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of October, 1839, extending from its point of junction with the Boston and Worcester railroad in Worcester, to the Connecticut river, is 54 miles in length. The western section, extending from the Connecticut river to the border of the State of New York, which is 62 3-5 miles in length, is already opened, for about 40 miles, and it is anticipated that it will be completed before the end of the present year. The two sections, together with the Boston and Worcester road, which is 44 5-8 miles, make a distance of 161 miles from Boston to the western boundary of the state, and the further addition of the Albany and West-Stockbridge railroad, 38 1-6 miles in length, will make the distance from Boston to Albany, within a small fraction of 200 miles. The cost of this whole line of railroad, belonging to three independent companies, will exceed nine millions of dollars. The expenditures on the Boston and Worcester road, including the depot buildings in Boston, and 20 miles of the second track, extending from Needham to Westborough, which will be completed the present season, will amount to $2,200,000. The further addition of expenditure which will be necessary to complete the second track, in the substantial manner in which it is begun, will increase the cost of this road to $2,500,000.

The greatest inclination from a level of the Boston and Worcester road, is 30 feet in a mile. The whole amount of the several ascents in passing from the depot in Boston to the termination of the road in Worcester, is 590 feet, and the whole change of level in the descending planes, nine in number, is 123 feet. The aggregate of ascents and descents, is 713 feet.* The elevation of the Worcester depot is 467 feet above that in Boston, or about 470 above the level of high spring tides.

The elevation of the Boston and Worcester road, at the point where the Western road unites with it, is 463 feet above the Boston depot. In proceeding along the Western railroad, there is a further ascent of 430 feet in a space of 13 miles, to the summit in Charlton, where the elevation is 893 feet above the level of the depot in Boston. From that point to the Connecticut river, there is a descent of 836 feet, the level of the viaduct being 57 feet above that of the Boston depot, and 21 feet above the level of low water, in the river, which last level is 394 feet above high tide water. ascent on the western division, in a distance of about 40 miles from Connecticut river to the summit in Washington, is 1392 feet, which point is 1449 feet above the level of the Boston depot. Between

*At page 194, Mon. Chron., Vol. I., there is a typographical error, of 611.1, for 711.1. There are some variations in the statements of the levels, in consequence of changes which have been made in raising some of the planes to improve the drain

age.

the summit and the line of the State of New York, are four more ascending planes, amounting in the whole elevation to 135 feet, and a large number of descending planes, amounting in all to 676 feet, and the height of the termination at the State line, is 808 feet above the commencement of the line in Boston. There are 53 planes in this section, the whole length of which is 54 miles. Of the sections, 5 are level, 15 have various inclinations of 10 feet in a mile, or under, 11 from 10 to 20 feet, 6 from 20 to 30, 8 from 30 to 40, 6 from 44 to 50, 1 of 51, and 1 of 60 feet. There are 20 planes ascending west, and 26 descending.

MASSACHUSETTS RAILROADS.

The cost of the eastern section of the Western railroad, extending from Worcester to the Connecticut river, as shown by the accounts to the 1st of December last, amounted to $2,016,969. The items of this account are thus exhibited in the report of the Directors to the Legislature :

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wheeled and 6 four-wheeled, first class Passenger, 2 second class do., 3 baggage, 70 freight, 10 dirt, and 4 hand Cars,

Depot Lands, for 11 stations, about 20

acres,

Land Damages and fencing, including
lands for changes of highways, expenses
of Commissioners and Referees, &c.,
Miscellaneous Expenses, including sala-
ries, printing, stationery, clerk hire, of-
fice rents, postages, collecting assess-
ments, expenses of Directors, &c., to
January 1, 1840,
Interest to January 1, 1840,

$5,543 43

89,023 11

1. By the Engineers.

Graduation, including formation of road-
bed and foundations for superstruc-
ture,
Masonry, including foundations and ex-
clusive of masonry on Connecticut
River Bridge,
Bridges, including covering and painting,
and masonry
of Connecticut River
Bridge,

25,251 53
13,313 57

133,131 64

$2,016,969 90

The western section of this railroad has been built in face of as formidable obstacles as any which have been successfully encountered by any work of the kind, yet constructed. It passes over the range of the Green Mountains, which traverses the State from north to south, dividing the waters of Connecticut river from those which fall into the Hudson and the Housatonick. The summit of the ridge where it is crossed by the railroad in the town of Washington, is 1440 feet above the level of low water in Connecticut river, the grade of the road being there reduced by excavation about 28 feet. The excavation on part of the ascending slope is much greater, a large part of it through ledges of rock. The estimated amount of excavation on this section of the road, is 3,742,697 cubic yards, of which 3,260,715 yards are of earth, 395,808 yards of ledge rock, and 86,374 of loose rock.

The following is the revised estimate of the cost of the work of this section, made by the engineers and agents, in January last:

$1,242,853 81

438,419 82

$117,804 18

163,847 00

$1,845,120 63

Superstructure, viz: Iron rails delivered

at Springfield and West Stockbridge, $358,763 42 Sills and sleepers, and transportation of same to and upon the road,

57,940 26

Splicing rail plates distributed on the

road,

17,850 00

Spikes delivered at Springfield and West
Stockbridge,

17,254 44

4,080 00

Turn-out castings,

Laying track, turn-outs and transportation on line, of rails and spikes,

Signs,"

"Look out," &c., and mile stones,

Depot buildings, including aqueducts and furniture,

Engineer Department, including instruments, surveys, superintendence, &c., from June, 1836, to Jan. 1, 1842,

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2. Addition estimated by Agent.

Depot Lands at 10 stations,
Land Damages and fencing 62.6 miles,
Miscellaneous Expenses, from Jan. 1836,
to July 1, 1842,

Interest on moneys borrowed and to be
borrowed to May 1, 1842,
Engines and Cars,

Amount estimated by Engineers for re-
pairing damages by the late freshet,
and for raising road-bed and other se-
curities against similar freshets,

Total estimate, west of Conn. River,
January, 1841,

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The route of this section of the railroad is somewhat circuitous, yet when it is considered what a height of land is passed by a gradual inclination, admitting of the action of ordinary locomotive power, it will be perceived that the requisite elevation is chiefly gained by the increase of distance. The distance in a right line from the viaduct on Connecticut river to the State line, passing over one of the most mountainous parts of the State, is a fraction short of 45 miles. The length of railroad being 62.6, the increase of distance is just 40 per cent. A diligent and thorough investigation of the interven

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