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3. Upon the east side of the Aral, nearly on the same road which Meyendorf followed in his route to Bokhara.
4. Upon the west bank of the Aral, through the Isthmus of the Turkomans, between the Aral and Caspian seas.
The Khan of Khívah (says the author), following the footsteps of his forefathers, not only pursues the same system of traffic in slaves, and plundering passing caravans, but has also endeavored to bring under his yoke the southern Turkoman tribes, as far as the Persian frontier; and in 1832, he advanced with a considerable force to Mero, a distance from Khívah of 15 days' march. Still later, he has taken a part in the affairs touching the Persian siege of Herat, his political and religious interest being in direct opposition to those of the Persian Government. The distance of Khívah from Herat is about 40!) English geographical miles.
The author proceeds to give an account of the nature of the country, mineralogical, vegetable, zoological, physical, &c.
The country appears to be chiefly hilly, and is likewise covered with numerous lakes, some of them salt-lakes. Three ranges of heights, running nearly in a parallel direction with the meridian, compose the mass of the South Ural. The whole hilly country is intersected by va rious ways of communication.
The great north and south chain of Ural mountains, which lies between Guberlinsk (lat. 51 deg. 8 min.), and the great mountain Denishken Kamen (lat. 60 deg. 20 min.), only oscillates between 56 deg. and 57 deg. 73 min. of east longitude, and may be said to disappear in the Isthmus of the Turkomans.
As regards the mineralogical productions of the country, it appears that traces of the following metals and minerals, &c., have been found in the Ural, the steppes of the Oxus, and elsewhere-viz., salt, coal, gold, silver, copper, iron, gypsum, marble, lime, chalk, marl, native sulphur, alum, naptha, pumice stone, granite, pipe and potters' clay, sand and pudding stones, vitriol, crystals, topazes, &c. Gold and silver are said to be always found combined. Falk remarked that the steppes become freer from salt and saline plants in proportion as they rise.
As regards vegetation, these countries would appear to be tolerably fertile, considering the latitude and situation, &c.
There is a great variety of saline plants of very peculiar properties, a great scarcity of cerealia, and an exclusion of coniferous trees from woods of soft foliaceous trees. Reeds and rushes abound in the beds of rivers and in the hollows of the steppes. Islands of reeds float on the Aral; these reeds are used for many necessary purposes, such as for covering winter huts, for firewood, and fodder for cattle, &c. The black poplar is found in the valley of the Emba, and is used for building houses on the Russian frontier.
Succulent and saccharine plants are found about the bifurcations of the Oxus, and the author inquires whether the sugar plant may not be found there likewise. The arbutus produces annually at Orenburg, and is used as a winter provision in Bokhara, according to Falk.
The northern boundary of the mulberry tree extends from the Balkan and Kara-Boghaz Gulf to Mangishlak. The white mulberry is preferred at Khívah, because the silkworm thrives best on its leaves.
The cultivation of fruit trees is found not to thrive beyond Iletz Kaya, on the Ural. The poppy is mentioned as an article of cultivation in Khívah, Bokhara, &c.
The severe winters, following the excessive heats in Astrakan and the country about the Aral, totally prevent the cultivation of the lemon tree there; it appears, however, that the lemon was formerly grown in Khívah, and that it might be cultivated now with success there, if proper pains were taken. Mention is made of the cotton shrub in Astrakan, although it does not generally thrive so far north as rice; it has been also cultivated in Khívah.
As regards the seasons, it appears that the winters in general are not immoderately severe, and that the snow seldom lasts more than four days. The Oxus is occasionally frozen over, but never for any length of time.
There are no extensive forests in this part of the world; the first woods take their commencement from above Orenberg; firs, larch, birch, and black poplar trees, are found, the latter in great abundance to the south of the Ural. In the valley of the Emba, willow, beach, and alder trees are also found.
With respect to zoology, the rodentia are numerous, as well as wolves, in the caverns of the mountains. Horses are the most valuable domestic animals in almost all the grassy steppes. The beautiful race of Argamats from Bokhara supply the cavalry of Khívah. Camels and sheep, oxen and goats, constitute the chief wealth of the wandering tribes. The wild boar abounds in the vicinity of all the rivers.
Seals inhabit the Caspian and Aral seas, but not the smaller lakes. The water of the Aral is so little salt, as almost to be drinkable; it is very seldom frozen. Sturgeon fishery is carried on in the Caspian Sea.
The oasis of Khívah contains a population of freemen and slaves, composed of people from the surrounding countries, and these wanderers, who are spread over the extensive space, include Armenians, Indians, negroes, &c. The people of Khívah profess the Sunnite doc
The protection of Russia is acknowledged as far as the Emba and the Sir. South of those rivers commences the ascendancy of Khívah. The wars of the Khívans are avowedly plundering parties. The author concludes by saying that Russian and English rivalry has produced the happiest results in the advancement of a knowledge of these countries, and that, should the Russian expedition succeed, new depots will soon be established for the protection of a more active commerce. In short, he seems to think that the success of Russia in Khívah would be productive of great benefit to commerce and discovery, &c.
