns at the northwest, among which are the following, of the length, and built at the cost, specified in the table.
Chester and Crewe,
Manchester and Bolton,
The two first of these railways furnish an additional line of communication from Crewe, on the Grand Junction, to Liverpool, by way of Chester and Birkenhead. The third, when finished, will furnish a new route from Crewe, by way of Stockport, to Manchester. The two next afford a direct communication from Manchester, by way of Bolton, Bury, Chorley, and Preston, to Wyre, on the Irish Sea; and the two last extend the general line of communication towards the north from Parkside, at the termination of the Grand Junction, on the Liverpool and Manchester, to Preston, and thence to Lan
All these works have been for some time open to public use, except the Manchester and Crewe, originally called the Manchester
and Birmingham, from the purpose of extending it to Birmingham, independently of the Grand Junction. This road was opened, from Manchester to Stockport, a distance of five miles, in June, 1839, and it is anticipated the residue will be completed by March next. A very costly and imposing work upon this railway has been lately opened to the public, in the Stockport Viaduct. This viaduct is 2178 feet in length, and it is 28 feet in width between the parapet walls. It has 28 semicircular arches, each of 63 feet span, four of 20 feet span, and two at each abutment. Its height, to the surface of the rails, is 106 feet from the bed of the river, or 111 feet to the top of the battlement, being six feet higher than the celebrated Menai bridge, in Wales. The foundation stone was laid on the 10th of March, 1839, and the work was completed 21st December, 1840. The quantity of stone used in the erection is above 400,000 cubic feet, whilst the number of bricks consumed exceeds 11,000,000. The cost of the viaduct was about 70,000l., and notwithstanding this cost, it is computed that a saving of 50,000l. was made on other parts of the line to Manchester, by the adoption of this high level, in preference to the original plan.
It will be seen, on reference to the map, that these lines of railway, thus united in one system, capable of operating as if a single work, form a communication between London and the principal towns and manufacturing districts, in the central and northerly parts of the kingdom. The railways are all laid with a uniform gauge of 4 feet 8 inches between the rails, and locomotives and carriages adapted to one are equally adapted to all. Some of the minor works are under lease to the companies which have constructed the larger, and in general such arrangements are made between them, that not only are regular lines of travel established, between the remotest parts of each of the roads and London, but for the most the same carriages run through the whole line.
It will be perceived, that in addition to a communication between the metropolis and the towns within the reach of the several railways, two grand routes are opened, reaching towards Scotland, but terminating, so far as the railways are concerned, one at Darlington, 45 miles north of the city of York, and 269 miles from London, and the other at Lancaster, 30 miles north of Manchester, and 237 miles from London. There are various discussions in regard to the preferable route for the remaining distance of 130 or 140 miles, to Edinburgh. These discussions will probably continue until the question is solved, as it will be at no remote period, by the actual extension of the railway on both routes to the Scottish capital.
Three trains run through daily from London to Lancaster, two of which are an extension of the mail trains to Birmingham, Liverpool,