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vus de Hohenlohe Langenburgh, and Count Emanuel de Mensdorff Pouilly, F. M. Lieuts.-Vice Presidents. Archduke John, Archduke Louis, Baron Werner de Trapp, 2 Field Mar. Lieuts., 2 Major Gens. and 14 Aulic Counsellors.

9. Court of Accounts; Charles Frederic Baron de Kubeck, President. 10. National Bank; Charles Baron de Lederer, Governor.

5. Governors and Viceroys of Provinces.

Some of the principal of these officers are, Grand Burgrave of Bohemia, Charles Count de Chotek; Governor of Moravia, Aloys Count Ugarte; Gov. Gen. of Gallicia, Archduke Ferdinand of Este; Viceroy of Lombardy and Venice, Archduke Regnier; Governor of Milan, Francis Count Hartig, &c.

Among the other High Functionaries, are the Superior Officers of the Kingdom of Hungary; the 12 Commandants General in the Provinces; the Commandant General of the Marine, Amilcar Marquis Paulucci, Vice Admiral of the Imperial Fleet; the Presidents of Tribunals of Appeal in the Provinces; and the High Officers of the Imperial Court.

The Corps Diplomatique. United States of America, John Randolph Clay, Charge d'Affaires. France, Count Louis de St. Aulaire, Amb., Baron de Langsdorff, Ist Sec. of Amb., Marquis de St. Aulaire, 2d Sec. Great Britain, Baron de Beauvale, Amb. Ext. and Ple., John R. Milbanke, Esq., Sec. of Amb. Prussia, Count de Maltzan, Env. Ex., Baron de Bochelberg, Coms. of Leg., Count Weymann Sec. Russia, Comrs. int. de Tatistcheff, Amb., Coms. of State, Gustavus de Struve, with three Secretaries. There are also representatives of the other European governments.

The following table shows the extent of each Kingdom and Province in square English miles, with the population in 1834 and 1839.


Square Miles.

1. Kingdom of Hungary,

2. Kingdom of Gallicia,

3. Principality of Transylvania,














13. Austria below the Ens,
14. Austria above the Ens and Salzburgh, 7,399
15. Kingdom of Dalmatia,




5. Military Frontier, 6. The Tyrol,

7. Moravia and Silesia,

Kingdom of Bohemia,

8. Kingdom of Venice, 9. Kingdom of Lombardy, 10. Duchy of Stiria,

11. Carinthia and Carniola, 12. The Littoral,

The army of Austria consists of

Frontier Militia,


210,000 men.


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45,000 59,924 66 17,790 "



















332,714 "

The Marine is composed of 8 ships of the line, 8 frigates, 4 corvettes, 6 brigs, and 7 schooners,

The public revenues amount to 152,000,000 florins.


Louis Philippe, the present sovereign of France, was born Oct. 6, 1773, and was declared King of the French, Aug. 9, 1830. He was married Nov. 25, 1809, to

Queen Maria Amelia, daughter of King Ferdinand I., King of the two Sicilies, who was born April 26, 1782. Their children are:

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1. Ferdinand Philip Louis Charles Henry Joseph of Orleans, Duke of Orleans, Prince Royal, born Sep. 3, 1810, and married May 30, 1837, to Helen Louisa Elizabeth, born Jan 24, 1814, daughter of the late hereditary Grand Duke Frederic Louis of Mecklenburg Schwerin. Their children are: 1, Louis Philip Albert of Orleans, Count of Paris, born Aug. 24, 1838; 2, Robert Philip Louis Eugene Ferdinand of Orleans, Duke of Chartres, born Nov. 9, 1840.

2. Louisa Maria Theresa Charlotte Isabella, Princess of Orleans, born April 3, 1812, Queen of Belgium.

3. Prince Louis Charles Philip Raphael of Orleans, Duke of Nemours, born Oct. 25, 1814; Lieut. Gen., married Ap, 27, 1840, to Victoria Augusta Antoinette, born Feb. 14, 1822, daughter of Duke Ferdinand of Saxe Coburg Gotha.

4. Maria Clementine Caroline Leopold Clotilda, Princess of Orleans, born June 3, 1817.

5. Francis Ferdinand Philip Louis Maria of Orleans, Prince de Joinville, born Oct. 14, 1818, Captain in the Navy.

6. Henry Eugene Philip Louis of Orleans, Duke de Aumale, born Jan. 16, 1822, Lieut. Col. in 4th Reg. Lt. Inf.

7. Anthony Maria Philip Louis of Orleans, Duke de Montpensier, born July 31, 1824.

Sister of the King, Eugene Adelaide Louisa, Princess of Orleans, born Aug. 23, 1777.

Bourbon Branch.

1. Louis Anthony, the Dauphin, son of the late King Charles the X., who abdicated Aug. 2, 1830, in favor of his grandson, the Duke of Bordeaux. He was born Aug. 6, 1775, renounced his rights to the crown, at the time of the abdication of his father, in favor of his nephew, the Duke of Bordeaux, and left France with King Charles and his family, Aug. 16, 1830. He was married June 10, 1799, to Maria Theresa Charlotte, the Dauphiness, daughter of King Louis XVI., born Dec. 19, 1778. They have no children.

