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THE MONTHLY CHRONICLE.
THE GOVERNMENTS OF EUROPE.
1. The Five Great Powers.
The sovereign of Russia, is the Emperor Nicholas I., son of the late Emperor Paul, who was born July 6, 1796, and succeeded his brother, the Emperor Alexander, Dec. 1, 1825, by virtue of a manifesto, regulating the succession, dated Aug. 28, 1823. He was crowned at Moscow, Sept. 3, 1826, and at Warsaw, May 24, 1829. He was married July 13, 1817, to
The Empress Alexandra Feodorowna, formerly Frederica Louisa Charlotte Wilhelmine, daughter of the late William III., King of Prussia, who was born July 13, 1798. They have seven children.
1. Alexander Cesare witsch, and Hereditary Grand Duke, who was born April 29, 1818, and affianced Dec. 18, 1840, to the Princess Maximilienne Wilhelmine Augusta Sophia Maria, born Aug. 8, 1824, daughter of the Grand Duke Louis II. of Hesse.
2. Maria, born Aug. 18, 1819, and married July 14, 1839, to the Duke Maximilian Joseph Eugene Augustus Napoleon, of Leuchtenberg, Prince of Eichstedt, who was born Oct. 2, 1817. Their residence is at St. Petersburg.
3. Olga, Grand Duchess, born Sep. 11, 1822.
Brothers and sisters.
1. The reigning Grand Duchess of Saxe Weimar. 2. The Queen of the Netherlands.
3. The Grand Duke Michael, born Feb. 8, 1798, and married Feb. 19, 1824, to the Grand Duchess Helena, Paulowna, formerly Frederica Charlotte Maria, daugh
ter of Prince Paul of Wurtemberg, niece of the king, who was born January 9, 1807 and embraced the Greek religion, Dec. 17, 1823. They have three daughters : 1st, the Grand Duchess Maria, born March 9, 1825; 2d, Grand Duchess Elizabeth, born May 26, 1826; and 3d, the Grand Duchess Catharine, born Aug. 28, 1827.
The Council of the Empire.
1. The President, General of Cavalry, Prince Vassiltchikoff.
II. Presidents and members of Departments : viz., 1, of Laws, President;—Privy Counsellor and Secretary of State, Bludoff. Members ;-Privy Counsellors, Count Golovkine, Count Lavinsky, and Martchenko. 2, of Military Affairs, President, General of Infantry, Count' Tolstoy; Members, General of Infantry, Count Essen; General of Cavalry, Count Golenitscheff Koutouzoff; and Admiral, Prince Menchikoff. 3, of Civil and Ecclesiastical Affairs, Prince Peter of Holstein-Oldenburg, Lieut. General; Gen. Bakhmetieff; Privy Counsellor Olenine; and Count Koutaissoff. 4, of Political Economy, President, Gen. Levachcff; Members, Privy Counsellor Count Strogonoff ; Gen. Count Vorontsoff, Privy Counsellor Villamoff, Privy Counsellor, Count Pahlen. 5, of Affairs of the Kingdom of Poland, President, Gen. Field Marshal, Prince of Warsaw, Count Paskevitch of Erivan; Members, Gens. Roznecki, and Count Krasinski; Privy Counsellors Count Zamoyski, and Prince Drucki Lubecki, Lieut. Gen. Count Grabowski, Privy Counsellor Bludoff, and Min. Sec. of State of Poland, Turkull.
III. Members who have not seats in the departments, viz. His Imperial Highness the Grand Duke Michael ; Field Marshal Prince Wittgenstein; Gen. Prince Labanoff Rostowsky; Gen. Prince Galitsin; Gen. Yermoloff ; Gen. Count Pahlen; Privy Counsellor, Prince Galitsin; Admiral Moller; Gen. Count Benkendorff; Gen. Count Orloff; Priv. Counsellor Ozeroff; and Counsellor of State Baron de Hahn.
IV. Ministers, viz., Minister of the House of the Emperor, Gen. Valkonski; Director-in-Chief of the Department of the Posts, Privy Counsellor Prince Galitsin; Vice Chancellor, Count Nesselrode ; Director-in-Chief of Means of Communication, and Public Buildings, Gen. Count Toll ; Adjunct, Lieut. Gen. Deviatnine ; Minister of war, Gen. Count Tchernycheff; Minister of Finances, Gen. Count Cancrine ; Adjunct, Counsellor int. Wrotschenko; Comptroller General, Priv. CounBellor Hitrovo; Minister of Domains of the Empire, Gen. Count Kisseleff; Minister of Public Instruction, Privy Counsellor Ouvaroff; Minister of Justice, Secretary of State Count Panin; Director of the Ministry of the Interior, Lieut. Gen. Count Stroganoff; Min. Sec. of State of Finland, Count Rehbinder; Adjunct, Count d'Armfeld.
V. Commission of Requests, President;-Privy Counsellor Toutschkoff; Members, M. de Bezrodny; Priv. Counsellors Stobodskoy, Novosiltsoff, and Longuinoff.
VI. Chancelry of the Council of the empire, Secretary of the empire, Baron de Korff.
VII. Chancelry of the Committee of Ministers, Counsellor of State Bakhtine, directing the affairs of the Committee.
Military Governors General.
St. Petersbog, Gen. Count d' Essen.
