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6th, that of Antioquia under Gens. Cordova and Vesga; 7th, that of Pamplona, Socorro, Tunja, Velez and Casanare; these states having united in revolt, and, we believe, now confederated, possibly each professes to govern itself; 8th, the State of the Isthinus. Moreover our latest intelligence states that Obando has taken arms again in Pasto, this spring.
Can anarchy be conceived of, more desperate than this? In a district of country whose free population does not much exceed a million persons, nine separate governments at the smallest computation, have at this moment their armies in the field, and are in a state of the most unmitigated civil war. Undoubtedly, in almost every instance, the insurrection was excited by the ambition of individuals; it probably originated however, in the incapacity of the central government, nor does the reflection that the more considerate part of the inhabitants probably disapprove the rebellions, lessen our ideas of the barbarism of the procedure.
Rebellion when joined in unanimously by a whole province may be borne; nothing makes it more terrific or insupportable, than a feeble countenance at home. We shall look with interest for future accounts from Colombia. It would seem as if the curse of the tropics were on the American as well as the European States. None of the former Spanish provinces have as yet shown the least ability for self government. In the present case the professed or real cause of the insurrections is left entirely in doubt. The only point on which we can speak with any confidence, is, that they have not been excited by the priesthood, who have had an active hand in almost all the Spanish disturbances. Probably the unsettled state of the country has brought up a race of mercenary condottieri soldiers, ready to sell their swords to any bidder who will pay high enough for them, and if there should be no legitimate demand, to undertake to do business on their own account, by the establishment of a revolution which shall give them an excuse for plundering the country. It will be observed that the first movers in almost all these revolts have the title General prefixed to their names; indeed it appears that Gen. Marino, after being exiled for one insurrection from Venezuela, was by no means deterred from attempting another in Santa Martha. If they have the honesty to make no pretensions of redress of grievances, or popular advantage, to cover their proceedings, and no such pretensions have been made known, the ethics of rebellion have certainly materially improved. At present, the only hope for an improvement in the state of affairs is, that the Congress, which was called to meet on the 2d of March, may take some measures for such a general convention, as may have a peaceful result. It is said that
President Marquez has resigned. He had good reason, as four-fifths of his people had withdrawn from him.
The other Colombian provinces have shared the difficulties of New Grenada. Their governments have no principle of stability, and any attempt of a faction at revolution would undoubtedly cause serious trouble. Ecuador, as we have seen, aided in the suppression of the rebellion in Pasto; Gen. Paez, President of Venezuela, has thought it necess 'ry to take measures to prevent the spread of the disorders. Troops have accordingly been stationed on her western frontier, as a force of observation on the rebellious provinces. The real cause of this movement is probably a fear of the return of Marino, now that he has acquired a temporary power.
STATISTICS OF MASSACHUSETTS.
In a former number, [Mon. Chron. Vol. I. p. 129,] we gave some notice of the provisions of the law, directing the taking of the U. S. Census, of 1840. In addition to an enumeration of the population under several heads of classification, the law required a return to be made, of the products of domestic industry, under a great number of distinct heads. This law has since that date, been carried into execution, but the general abstract of the returns made in pursuance of it, by the officers of the several districts, has not yet been published. General reports of the population, from most of the States have been separately published, and we have given several of them in the pages of this journal. Detached portions of the returns of statistics of industry have also been published, but the entire report, under the sanction of the department of State, will probably not appear for some time to come.
In the mean time, we are enabled to lay before the reader an abstract of the statistics of Massachusetts, from the returns made by the marshal of the district. This we give in a condensed form, but in one which presents the aggregate of the several | roducts, under each of the heads indicated in the law. It will be perceived from this abstract, that Massachusetts produces a greater or less quantity, of all the descriptions of produce, and manufactures, which are required by law to be embraced in the return, with the exception only of products of the mines, Cotton, Pot and Pearl Ashes, and Tar.
It will be perceived that the returns exhibit, in regard to certain classes of articles, the estimated value, in dollars, and in regard to
others, the quantity, by tons, pounds, bushels, gallons, or number, without any estimate of value. The aggregate value of products, therefore, is not shown, and it can be obtained only by a further process of computation, founded on the quantities here returned, and upon estimates of value to be obtained elsewhere. For example, in the returns of manufactures of Wool, Cotton, Leather, Hardware, Machinery, Cordage, and various other classes, as well as of the products of the dairy, of the granite and marble quarries, and sundry other branches of industry, a statement is presented of the value in dollars. But the products of the Iron foundries and furnaces, of agriculture with few exceptions, the live stock, (except poultry,) the products of the fisheries, and of some of the descriptions of manufacture, are returned by an estimate of the quantity, and not of the value.
The returns were required by law to exhibit the amount or value of the products of the year 1839. This was a year of general productiveness for the fruits of agriculture, but of comparative inactivity in most of the branches of manufacture. The report of the year may therefore be considered as somewhat more favorable than the average of years, in its exhibition of the fruits of agricultural industry, and less favorable in regard to the products of manufacturing labor.
Of the degree of accuracy of the returns, we have yet had little opportunity to test it. There are some important omissions, in the enumeration of the classes of property and income, so that the returns do not exhibit the whole productive capital of the country. For example, the banking capital, the capital in houses and buildings, in railroads and canals, and various other species of investments, are not required by the law to be returned. So also no report is required of the quantity or value of Beef, Pork, and other provisions, except Fish, carried to market. Of these some estimate may be made from the returns of live stock. There are also other omissions, such as value of books and newspapers printed, brooms, casks, and many other manufactures. But for the classes of property enumerated, the returns appear to have been made with great care, and with as much completeness and accuracy as the nature of the case admitted of.