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motives alone. If he were not, his secret plans probably died with him. His death defeated the project of the southern provinces, to place themselves under his authority, but it did not remove their repugnance to the central government. In the ensuing year, 1831, the unpopularity of that government was elsewhere displayed by an insurrection in Panama, which proved, however, unsuccessful.

In 1832, the separation of the original republic of Colombia was formally made. Venezuela had organized herself as an independent State under General Paez as President, and there was no prospect of an union of the southern provinces with those of New Grenada. In that year accordingly, the central government acknowledged that it was idle for it to keep up a semblance of authority over States where it had none. Bogota, in which province had been the seat of government, and the other central provinces of Colombia, formed a republic called New Grenada; they adopted a new constitution, recalled Santander, who had been banished for a conspiracy against Bolivar, and chose hin President.

The southern provinces organized themselves under the name of the republic of Ecuador, and chose as their President, Gen. Flores, a leader who had been personally and politically attached to BoliSome contention existed for some time between this State and New Grenada, as to the boundary, each desiring the province of Pasto, but a little fighting and more negotiation, settled the dispute in 1833, in favor of the stronger party of New Grenada.


We ve gone more into detail in this history of the first shock of Colombian civil war, because it serves as a suitable explanation of the distressed state of the larger part of the country at present, and shows the origin of the weak folly of the division into such insignificant States, of the powers of independent governments. It will explain also the reason why the inhabitants have no more desire of mutual union, and no more dread of insurrection. This history of ten years, in fact, displays the downfall of the province of Colombia, from which so much was once hoped by enthusiastic friends of liberty. From 1833 to the present time, little is recorded but a serie; of rebellions and conspiracies. The reader will understand that in 1833, the country was formally organized in the three perfectly independent States of New Grenada, Venezuela and Ecuador. The population of these three States, as estimated by the best authorities in 1830, was as follows:


New Grenada,




1,50 3,000


Of this population, about one half is white, the greater part of the remainder consisting of native Indians. It must be remembered that it is scattered over a district of country considerably longer than that portion of the United States east of the Mississippi, large portions being at present uninhabited, except by the Indians. The white population is most dense near the sea coast, and on the navigable rivIn order to show in detail the number of inhabitants in the different districts, we have subjoined a separate map and table, which will serve to exhibit in one view the extent and population of the several departments.


Under the first constitution of Colombia, the country was divided into twelve departments, which were sub-divided into thirty-seven provinces, and two hundred and thirty cantons. The departments were under the government of Intendants, and the provinces of Governors, appointed by the President. The division into departments is that exhibited on the map annexed; it is by far the most convenient for exhibiting the statistics of the country, as in it are embraced with considerable accuracy the natural distinctions of the inhabitants, arising from varieties of employment, climate and situation. In the administration of the government recently, however, provincial distinctions have been those which have appeared most important. They will be found noted on the second map annexed to this article. It may be well to display in a connected form the divisions and subdivisions of the country.

NEW GRENADA comprises the departments of

Isthmus; consisting of the provinces of Panama and St. Jago de Veragua.

Magdalena; consisting of Rio Hacha, Santa Martha, Mompox and Carthagena.

Boyaca; consisting of Tunja, Socorro, Pamplona and Casanare. Cundinamarca; consisting of Bogotà, Antioquia, Neyva and Ma



Cauca; consisting of Popayan, Pasto, Chocó, and Buenaven

Apure; mostly unsettled.

VENEZUELA Comprises the departments of

Orinoco; mostly unsettled.

Venezuela; consisting of Caraccas and Carabobo.

Zulia; consisting of Maracaibo, Coro, Truxillo and Merida, named after their capitals.


ECUADOR Comprises the departments of

Ecuador; consisting of Chimborazo, Pichincha, Ymbabura with the districts of Esmeraldas and Atacames.

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Assuay; consisting of Cuenca, Loja, Jaen, with the unsettled district Maynas.

Guyaquil; consisting of Guyaquil and Manabi.

