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478

1 23.

Paga

Page

5. New Grenada,

233 June and July, Proceedings of Congress, 321

9. Decision of Supreme Court in Case Aug. 3. Naval Action in La Plata,

466

of Amistad,

143

4. Death of Dr. Breckenridge,

476

17. President's Proclamation calling an

19. Steamboat Erie burned,

476

Extra Session,

143

10. Frigale Congress launched,

476

18. Mass. Legislature prorogued,

143

16. General Wool appointed Brigadier, 476

20. Circular of Secretary of Stato,

144

19. New British Parl. and Cabinet, 469

Governor of Va. resigned,

114

21. Death of Samuel Welles, Esq.,

470

26. Seminoles at Mobile,

144 23. Cession of Fernando Po to England, 382

28. New Ministry in Constantinople,

233

26. Earthquake in W. Indies,

466

30. Indians in Wisconsin,

144

30. Balloon Excursion,

467

31. Death of J. Ronaldson, Esq.,

186

31. British and Foreigo Postage, 469

April 4. Death of President Harrison,

187

Proceedings of Congress,

383

5. Report of U. S. Bank,

189

Yocatan,

464

6. Mr. Tyler takes the oaths as

July and August, Chinese Affairs,

556

President,

190

Auy., Sept., Oct., Nov., State Elections, 478, 562

7. Bank of France,

180

September, Canadian Legislature dissolved, 475

9. Address of President Tyler,

190

Mexican Affairs,

556

10. French Expedition for China,

180

4. Assignment of U. S. Bank,

477

10. Abyssiniun Researches,

186

10. Pres. Tyler's Cabinet chunged, 480

11. Gen. Harrison's house burned, 191

11. Sub Treasury robbed,

477

12. English War Steumer launched,

186

20. The Prince de Joinville,

477

13. N. Jersey Charter Election,

191

20. Arrest of Col. Groghaa,

477

17. British Operations in India,

20. Mechinics' Fair in Boston,

17. Penobscoi River clear of Ice,

191

Mehemet Ali's Tribute,

556

17. Murder and Arson at St. Louis,

235

24. U. S. Western Boundary,

477

19. Steam Ship President missing,

191

25. Yellow Fever in New Orleans, 477

20. French Army and Navy,

233

25. Proclamation by the President, 477

20. Ship W'm. Brown lost,

236

French Loan,

470

21, 22, 20. State Elections,

192

Aug, and Sept., Proceedings of Congress, 479

21. Spanish Steam Frigates,

192

New Grenada and Venezuela,

405

Brazilian Ministry,

323

October, Insurrection in Spain,

556

29. English Ministry defeated,

234

Election of President in Texas, 559

Chinese News,

Oct. 3. Violent Gale,

476

May 1. Pennsyl’a Relief and Revenue Bill, 236 4. Mr. Spencer appointed Sec. of War. 476

1. Insurrection in Candia,

324

4. Alex. McLeod's Trial,

476

5. Steam Ship Mississippi launched,

237

14. Vermout Legislature met,

477

6. Peruvian Insurrection suppressed,

325

18. Inundation of the Thames,

557

8. Ship Paragon lost,

334

18. Case of the William Brown, 477

14. National Fast,

19. New British Ambassadors,

558

16. Yucatan declared Independent,

22. Death of Hon. John Forsyth, 477

18. Steum Ship Britannia run aground, 238 25. Frauds on the English Exchequer, 558

20. Mexican Ministry,

26. Death of Gen. Cadwallader, 477

20. Disturbances in Turkey,

30. Insurrection in Belgium,

558

New Government in Spain,

30. Fire in the Tower of London, 559

29. National Theatre burnt,

Nov. 1. Public Debt of Texas,

464

30. Execution of Darmes,

1. O'Connell chosen Mayor of Dublin, 560

31. Extra Session of Congress, .

9. Prince Royal, heir of English

Disturbances in Syria,

throne, born,

559

June 1. Death of Sir David Wilkie,

25. Thames Tunnel complete,

559

1, and 10th. Oriental Politics,

326

25. Death of Sir Francis Chantrey, 559

5. Defeat of British Ministry,

3:26

28. Steamer Savannah lost,

561

6. Yucatan, Election in,

3:24

Dec. 1. Rhode Island Banks,

561

6. Suspected Mutiny or Piracy,

331

2. Brig Creole carried into Bermudas, 560

15. Canadian Legislature,

6. Indiana Finances,

562

18. Constitution of Panama,

327

6. Second Session of 27th Congress, 563

20. Operations in China,

470

15. State of Massachusetts Banks, 560

23. Bapk of U.S.,

335

22. Landing of Pilgrims celebrated, 562

24. Christians in Jerusalem,

28. Western R. R. completed,

562

24. Census of U. S.,

335

335

MAPS.

