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22 locomotive engines, of which 17 were built in England, two in Befgium, two in America, and one in Vienna. Of the English engines, 12 are by Messrs. Robert Stephenson & Co., two from Jones and Co., two from Turner, Evans and Co., and one from G. and J. Rennie. Another engine is shortly expected from Messrs. Baldwin, Vail, and Huftey, of Philadelphia, and two more from Messrs. Sharp, Roberts and Co., of Manchester.
The expenditure for the railway from Vienna to Brunn, up to the 1st of November, 1839, was 505,3301. Since that date, there have been expended about 32,000l. more, making the total cost of the railway, with buildings, locomotives, carriages, &c., equal to 537,000l. This is for 72 miles of single and 19 miles of double track. This sum divided by 91, gives the average cost per mile of railway, with all appurtenances, 5,9007. including also the interest on the capital of construction up to the time the line has been opened.
The Vienna and Brunn Railway is used for the transportation of both passengers and freight. The former are conveyed in three different classes of carriages, and pay for the whole distance in
Carriages of 1st class, 12s., or 1.582d. per mile.
2d class, 8s., or 1.005d. do.
Each passenger is allowed 40 lbs. baggage; if the weight be greater, he has to pay at the rate of 0.42d. per cwt. In summer two trains are daily starting from each end of the line, one early in the morning, and one in the afternoon; in winter, one train from each end is sufficient. The passenger trains travel at the rate of 20 or 23 miles per hour, and perform the whole distance in five or five and a half hours, including stoppages at nine intermediate stations.
The revenue in the six months from the Ist of May to Ist of November, 1839, amounted to £23,013., 7s. ; in the corresponding half year of 1840, the revenue was :
From 144,354 passengers,
18,616 tons of goods,
This gross income is at the rate of 14 per cent. per annum on the capital of construction, £537,000.
The Directors have not published yet their report for the year 1840, from which the expenditure for managing the road could be ascertained for this year. The expenditure for the period of six months, from the 1st of May to the 1st of November, 1839, amounted to £13,659, which, deducted from the income during the same period, leaves a net profit amounting to £9,354.
The expenditure amounted, therefore, to nearly 60 per cent. of the gross receipts, and the net profit was 13 per cent. of the capital invested in the six months above mentioned. In the year ending 31st of October, 1840, the net revenue has amounted probably to at least 6 per cent. on the capital expended.
The reason of the great expenditure is principally the high price of
coke and coal, which makes the item of fuel amount to over 40 per cent. of the total expenses. The coal, of which the company make their coke, has to be brought from a very great distance, and a ton of coke has cost them hitherto not less than 27. 14s. The use of wood has been tried, but abandoned on account of the sparks.
AMERICAN SOUTH SEA EXPLORING EXPEDITION.
Official Letter of Lieut. Wilkes to the Secretary of the Navy.
SOUTH SEA EXPLORING EXPEDItion.
United States Flag Ship Vincennes,
Sir: It becomes my painful duty to report to you the death of Lieut. Joseph A. Underwood, and Midshipman Wilkes Henry, of the exploring expedition, who were treacherously killed by the natives of the island of Mallolo, one of the Feejee group, on the 24th of July, while engaged with others on surveying duty, and within a distance of two thousand feet of a force under Lieut. Alden, who was in charge of the party, consisting of three boats, four officers, and thirty men, completing the survey of the island, it being the last of the Feejee group to be examined.
1 enclose herewith Lieutenant Alden's report detailing the circum
I was at the time engaged, about five miles distant, with the tender Flying Fish, making observations upon islands in the vicinity.
At 5 o'clock, P. M., of the 24th, Lieut. Alden came alongside the Flying Fish, with the bodies, and reported the circumstances to me. I then proceeded to Mallolo for the purpose of making arrangements for avenging their deaths, and inflicting upon the natives a severe chastisement for their outrageous conduct, and disposed of the boats around the Island, so as to prevent their escape from it during the night.
On the 25th I performed the melancholy duty of interring the remains of the two officers upon an uninhabited island, ten miles distant from Mallolo; after which, on being joined by the Porpoise, I returned and landed on the latter island, on the 26th, with all the force at my disposal, and commenced an attack upon the towns of Sualeb and Arra; the former, being well fortified by ditches, stockades, etc. after the Feejee mode, offered resistance, with their muskets, spears and clubs; but both were soon overcome, the whole reduced to ashes, many warriors killed and wounded, and their property and provisions de
stroyed. Among those killed were the chief and principal actors in the attack upon the officers.
No injury was sustained on our side, except by two of the men, who were slightly wounded, and all were safely embarked at sunset.
On the succeeding day, I received a message from the natives on shore, through our interpreters, together with all the articles taken from the deceased, begging for peace; but as I desired to make the lesson as effective as possible, I refused until they had begged pardon, and sued for mercy, after the Feejee custom. I so informed them, and landed with our force to await their coming for this purpose. Soon after, about fifty of their principal men approached us in the most supplicating manner, upon their hands and knees, begging pardon, and suing for mercy; at the same time giving us the most positive assurance of their future good conduct toward the whites, upon which it was granted; with the farther condition of their supplying us with wood, water, and fruit, on the succeeding day. After which, I liberated a chief who had been captured the preceding day, receiving many promises from him never again to permit our countrymen to be molested.
I flatter myself the whole affair has terminated not only in suitably avenging the death of the officers, but in inflicting an exemplary punishment, tempered with mercy, and a due regard to its beneficial ef fects, upon the whole group of the Feejees, by convincing them that their treacherous acts will not go unpunished; and I have reason to believe, has had its beneficial effect upon the natives of the group.