2. The Duchess of Berry, widow of Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, 2d son of Charles X., who died Feb. 14, 1820. Children of the Duke of Berry, 1, Louisa Maria Theresa, Mademoiselle, born Sep. 21, 1819; 2, Henry Charles Ferdinand Maria Dieudonné d'Artois, Duke of Bordeaux, born Dec. 29, 1820; left France with Charles X. and the royal family, Aug. 16, 1830. He is a claimant of the crown of France, as a regular descendant of Charles X.

The French Government is a Constitutional and Representative Monarchy. It is founded on the charter granted by Louis XVIII. in 1814, as modified by the Representatives of the people in 1830. At this last date the Chamber of Deputies declared that the universal and pressing interest of the French people called to the throne, Louis Philippe, Duke of Orleans, and his descendants in perpetuity, from male to male, in the order of primogeniture, to the exclusion of females.

The King is the supreme chief of the State; his person is sacred;

his ministers are responsible; to him belongs the executive power of the State; he makes all appointments, commands the forces by sea and land, makes ordinances for the execution of the laws, he promulgates and executes the laws, without power to suspend them or dispense with the execution of them. The legislative power is exercised collectively by the King, the Chamber of Peers, and the Chamber of Deputies. The Peers are appointed by the King. All appointments of Peers made under the reign of Charles X., were declared null, by the modification of the charter in 1830. The Chamber of Deputies consists of 459 Deputies, chosen by electoral colleges in the several departments, for five years. A Deputy must be 30 years of age, and a person who pays 500 francs direct tax, and the electors of Deputies are those only who are 25 years of age, pay 200 francs at least, direct tax. The Ministers may be members of either the Chamber of Peers or of Deputies, and they have besides the right to enter either of the Chambers, and to be heard, whenever they demand it. The King can prorogue or dissolve the Chamber of Deputies, but in case of dissolution, he must convoke a new one within three months. Justice is administered in the name of the King, by judges appointed by him, who are not removable.

Council of Ministers, Secretaries of State, having departments.
Marshal Soult, President of the Council, and Minister of War.
M. Guizot, Minister of Foreign Affairs.

M. Martin (du Nord), Minister of Justice, and of Public Worship.
Admiral Duperre, Minister of Marine and of the Colonies.
M. Duchatel, Minister of the Interior.

M Cunin Gridaine, Minister of Commerce and Agriculture.

M. Teste, Minister of Public Works.

M. Villemain, Peer, Minister of Instruction.

M. Humann, Peer, Minister of Finance.

This Ministry is denominated, by way of distinction, the Ministry of Oct. 29, from the date of their appointment. The preceding Ministry, of which M. Thiers was the head, was called the Ministry of March 1.

Council of State.

The Council of State is composed of the Princes of the royal family, when the King sees fit to call them, of the Ministers, Secretaries of State, and Counsellors of State; of Masters of Requests, of Auditors, and a Secretary General. The Keeper of the Seals, and Minister of Justice, is President of the Council of State. The Vice President is M. Girod de l'Ain. The Council is divided into five committees, besides the Committee of Contested Questions. The Vice Presidents of the Committees, are Count Berenger, Peer-of Finances; Baron de Gerando, Peer-of Contested Questions; Baron de Freville, Peer-of Commerce, Agriculture, and Public Works; Maillard, Peer-of the Interior and Public Instruction; Viscount de Preval, Peer-Lieut. Gen. of War and the Marine; and Dumon, of Legislation.

Counsellors of State in ordinary Service. Viscount Simeon, Peer; Keratry, Peer; Count Ferri Pisani, Peer; Jacqueminot, Count of Ham, Peer'; Macarel; Taboureau; Viscount de Janzé; Count d' Aure; Fumeron d' Ardeuil; Vitet; Baron Janet; Felix Real; Count O'Donnel; Baude; Charles Dunoyer; Viscount de Chasse Loup Laubat; Boulay; Viscount d'Haubersaert; Lanyer; Mottet; Tournoter; Rivet; Baron Maurice Duval; Secretary General, Prosper Hochet.

President of the Chamber of Peers, Baron Pasquier, Chancellor of France. Court of Cassation, Count Portalis, Peer, First President, and Vice President of the Chamber of Peers.

Court of Accounts, Barthe, Peer, First President.

Court Royal of Paris, Baron Segnier, Peer, First President.

Marshals of France, Duke de Conegliano (Moncey) Governor of the Hotel of Invalides; Duke of Dalmatia (Soult); Duke of Belluno (Victor); Duke of Tarentum, (Macdonald); Duke of Reggio, (Oudinot); Count Molitor; Count Gerard; Count Clauzel, Marquis de Grouchy; Count Valee, Peer, Gov. of Algeria.

Admirals, Baron Duperre, Admiral Roussin.

Two numerous bodies of important public functionaries are the Prefects of the 86 Departments; and the Commandants of the 21 Military Divisions of the Kingdom. Besides these are the Governors of the foreign colonies.