25. Death of Gen. Macomb,

25. Pennsylvania Finances,

336

Map of the Country adjacent to the Northern

29. Queen of Hanover died,

327

Line of Rhode Island,

106

" 30. Parliamentary Elections,

Map of Charles River and the Boundary Line

30. Bank of Franco

380

of R. I. and Mass.,

116

Operations in Candia and Syria, 464

Map of Columbia and Guyana,

152

336

July 1. Indiana Fiounces,

in departments,

155

5. New Greek Ministry,

378

Map of the Western Railroad,

257

378

5. Population of Prussia,

Map of Railways in England,

333

5. Copy-right in Prussia,

378

Mup of Discoveries in the South Polar Regions, 393

336

10. Judge Davis retired from Office,

Map of Belgium, and the Belgian Railroads, 480

10. Affairs of Turkey;

11, Illinois Bank Robbed,

336 ERRATA.–The reader will observe, in consult.

12. Opinion in McLeod's Case,

336 ing this volume hy the Index, that pages 479 and

16. Coronation of Emperor of Brazil,

475

480 are twice repeated.

" 21. Trade and Revenues of Paris,

380 0, page 382, line 6, for Old Parl., New Parl.,

< 23. New Churches near London,

read New Parl., Old Purl.

24. Pennsylvania State Loan,

336

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THE MONTHLY CHRONICLE.

JANUARY, 1841.

ARTICLE 1.

THE GOVERNMENTS OF EUROPE.

1. The Five Great Powers.

RUSSIA.

The sovereign of Russia, is the Emperor Nicholas I., son of the late Emperor Paul, who was born July 6, 1796, and succeeded his brother, the Emperor Alexander, Dec. 1, 1825, by virtue of a manifesto, regulating the succession, dated Aug. 28, 1823. He was crowned at Moscow, Sept. 3, 1826, and at Warsaw, May 24, 1829. He was married July 13, 1817, to

The Empress Alexandra Feodorowna, formerly Frederica Louisa Charlotte Wilhelmine, daughter of the late William III., King of Prussia, who was born July 13, 1798. They have seven children.

1. Alexander Cesare witsch, and Hereditary Grand Duke, who was born April 29, 1818, and affianced Dec. 18, 1840, to the Princess Maximilienne Wilhelmine Augusta Sophia Maria, born Aug. 8, 1824, daughter of the Grand Duke Louis II. of Hesse.

2. Maria, born Aug. 18, 1819, and married July 14, 1839, to the Duke Maximilian Joseph Eugene Augustus Napoleon, of Leuchtenberg, Prince of Eichstedt, who was born Oct. 2, 1817. Their residence is at St. Petersburg.

3. Olga, Grand Duchess, born Sep. 11, 1822.
4. Alexander, Grand Duchess, born June 24, 1823.
5. Grand Duke Constantine, born Sep. 21, 1827.
6. Grand Duke Nicholas, born Aug. 8, 1831.
7. Grand Duke Michael, born Oct. 25, 1832.

Brothers and sisters.

1. The reigning Grand Duchess of Saxe Weimar. 2. The Queen of the Netherlands.

3. The Grand Duke Michael, born Feb. 8, 1798, and married Feb. 19, 1824, to the Grand Duchess Helena, Paulowna, formerly Frederica Charlotte Maria, daugh

ter of Prince Paul of Wurtemberg, niece of the king, who was born January 9, 1807 and embraced the Greek religion, Dec. 17, 1823. They have three daughters : 1st, the Grand Duchess Maria, born March 9, 1825; 2d, Grand Duchess Elizabeth, born May 26, 1826; and 3d, the Grand Duchess Catharine, born Aug. 28, 1827.

The Council of the Empire.