It is difficult for me to surmise the cause which led to this melancholy catastrophe, as no satisfactory one could be obtained from the natives who survived. It may have originated from a desire on their part to obtain the few articles of traffic which Lient. Underwood had. The attack commenced, as is their custom, upon the officers. The escape of the hostage at the moment, is to be regretted, and renders it possible that the attack was somewhat premeditated by the natives, encouraged in part by the over confidence of the party, that no attack or treachery would be attempted upon so large a force.
It is a source of much satisfaction that the bodies of the deceased were so promptly recovered, and a suitable opportunity afforded of paying them every mark of respect, in their interment upon an island of a small group, which had not then been named. I therefore called the former "Henry's Island," and the latter "Underwood's Group," as a testimonial of our regard for the deceased.
In bearing testimony to the valuable services, zeal, and abilities evinced at all times by these officers, I have, in common with all, to lament deeply the loss, which not only their relatives and friends, but the country and the expedition have sustained in their decease.
I take leave to express my satisfaction of the activity and zeal displayed by Lieutenant Commandant Ringgold, the officers and crews of the Porpoise, Flying Fish, and the boats from this ship and of the Peacock, who were engaged in the attack; also of their strict observance of the orders to protect the women and children from harm.
Shortly after my arrival in the Feejee group, I was convinced that the natives were not to be trusted under any circumstances, and required that all belonging to the expedition should be armed, when visiting the shore.
I also issued an order on the second day after my arrival, applicable to all engaged in boat duty among the islands, and I am confident that strict attention to this order during the three months we have been so arduously engaged in surveying all parts of this extensive group, has prevented the occurrence of many other serious accidents.
I have the honor to be, Sir,
UNITED STATES SHIP VINCENNES,
Sir: In compliance with your instructions, I have the honor to submit to you the following report of transactions which fell under my observation between the 21st and 24th ult.
At daylight, on the morning of the 22d, the Flying Fish stood to sea from the anchorage near the south end of Nabete Island. Soon after, I followed with the boats, and made the best of my way toward my destination. At sunset, the wind failing, anchored under one of the small islands to the north of Mall Next morning got under way, and at 5 P. M., anchored in the harbor at the east side of that island.
Supposing it possible that the Porpoise had anchored on the other side where you had directed me to join her, I despatched Lieutenant Underwood, with directions to land near the opening between the islands, where, by ascending a slight eminence, he would have a view of her anchorage, communicating to him my doubts of the good feeling of the natives, with which I had been impressed in the short time I had had of observing their conduct on my previous cruise-also that we had held no intercourse with them-directing him at the same time to be well armed, and return before sunset. A few minutes after he had landed, I saw him return to his boat with one of his crew, who had landed with him, and a native. At the same time I observed certain movements among a party of natives, who, at the moment, appeared around the point near which Lieut. U.'s boat was lying, and with whom he appeared to hold conversation. I immediately hoisted his recall, which was promptly obeyed. After reporting no vessel in sight, he informed me of the following circumstance which had occurred during his short absence.
As he ascended the hill already referred to, he suddenly came upon a native carrying an armful of clubs, who, the moment he perceived Lieut. U., threw down his burden and attempted flight, but was detain
ed, and made to follow them toward the boat. When he arrived on the beach, the party of whom I have spoken approached, and appeared much disconcerted at finding their comrade without arms, and in his power.
After some conversation with Lieut. U. on the subject, we mutually agreed that in our endeavors to procure provisions, of which we were in much need, it would be necessary to adopt every precaution.
Next morning, the 24th, we discovered the schooner at anchor, about eight miles to the eastward; and at 9 o'clock, Lieut. Emmons joined us with the Peacock's first cutter. Several natives came off with a few yams and two small pigs; and in reply to our inquiries, informed us that their town was too distant to bring off provisions in great quantities, and that we must go there, if we desired more. I then gave John Sac, our interpreter, permission to visit the town, to ascertain if provisions could be obtained: he soon returned, and informed me that he thought we could get what we wanted. Lieut. Underwood immediately requested permission to go, and make the necessary purchases, which I granted, informing him that I would follow as soon as the tide permitted; when he shoved off for the passage between the islands.
About the same time Lieut. Emmons departed for the purpose of making observations on the smaller islands. I soon perceived that the Leopard grounded in the passage, and that a number of natives, perhaps fifteen or twenty, had collected about her, and, joining their song with that of the boat's crew, were assisting to drag her through. As the number of natives appeared increasing, and impelled by apprehensions of some danger, I immediately attempted to follow him; but the cutter being much heavier, I was unable to do so until after a detention of the tide, of perhaps twenty minutes.
After getting into the bay, I found the Leopard at anchor about 2,000 feet from the shore, in just sufficient water to permit me to get alongside, and I was informed by the crew that Lieut. U. had gone ashore, leaving a hostage, whom I immediately took into my boat. With the aid of my glass, I saw Lieut. U. with several of his crew, apparently in conversation with a party of 12 or 15 natives.
Nothing occurred for the space of half an hour, when Robert Furman was sent off by Lieut. Underwood to inform me that the natives would not trade, unless for muskets or powder. I directed Furman to return to the shore and say to Mr. U. that I could not consent to such an exchange while the schooner was within reach; that we could be supplied by her; and to hurry off, as I thought he had been quite long enough absent to purchase all we required, if the natives were disposed to trade.
About this time, Midshipman Henry obtained my permission and left for the shore. A few minutes after, a small canoe, with three natives, came along side, and, after an exchange of some words with the "hostage," he displayed a little anxiety to return with them to the shore. As they pushed off he attempted to leave the boat, when I took him by the arm, and directed him to sit down, giving him to understand, as well as possible, that he must keep quiet till the return of