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other had a slave behind him when he spoke, to give the key note. Although these remarks would seem to commend themselves to the judgment of all, and though it might be presumed that any who make pretensions to public speaking would practise them with a kind of intuitive sagacity, yet it is astonishing what a "falling off" there is, from this very


Radical and Vanishing Movement. Let the student sound the vowel a, with prolonged quantity, and it will be found to commence somewhat abruptly on the first part of the element, and then slide concretely through the interval of a tone, into the sound of ee, terminating (with a constantly diminishing volume), with a delicate vanish. The first movement is denominated the Radical, and the second, the Vanishing.


1. Articulation is the sanctioned pronunciation of the elements of a language; and the basis of all good reading and speaking.

2. Defective Articulation generally arises from bad habits. It is sometimes, however, the result of mal-organization; a sluggish temperament also imparts a corresponding action to the organs of utterance, and elements are thrown out in a mixed and confused state. Earnestness is often productive of those indistinct, half-formed sounds, we so frequently hear in vehement and angry debate. Delicacy, as well as excess of vivacity, in bashful and diffident persons, is a fruitful source of the practice of hurrying over words, precipitating element upon element, and syllable upon syllable, until the whole is melted into one confused mass. No one can expect to be listened to with delight, or even tolerated, whose articulation is indistinct. It is sufficient to those who intend to make speaking a profession, to know that, if they would excel, nay, attain even to mediocrity, they must master this first. Without it, all efforts to become eminent, as speakers, will be idle and useless. To the ambitious and indomitable, those worthy of eminence, it is only necessary to say, that all they are required to do, to effect this, can be DONE. In addressing a deaf person, those unacquainted raise the pitch, but the friend aims at being very distinct in his enunciation, bringing out distinctly every element. The suffrage of antiquity is mighty, and we well know what importance the ancients

attached to a Distinct Articulation. Unaided by science, the aspiring Athenian resorted to speaking with pebbles in his mouth, and declamations by the sea-shore. Under all these discouraging circumstances we know his success. Posterity has calmly written his name among the "few, the immortal names that were not born to die."

3. We have in our language about 130,000 words, (primitive and derivative,) and in correctly enunciating these, only 46 elementary sounds are used, 16 vowel, and the remainder consonants and combinations.

4. The Organs of Speech are the lungs, trachea, larynx, glottis, tongue, palate, lips, teeth and nostrils. These organs are used in giving utterance to the above named 46 elements. The distinct enunciation of every element demands a certain position of some of these organs. Learn, then, to put these instruments of speech into 46 different positions, with rapidity, energy and ease, and the work is done.

5. Observe that the element and name are two distinct things. B-a-d. Let the student, in enunciating this word, pause before he gives the sound of a, and, by pressing the lips together, retracting the tongue and causing a lowing sound to proceed from the throat, he has the element of b. Now let him open his mouth and give the vowel sound of a, then press the tip of the tongue against the upper teeth, forcing the sound from the throat, and he has the elementary sound of d. We give below a table of consonant sounds, for which we are indebted principally to Dr. Barber. The learner is expected to perform each element SEPARATELY at first, endeavoring to give a "concentration of organic effort," by which good delivery is so much enhanced.

6. The Theory of Articulation is simple, but the student may be certain that the price of excellence is practice, indomitable PRACTICE; without this he cannot acquire that nerve and energy which characterize the accomplished speaker. The hasty utterance of colloquial execution must be exchanged, for that deliberate and elegant manner, which delivers the elements from the lips as beautiful coins, newly issued from the mint-deeply and accurately impressed, perfectly finished, neatly struck by the proper organs, distinct, in due succession, and of due weight. The tables of Consonant Sounds, given for practice, will constitute a GYMNASIUM for the voice, which the learner



will find the best possible method of developing the powers of Articulation.


7. Table of Consonant Sounds.-Observe the element is separated from the rest of the word by a horizontal line. If the true elementary sound should escape the memory, given by the teacher, pronounce a word in which the consonant is not silent, giving it some more quantity than is necessary, and the correct sound will be heard.


[blocks in formation]

Im. lmd. Imz.


lp. Ips. Ipst. ls. Ist.

lt. lts.

lv. lvd. luz.


lsh. Isht.

lth. lths.



mt. mts.

mz. mst.

nd. ndz. ndst. nj. njd.

nk. nks. nkst.

nt. ntst. ntz.


nsh. nsht.




ngth. ngths.
pl. pld. plz. plst.

ps. pst.



rd. rds. rdst.

rf. rft. rg.rgz. rj. rjd. rk.rkt.rks.rkst. rktst.

rl. rld. rlz. rlst. rldst.

rm. rmd. rmz. rmst. rmdst.

rn. rnd. rnt. rnz. rnst. rndst.

rp. rpt. rps.

rs. rst. rsts.

rt. rts. rtst.

[blocks in formation]


cli-ps, nip-p'st.

he-rb, ba-rb'd, he-rbs, ba-rb'st, ba


ba-rd, ba-rds, hea-rd'st.

su-rf, wha-rf'd.
bu-rgh, bu-rghs.
ba-rge, u-rg'd.

ha-rk, ha-rk'd, a-rcs, ba-rk'st, ba-

sna-rl, hu-rl'd, sna-rls, sna-rl'st, sna-

a-rm, a-rm'd, a-rms, arm'st, a-rm'd'st.

bu-rn, bu-rn'd, bu-rnt, u'rns, ea-rn'st,

ha-rp, ha-rp'd, ha-rps.
hea-rse, fea-r'st, bu-rsts.
hea-rt, hea-rts, hu-rt'st.

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rust. rvtst.

ruz.jas incu-rve, cu-rv'd, cu-rves, cu-rv'st, cu



rch. rcht.


rth. rths.

sh. sht.

sk. skt. sks. skst.

sl. sld.



sp. sps.
st. str. sts.

th. thd. thz. thst.

th. thm. thr. ths.

tl. tld. tlz. tlst.



tz. tst.

vd. vdst.

vl. vld. vlz. vlst.





zl. zld. zlz. zlst.


Zm. zmz.

zn. znd. znz. znst. zndst.



sea-rch, sea-rch'd.

hea-rth, hea-rths.

sh-ip, pu-sh'd.

ma-sk, ma-sk'd, ma-sks, ma-sk'st.

sl-ay, ne-s-t-l'd.



sp-a, whi-sps.

st-arve, str-ong, bu-sts.

th-ine, wrea-th'd, wrea-ths, wrea-th'st.
th-istle, rhy-thm, thr-ough, hea-ths.
lit-tle, set-tled, bat-tles, set-tl'st, set-

tl'd'st. tr-avels.

ha-ts, comba-t'st.

swer-v'd, li-v'd'st.

swi-vel, dri-vel'd, dri-vels, dri-vel'st, dri'vel'd'st.




muz-zle, muz-zl'd, muz-zles, muz-zl'st, muz-zl'd'st.

spa-sm, spa-sms.

pri-son, impri-son'd, pri-sons, im-prison'st, impri-son'd'st.


8. Difficult Combination of Consonant Sounds.

He was amiable, respectable, formidable, unbearable, intolerable, unmanageable, terrible.

Whoever heard of such an ocean?
Whoever heard of such a notion?
He ought to prove such a position.
He ought to approve such a position.
The severest storm that lasts till night.
The severest storm that last still night.
He is content in neither place.
He is content in either place.

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