1. The President, General of Cavalry, Prince Vassiltchikoff.

II. Presidents and members of Departments : viz., 1, of Laws, President;—Privy Counsellor and Secretary of State, Bludoff. Members ;-Privy Counsellors, Count Golovkine, Count Lavinsky, and Martchenko. 2, of Military Affairs, President, General of Infantry, Count' Tolstoy; Members, General of Infantry, Count Essen; General of Cavalry, Count Golenitscheff Koutouzoff; and Admiral, Prince Menchikoff. 3, of Civil and Ecclesiastical Affairs, Prince Peter of Holstein-Oldenburg, Lieut. General; Gen. Bakhmetieff; Privy Counsellor Olenine; and Count Koutaissoff. 4, of Political Economy, President, Gen. Levachcff; Members, Privy Counsellor Count Strogonoff ; Gen. Count Vorontsoff, Privy Counsellor Villamoff, Privy Counsellor, Count Pahlen. 5, of Affairs of the Kingdom of Poland, President, Gen. Field Marshal, Prince of Warsaw, Count Paskevitch of Erivan; Members, Gens. Roznecki, and Count Krasinski; Privy Counsellors Count Zamoyski, and Prince Drucki Lubecki, Lieut. Gen. Count Grabowski, Privy Counsellor Bludoff, and Min. Sec. of State of Poland, Turkull.

III. Members who have not seats in the departments, viz. His Imperial Highness the Grand Duke Michael ; Field Marshal Prince Wittgenstein; Gen. Prince Labanoff Rostowsky; Gen. Prince Galitsin; Gen. Yermoloff ; Gen. Count Pahlen; Privy Counsellor, Prince Galitsin; Admiral Moller; Gen. Count Benkendorff; Gen. Count Orloff; Priv. Counsellor Ozeroff; and Counsellor of State Baron de Hahn.

IV. Ministers, viz., Minister of the House of the Emperor, Gen. Valkonski; Director-in-Chief of the Department of the Posts, Privy Counsellor Prince Galitsin; Vice Chancellor, Count Nesselrode ; Director-in-Chief of Means of Communication, and Public Buildings, Gen. Count Toll ; Adjunct, Lieut. Gen. Deviatnine ; Minister of war, Gen. Count Tchernycheff; Minister of Finances, Gen. Count Cancrine ; Adjunct, Counsellor int. Wrotschenko; Comptroller General, Priv. CounBellor Hitrovo; Minister of Domains of the Empire, Gen. Count Kisseleff; Minister of Public Instruction, Privy Counsellor Ouvaroff; Minister of Justice, Secretary of State Count Panin; Director of the Ministry of the Interior, Lieut. Gen. Count Stroganoff; Min. Sec. of State of Finland, Count Rehbinder; Adjunct, Count d'Armfeld.

V. Commission of Requests, President;-Privy Counsellor Toutschkoff; Members, M. de Bezrodny; Priv. Counsellors Stobodskoy, Novosiltsoff, and Longuinoff.

VI. Chancelry of the Council of the empire, Secretary of the empire, Baron de Korff.

VII. Chancelry of the Committee of Ministers, Counsellor of State Bakhtine, directing the affairs of the Committee.

Military Governors General.

St. Petersbog, Gen. Count d' Essen.
Moscow, Gen. Prince Golytzin.

Governors General, of Finland, Prince Menschikoff; of Livonia, Esthonia, and Courland, Lieut. Gen. Baron de Pahlen; of the governments of Vitebsk, Mohilew, and Smolensk, Adj. Gen. Diakoff; of the governments of Grodno, Bialistock, and Minsk, Lieut. Gen. Mirkowitsch ; of Tschernigoff

, Poltawa, and Charkoff, Lieut. Gen. Prince Dolgoroucki ; of Podolia and Volhynia, Lieut. Gen. Bibicoff; of New Russia and Bessarabia, Adj. Gen. Count Woronżoff; Commandant in Chief in Grusia, Armenia, and Trans Caucasia, Gen. of Infantry, Golowin: Adjunct for the Civil Administration, Baron Hahn; of Southern Siberia, Lieut. Gen. Prince Gortschakoff; of Eastern Siberia, Lieuí. Gen. Ruperti.

Besides the above Governors General, there are Civil and Military Governors of each of the 52 Governments of the empire, the same individual in many instances filling both offices. The names of these officers are here omitted, as well as of the grand officers of the Court. The following are some of the principal members of the corps diplomatique, at St. Petersburg.

United States of America, C. C. Cambreleng, Min. Plen., William W. Chew, Sec. of Leg. ; Austria, Lieut. F. M. Count Fiquelmont, Amb., Baron de Meysenbush, Cons. of Amb.; Prince Francis of Lobkowitz, Lieut. Col. Sec. of Amb.; France, Baron de Barante, Amb., Casimir Perier, 1st Sec., Baron d'Andre, 2d Sec. of Amb.; Great Britain, the Marquis of Clanricarde, Amb. Ext., Hon. John Arthur Douglas Bloomfield, Sec. of Amb. ; Prussia, M. de Liebermann, Min. Plen., the Count de Westphalia, Sec. of Leg.