VOLCANIC ERUPTION IN THE ISLAND OF JAVA.-The Java papers from the 5th to the 12th of December have been received. An article of the 8th of December, says :-" After the eruption of Mount Gede, on the 22d of November, other eruptions have taken place, viz., on the 1st inst., at between 5 and 6 o'clock in the morning; on the 2d, at half past 8, and on the 3d, at 6 in the evening. The following are some particulars of the explosion of the 1st, which was more violent than the two others. After the first violent explosion, accompanied with a slight motion of the earth, the fire rose from the crater to the height of 400 or 500 feet, at the same time a thick column of smoke rose to the height of 15,000 feet. (These estimates are founded on the ascertained fact that the top of Gede is 7,500 feet above Tjunjir.) The noise resembled the report of several pieces of artillery, accompanied by flashes of lightning. The sight was the more magnificent as the sky was perfectly cloudless and serene." An eye witness gives the details of the ceding eruptions. On the 11th he ascended to the top of Mount Gede, and stopped there to pass the night. He was awakened, about four o'clock in the morning, by an explosion of the crater. The fire rose to the height of 150 feet. On the same morning stones were cast up trom one to four feet in diameter, and many of smaller size. The largest fell the distance of two pals from the crater; the smaller ones with pieces of brimstone an inch in diameter, four pals, and ashes sixteen pals from the crater. In the erup. tion of the second, the noise of which was louder than the preceding, many stones, about five feet in diameter, fell. A building where silkworm eggs were kept was burnt to the ground, at the distance of a pal from the crater, as well as the leaves on all the trees a quarter of a pal from the crater. Many trees have been much damaged by the falling stones, and the road is so blocked up by the quantity of stones, that it cannot be passed on horseback. It is feared that Mount Gede will not remain quiet.
ZANTE, Feb. 26. After three days and nights of incessant rain, attended by a
violent gale of wind, another most alarming shock of earthquake was felt about seven in the evening. It was not so disastrous as that of October 30, which destroyed nearly all the houses on the island, but the duration was much longer, the vibration being continued from 30 to 35 seconds, while the former lasted only eight or nine. The consternation was general and extreme. The streets were in an instant filled with the terrified people, eager to fly, but not knowing where to seek safety. In their houses they dreaded being buried in ruins; in the streets they were drenched with rain. The churches were all filled, it being the hour of the evening prayers to the Virgin, offered up every Friday during Lent; and the cries and confusion were terrible. Only a few houses fell either in the town or the surrounding country; others were more or less shaken, and as the shocks recur daily, we have every reason to fear that in the end, the town will become a heap of ruins. After the earthquake of October 30, were felt successive shocks, more or less strong, during 40 days, makpre-ing the number amount to no fewer than 259, and during the remainder of 1840, the vibration of the earth was more or less perceptible every day. All the violent shocks were attended with dull rumbling sounds and subterranean explosions. Sometimes these noises were heard without being succeeded by any vibration, and sometimes the shocks were silent. Since 1514, Zante has experienced twenty-one earthquakes. That in 1514 divided the hill on which the fortress stood, and buried part of the ancient town in the ruins. In 1767, the shocks were repeated for three months, during which an epidemic disease prevailed. In 1791, the great shock lasted several minutes, caused immense damage, and was followed by minor shocks for six weeks. In 1820, the earthquake, which once more desolated the island, was preceded by a single flash of lightning. That of 1837 lasted with great intensity for twenty seconds; and that of 1840 was the most disastrous of all. In fine, the unfortunate island of Zante has suffered, during the 16th century two earthquakes; during the 17th, three; during the 18th, ten; and during the first portion of the 19th century, six.'
LONDON, March 1. SILVER COINAGE GREAT BRITAIN.--A return lately moved for by Mr. J. Pattison, M. P., states the total amount of silver monies coined at the Mint from 1816 to 1840 (both inclusive) to have been £11,108,265 15s., being a yearly average of about £444,33). The total amount of seignorage received on the said silver coinage was £616,747 8s. 2d., out of which the sum of £135,084 19s. was paid into the Exchequer pursuant to the act 7 William IV., cap. 9.