The new arrangement was not destined to leave the republics undisturbed. In Ecuador, General Flores (the first president) and Rocafuerte quarrelled for two or three years, intrigued and fought against each other for the chief command, and their dissension was not healed till 1835, when they effected a mutual compromise, by the terms of which, Flores was to be Commander-in-chief of the army, and Rocafuerte President of the State; this comfortable arrangement being made in a province, whose population was not much more than 600,000, not so large, that is, as the State of Massachusetts, of whom more than half were Indians, and only 160,000 whites. Rocafuerte on his accession to his dignity called a convention to frame a constitution, which, as soon as it assembled, with the true republican spirit of contradiction, passed a vote of thanks to Flores for his services to the State.

In Venezuela, Paez retired from the presidency in 1835. Jose Varges was chosen to succeed him; he was however at once overthrown and exiled by an insurrection headed by Marino, consisting in part of the old partisans of Bolivar. In the course of a month or two the rebels were overthrown by a counter revolution headed by Paez, and Varges was restored.

These were the only important commotions which took place in these colonies prior to 1839. Meanwhile their credit had materially deteriorated. The foreign loans which had been contracted by the confederated State of Colombia, had been, by a temporary arrangement, divided among the three fragments of her dominions, but none of the new governments took any effective measures to pay the interest due upon them. Their legislatures have made several loud protestations on the subject, but the state of their credit may be inferred from the fact that their six per cent. stock sells in the London market at about 22 per cent.

They were destined however to undergo more important difficulties than those involved in discussions for settling old debts. In the summer of 1840, General Obando, a person who seems to have acquired some distinction in the Colombian service, raised an insurrection in Pasto, the southern frontier province of New Grenada. The only account we have been able to find of the cause of this measure is this. Papers were discovered in New Grenada which went to prove beyond a doubt, what was only suspected before, that Gen. Obando was the murderer of Gen. Sucre, one of Bolivar's ablest Generals. The present Government, possessing themselves of these papers, attempted to take him; he fled, and put himself at the head

of the malcontents, at the South, in Pasto. His insurrection however was after considerable difficulty checked by the g vernments of New Grenada and Ecuador, who united their forces against him, as against any bandit, not regarding his claim to the honor of a rebel.

Before his attempt was entirely suppressed, however, an insurrection of a much more formidable nature broke out in the northern provinces. Tunja, Velez, Socorro, and Pamplona, the four most northerly of the inland provinces of New Grenada, declared themselves early in October, independent of the central government; being influenced, as it is stated, on indifferent authority, however, by the machinations of Obando. About the same time under the lead of Gens. Marino, now exiled from Venezuela, Carmona and Pinerez, the seaboard provinces of Santa Martha, Rio. Hacha, and Carthagena, took the same step. The Municipal Council of Manpox, on the 22d of October, taking into consideration the disordered state of the Republic, appointed a provisional government with five counsellors. The smaller municipalities and towns in the neighborhood of these provinces, or subordinate to them, appear generally to have conducted in a similar manner. At a subsequent period apparently, Antioquia and Casanare took similar measures, and renounced the authority of Bogotà.

The Isthmus of Panama is separated from these provinces geographically, but it took the same course. On the 18th of November, the province of Panama, and that of Santiago de Veragua, formed an independent confederacy under the title of the State of the Isthmus, of which they chose Thomas Herrera Supreme Chief.

None of these insurrections has been suppressed by the central government of Bogotà. On the other hand, the central forces have been several times defeated by different bodies of insurgents. It is impossible to learn the exact state of things at present, but our latest accounts, (to the 17th of March, 1841,) contain not the slightest evidence of returning tranquillity. The explanation of the state of affairs which we have given, together with the accompanying map, will be sufficient to give some idea of the state of affairs at present, and serve as a clue for the unravelling of future intelligence. The reader will understand that the different parts of the so-called province of New Grenada are now under at least eight different governments, viz., 1st, the old central government of Bogotà, which retains its authority in the provinces on the Pacific, namely, Buenaventura, Chocò, Cauca, and Popayan, and the newly subdued Pasto, in the State of Bogotà, and its neighbor Neyva; 2d, the government of Santa Martha and the neighboring provinces under Gen. Carmona; 3d, that of Carthagena under Gen. Pinerez, 4th, that of Rio Hacha; 5th, the provisional government of Mompox, vested in a council of five;

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