Governors General, of Finland, Prince Menschikoff; of Livonia, Esthonia, and Courland, Lieut. Gen. Baron de Pahlen; of the governments of Vitebsk, Mohilew, and Smolensk, Adj. Gen. Diakoff; of the governments of Grodno, Bialistock, and Minsk, Lieut. Gen. Mirkowitsch ; of Tschernigoff
, Poltawa, and Charkoff, Lieut. Gen. Prince Dolgoroucki ; of Podolia and Volhynia, Lieut. Gen. Bibicoff; of New Russia and Bessarabia, Adj. Gen. Count Woronżoff; Commandant in Chief in Grusia, Armenia, and Trans Caucasia, Gen. of Infantry, Golowin: Adjunct for the Civil Administration, Baron Hahn; of Southern Siberia, Lieut. Gen. Prince Gortschakoff; of Eastern Siberia, Lieuí. Gen. Ruperti.
Besides the above Governors General, there are Civil and Military Governors of each of the 52 Governments of the empire, the same individual in many instances filling both offices. The names of these officers are here omitted, as well as of the grand officers of the Court. The following are some of the principal members of the corps diplomatique, at St. Petersburg.
United States of America, C. C. Cambreleng, Min. Plen., William W. Chew, Sec. of Leg. ; Austria, Lieut. F. M. Count Fiquelmont, Amb., Baron de Meysenbush, Cons. of Amb.; Prince Francis of Lobkowitz, Lieut. Col. Sec. of Amb.; France, Baron de Barante, Amb., Casimir Perier, 1st Sec., Baron d'Andre, 2d Sec. of Amb.; Great Britain, the Marquis of Clanricarde, Amb. Ext., Hon. John Arthur Douglas Bloomfield, Sec. of Amb. ; Prussia, M. de Liebermann, Min. Plen., the Count de Westphalia, Sec. of Leg.
The source of all political power is in the Emperor, by whom the members of the Council, and all other high officers are appointed. There are hereditary nobles, who possess immense estates, and vast numbers of serfs, but as such they possess no political power. The titles and rank conferred by the emperor are chiefly military.
The principal political division of the Russian dominions in Europe and Asia, is into Governments. There is no distinction between the European and Asiatic Governments, some of them extending both sides of the geographical line, which is generally understood as dividing Europe from Asia.
The Governments are classified, according to the ancient provinces from which they were formed, and their extent and population are as follows :
in 1838. 1,216,700
1. The Northern Provinces including the governments of Archangel, Olonetz and Vologda, 3,
2. Great Russia, including the governments of St. Petersburg, Novogorod, Pskow, Smolensk, Moscow, Taver, Yaroslaff, Kostroma, Nijni Novogorod, Vladimir, Riazan, Tamboff, Toula, Kalonga, Orel and Kusk, 16,
3. Provinces of the Baltic, Esthonia, Livonia and Courland, 3,
4. White Russia, Vitebsk, Mohileff, and Minsk, 3,
5. Lithuanian Provinces, Wilna, Grodno, and Bialostok, 3,
6. Little Russia, Volhynia, Podolia, Kieff, Tschernigoff, Poltawa, Kharkoff, Voronega, and Country of the Don Cossacks, 8,
7. New Russia, Catherinoslaff, Kerson, Tauris, and Bessarabia, 4, with the cities of Taganrok, Rostoff, Asoff, Odessa and Kertsch,
8. Provinces of the Wolga, and the Caspian Sea, Casan, Penza, Simbirsk, Saratoff, Astrakan, and Countries of the Caucasus and of the Cossacks of the Black Sea, 6,
9. Provinces of Asia and Silesia, including two or
Population in 1838.
three governments partly in Europe, Orenburg, Perm, Square Miles
5,566,505 Total of 52 governments,
7,102,148 To which is to be added,
1. The Grand Duchy of Finland, divided into eight local governments,
135,800 2. The Trans-Caucasian Provinces, Georgia, Imeretia, Shirvan, Daghestan, Armenia, Gouriel, Mingrelia, &c.,
71,639 3. The Kingdom of Poland,
47,800 4. Territories on the North West Coast of America,
367,500 Soldiers and Sailors in active service, with their families,
Total of Russian Dominions,
These countries embrace nearly half the Continent of Europe, and more than a third of that of Asia. In the year 1838, the number of registered births, among the population of the Greek Church, was 2,068,539, of whom 1,063,040 were males, and 1,005,499 females. Number of deaths, 1,474,281, of whom 742,489 were inales, and 731,792 females. Excess of births over deaths, 594,258. In the year 1839 the number of births in all the Lutheran Reformed communities was 74,083, of whom 38,050 were males, and of deaths 50,987. Of the Roman Catholic communion, births 111,827, of whom 58,116 were males, deaths 69,900. Surplus of births, Lutheran, 23,180. Roman Catholic, 41,927. If a small addition be made, for the population of the Armenian and Mahommedan faith, it will show an annual increase of population of about one and one tenth per cent. per annum.
The annual revenues of the State amount to about 355,000,000 roubles in paper, which is equal to about $75,000,000. The public debt amounts to 34,000,000 roubles, or $7,183,098.
The army in 1835 was stated to amount to 500,000 men of infantry, 86,800 cavalry, 10,000 Cossacks, and 1000 pieces of artillery, besides the army of the Caucasus, of 80,000 men.
The Navy consists of 50 ships of the line, 25 frigates, 8 steam ships of war, 128 corvettes, brigs, &c., and 500 gun boats.
According to official statements of the commerce of the empire, the exports in the year 1839 amounted to 341,898,679 roubles banco [$ 73,500,000) which was an increase on the imports of 1838 of 23,372,992 roubles. The imports amounted to 249,152,476 roubles, leaving a difference of 92,746,203 roubles in favor of exports. The importation of gold and silver, in coin and bullion, amounted to 65,752,741 roubles [$14,000,000). The principal exports were