Cash advanced on the
Amount vested in public
PARIS, April 7. BANK OF FRANCE.The following return has been just published, exhibiting the situation of the Bank of France, and the character of its business for the last three months. Amount of bullion hand,
Commercial bills dis
CONTRA Bank notes in circulation not comprising branch banks,
Notes payable to order,
law of 1834,
outstanding, Sundry accounts,
254,849 53 3,753,228 34
CONTRA. Average amount of bank notes in circulation, Average amount of notes payable to order, Average amount of the Treasury account current,
Average of sundry ac-
PARIS, April 10. The frigate Erigone is fitting out at Brest for the Chinese seas, where it is to replace the Magicienne, which was wrecked. This ship will receive the order to demand the liberation of a Catholic missionary, Taillandier, whom the Chinese have imprisoned at Canton. A new traveller in Abyssinia has appeared, a Dr. Rochet. He went from Tudschurra, on the coast of Berberah, to Ankober, in Schoa. The King of Schoa, who always has a great desire of renewing his relations with Europe, sent him back with a letter to Louis Phillippe, and a present. This 4,000,000 00 | consisted of a horse, a dress for the queen, 457,746 73 a very pretty Ethiopian manuscript, and one of his war dresses, which consisted of 478,958,557 04 a buckler of rhinoceros skin, ornamented with silver, a sabre with a silver sheath, silver brassarts and bracelets, a kind of cuirass made of lion's skin, and a spear. Schoa might well become the centre of a considerable commerce, partly from its produce, especially in coffee, which is of the best quality, and in hides, and partly by the caravan which it sends to Soudan. Dr. Rochet taught the natives the art of making sugar, of which they had been ignorant, although the cane was abundant.
LONDON, April 12. Her Majesty's war steamer, the Geyser, of 1,050 tons, the keel of which was laid down at the latter end of last year, was launched from Pembroke dockyard on Thursday. She will be supplied with guns of the largest calibre, and got ready for sea immediately. Four other war steamers of similar size and description have been ordered to be built without delay.
Average of the position of the Bank during
Average amount of ad
vances made on the se
curity of bullion, Average amount of the advances upon public securities,
Average amount of the ac-
55,044,500 00 5,326,000 00
March 31. Died at Philadelphia, James
Ronaldson, Esq., aged 73. Mr. Ronaldson had lately returned from an extended tour in Europe, having for some years withdrawn from active business. He was a native of Scotland, but had been for many years a respected inhabitant of Philadelphia, where he carried on successfully the business of a type founder. He will long be remembered as an active participant in the principal enterprises for the improvement of the city-as the friend and counsellor of his emigrant country inen, as the Philadelphia type founder for a long period-the indefatiga. ble horticulturist-and more especially as the founder of the celebrated and most beautiful cemetery bearing his name-but last and not least, as a most upright, frugal, and honest man. He reaped the rewards of his course as he passed onward to death, in a condition of ease and affluence, unmarked with either arrogance or dictation. He lived by many beloved and he has died, by many lamented.
April 4th. Died, at Washington, in the 68th year of his age, WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON, President of the United States. On Saturday, March 27, he was attacked by pneumonia, but the strength of his constitution, and the skill of his physicians, so vigorously resisted the disease, that on Tuesday he appeared decidedly better, and it was hoped, was convalescent. These hopes were disappointed. At the close of the week, the disease as sumed a more dangerous appearance, and on Sunday morning he expired, after lying almost insensible for several hours. The following official document was immediately published by all the members of the Cabinet at the time in Washington, and a special messenger was despatched into Virginia for Mr. Tyler, the Vice President.
CITY OF WASHINGTON, April 4, 1841. An all-wise Providence having suddenly removed from this life, WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON, late President of the United States, we have thought it our duty, in the recess of Congress, and in the absence of the Vice President from the seat of Government, to make this afflicting bereavement known to the country, by this declaration, under our hands.
death was calm and resigned, as his life has been patriotic, useful and distinguished; and that the last utterance of his lips expressed a fervent desire for the perpetuity of the Constitution, and the preservation of its true principles. In death, as in life, the happiness of his country was uppermost in his thoughts. DANIEL WEBSTER,
Secretary of State.
Secretary of the Treasury.
Secretary of War.
J. J. CRITTENDEN,
He died at the President's House, in this city. this fourth day of April, Anno Domini 1841, at thirty minutes before one o'clock in the morning.
The following is the official account of the President's illness, prepared by the attendant physicians, and transmitted by them to the members of the Cabinet for publication.
WASHINGTON, April 4, 1841. On Saturday, March 27, 1841, President Harrison, after several days' previous indisposition, was seized with a chill and other symptoms of fever. The next day pneumonia, with congestion of the liver, and derangement of the stomach and bowels, was ascertained to exist. The age and debility of the patient, with the immediate prostration, forbade a resort to general blood-letting. Topical depletion, blistering, and appropriate internal remedies subdued, in a great measure, the disease of the lungs and liver, but the stomach and intestines did not regain a healthy condition. Finally, on the 3d of April, at 3 o'clock, P. M., profuse diarrhoea came on, under which he sank, at thirty minutes to one o'clock, on the morning of the fourth.
The last words uttered by the President, as heard by Dr. Worthington, were these: "Sir, I wish you to understand the true principles of the Government. I wish them carried out. I ask nothing more."
THOS. MILLER, M. D.
ASHTON ALEXANDER, M. D., Consulting Physicians. The death of the President created an
The People of the United States, over-universal sorrow through the country. whelmed, like ourselves, by an event so To his personal popularity, not less for unexpected and so melancholy, will de- his eminent moral and social qualities rive consolation from knowing that his than from his public services, he owed