There is a numerous clergy, who are supported at the charge of the State. There are four Cardinals, who receive a yearly income of 30,000 francs; 14 Archbishops, who receive 20,000; 66 Bishops, who receive 15,000. The lower clergy receive from 500 to 1,500 francs each.

Corps Diplomatique.

Among the Diplomatic Agents of foreign powers at Paris, are the following. United States of America, Lewis Cass, Min. Plen., Henry Ledyard, Sec. Leg. Austria, Count Appony, Amb., de Thom, Couns. Am.; de Schweiger, 1st Sec. of Amb., Count Adolph Appony, 2d Sec. Belgium, Count Charles le Hon, Min. Plen., Firmin Rogier, Couns. of Leg. Spain, Marquis de Miraflores, Ambassador. Great Britain, Earl Granville, Amb. Ex. and Min. Plen., Henry Lytton Bulwer, Sec. of Amb., Henry Greville, Frederic Howard and others, Attachés. Prussia, Henry Frederic d'Arnheim, Min. Plen., Baron de Werther, 1st Sec., Weiskirch, 2d Sec. Russia, Count Pahlen, Amb., de Kisseleff, Coun. of Amb., de Spies, 1st Sec. Turkey, Mahommed Nourri Effendi, Amb., Tewfik Effendi, Sec. of Amb.

North Eastern quarter, including 24 departments.
North Western do. 27 do.,

South Western do. 18 do.,
South Eastern do. 17 do.,


Area and Population in 1836.

Average population, 162 to each square mile.

Colonies of France.


In the West Indies. Martinique, Guadaloupe, St. Martin, Marie Galante, Deseada, and the Saints, In South America. Guiana and the island of Cayenne,

In North America. The Islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon,

In the East Indies. Pondicherry, Carikal, Mahé, Yamaon and Chandernagore, Patna, Casimbazer, Balasore, Dacca, Surat, and Syothiya, in the Kingdom of Siam,

Africa. Establishments in Senegal, with St. Louis and Goree, the Islands of Bourbon, St. Marie, &c., Algeria,

Square Miles.











11,017,336 10,854,230 6,110,912



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Revenue and Expenses of the year 1841, according to the estimate of the Cham bers, in the Session of 1840.

Revenue, estimated at

Viz., Public Debt,


Ministries of the several departments,
Expense of collection of the taxes,
Restitution of taxes,


1,211,885,666 francs.


324,623,900 (6
16,478,500 66
59,976,270 66



The Army, according to the Budget of 1839. Infantry, 278,066 men, Cavalry, 51,276; in Algiers, 38,000 Infantry, 8,779 Cavalry. The army was considerably increased in 1840.

Marine. Ships of the line 24, frigates 37, corvettes 30, brigs 46, steam vessels 29, small vessels 74, transport ships 39; total, 282.


The present Sovereign of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland is Queen Alexandrina Victoria I., born May 24, 1819, daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, (who was born Nov. 2, 1767, and died Jan. 23, 1820,) son of the late King George III., brother of King George IV. and William IV. She succeeded her uncle William IV., June 20, 1837, was crowned June 28, 1838, and was married Feb. 10, 1840, to

Prince Albert Francis Augustus Charles Emanuel of Saxe Coburgh Gotha, born Aug. 26, 1819, the second son of Duke Ernest Anthony Charles Louis of Saxe Coburgh Gotha, who was naturalized by act of Parliament, Jan. 24, 1840. They have one child,

Alexandrina Louisa Victoria, Princess Royal, born Nov. 21, 1840.

Mother of the Queen, Maria Louisa Victoria, Duchess of Kent, born Aug. 17, 1786, daughter of the late Duke of Saxe Saalfeld Coburgh, sister of the Duke Ernest of Saxe Coburgh Gotha, and of King Leopold of Belgium, widow of the Prince of Leinangen, whom she married July 14, 1814, and of Edward, Duke of Kent, 4th son of George III., whom she married May 29, 1818.

Uncles and Aunts of the Queen. 1. The Queen Dowager Amelia Adelaide Louisa Theresa Caroline, daughter of the late Duke of Saxe Meiningen, born Aug. 13, 1792, and married July 11, 1818, to William, Duke of Clarence, 3d son of George III, who succeeded his brother George IV., June 26, 1830, and died June 20, 1837. 2, Ernest Augustus, born June 5, 1771, Duke of Cumberland, and King of Hanover, by succession by right of primogeniture in the male line to his brother, King William IV. of Great Britain, Ireland and Hanover, June 20, 1837. He married, May 29, 1815, Queen Frederica Louisa Caroline Sophia Alexandrina, daughter of Grand Duke Charles of Mecklenburg Strelitz, born March 2, 1778, and widow of Prince Louis of Prussia. They have one child, George Frederic, Alexander Charles Ernest Augustus, Prince Royal, born May 27, 1819. 3, Augustus Frederic, Duke of Sussex, born Jan. 27, 1773. 4, Adolphus Frederic, Duke of Cambridge, born Feb. 24, 1774; married May 7, 1818, to Wilhelmina Louisa, daughter of the late Frederic, Landgrave of Hesse Cassel, born July 25, 1797. They have three children; 1, George Frederic William Charles, born

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