The source of all political power is in the Emperor, by whom the members of the Council, and all other high officers are appointed. There are hereditary nobles, who possess immense estates, and vast numbers of serfs, but as such they possess no political power. The titles and rank conferred by the emperor are chiefly military.

The principal political division of the Russian dominions in Europe and Asia, is into Governments. There is no distinction between the European and Asiatic Governments, some of them extending both sides of the geographical line, which is generally understood as dividing Europe from Asia.

The Governments are classified, according to the ancient provinces from which they were formed, and their extent and population are as follows :

Square Miles
English.

519,477

Population

in 1838. 1,216,700

316,264

17,562,600

34,340
76,181

1,525,300
2,599,100

1. The Northern Provinces including the governments of Archangel, Olonetz and Vologda, 3,

2. Great Russia, including the governments of St. Petersburg, Novogorod, Pskow, Smolensk, Moscow, Taver, Yaroslaff, Kostroma, Nijni Novogorod, Vladimir, Riazan, Tamboff, Toula, Kalonga, Orel and Kusk, 16,

3. Provinces of the Baltic, Esthonia, Livonia and Courland, 3,

4. White Russia, Vitebsk, Mohileff, and Minsk, 3,

5. Lithuanian Provinces, Wilna, Grodno, and Bialostok, 3,

6. Little Russia, Volhynia, Podolia, Kieff, Tschernigoff, Poltawa, Kharkoff, Voronega, and Country of the Don Cossacks, 8,

7. New Russia, Catherinoslaff, Kerson, Tauris, and Bessarabia, 4, with the cities of Taganrok, Rostoff, Asoff, Odessa and Kertsch,

8. Provinces of the Wolga, and the Caspian Sea, Casan, Penza, Simbirsk, Saratoff, Astrakan, and Countries of the Caucasus and of the Cossacks of the Black Sea, 6,

9. Provinces of Asia and Silesia, including two or

40,257

2,358,500

206,061

10,725,200

108,778

2,797,000

234,285

5,709,600

Population in 1838.

7,422,100

51,916,100

three governments partly in Europe, Orenburg, Perm, Square Miles
Viatka, Tobolsk, Tomsk, (the government of Omsk English.
having been suppressed, and its territories added to
the two last namned) and Irkutsk, including Yakutsk,
Kamtchatka, Okhotsk and Yenisseisk, 6,

5,566,505 Total of 52 governments,

7,102,148 To which is to be added,

1. The Grand Duchy of Finland, divided into eight local governments,

135,800 2. The Trans-Caucasian Provinces, Georgia, Imeretia, Shirvan, Daghestan, Armenia, Gouriel, Mingrelia, &c.,

71,639 3. The Kingdom of Poland,

47,800 4. Territories on the North West Coast of America,

367,500 Soldiers and Sailors in active service, with their families,

1,397,145

2,000,000 4,298,962

61,053

1,300,000

Total of Russian Dominions,

7,724,947

60,973,260

These countries embrace nearly half the Continent of Europe, and more than a third of that of Asia. In the year 1838, the number of registered births, among the population of the Greek Church, was 2,068,539, of whom 1,063,040 were males, and 1,005,499 females. Number of deaths, 1,474,281, of whom 742,489 were inales, and 731,792 females. Excess of births over deaths, 594,258. In the year 1839 the number of births in all the Lutheran Reformed communities was 74,083, of whom 38,050 were males, and of deaths 50,987. Of the Roman Catholic communion, births 111,827, of whom 58,116 were males, deaths 69,900. Surplus of births, Lutheran, 23,180. Roman Catholic, 41,927. If a small addition be made, for the population of the Armenian and Mahommedan faith, it will show an annual increase of population of about one and one tenth per cent. per annum.

The annual revenues of the State amount to about 355,000,000 roubles in paper, which is equal to about $75,000,000. The public debt amounts to 34,000,000 roubles, or $7,183,098.

The army in 1835 was stated to amount to 500,000 men of infantry, 86,800 cavalry, 10,000 Cossacks, and 1000 pieces of artillery, besides the army of the Caucasus, of 80,000 men.

The Navy consists of 50 ships of the line, 25 frigates, 8 steam ships of war, 128 corvettes, brigs, &c., and 500 gun boats.

According to official statements of the commerce of the empire, the exports in the year 1839 amounted to 341,898,679 roubles banco [$ 73,500,000) which was an increase on the imports of 1838 of 23,372,992 roubles. The imports amounted to 249,152,476 roubles, leaving a difference of 92,746,203 roubles in favor of exports. The importation of gold and silver, in coin and bullion, amounted to 65,752,741 roubles [$14,000,000). The principal exports were

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