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then falls unequally, it is a Direct Unequal Wave; but if it fall and then rise through a greater interval, it is denominated an Inverted Unequal Wave.

5. The functions of voice we have described were known to the ancients, and are treated of in modern works on elocution as circumflexes; we cannot digress now, to point out the numerous examples in our great poets in the majestic drama, where the idea can never be given but by the varicd slides we have pointed out; but when we consider that the wave is a very frequent element in expression, and performs high offices in speech," and reflect on the facility our full nomenclature gives us, and its advantage over the meagre circumflex, we cannot but feel willing to enter zealously into its multifarious and somewhat complicated divisions.

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6. In addition to the divisions already made, the wave admits of variations in its intensity; it may have an interval of the semitone, second, third, fifth and octave, precisely similar to the concrete slides, as illustrated by the Scale.

7. The wave of an octave is generally used in sarcasm, mockery, hypothetical and ironical expression. The wave direct of the Fifth, implies earnest interrogation-inverted, admiration and surprize. The wave of the Second is used more frequently than either of the others. It gives a certain august composure and dignified serenity, more compatible with personal dignity than the expression of the other kindred waves of more intensity. Much of the church service might be read with the drift of this wave. The wave of the Semitone is used correctly in all sorrowful and plaintive subjects.

"But

8. We are well aware there are some who possess an ear so delicate, a perception so acute, and a judgment so discriminating, that they contrive, when conscious of error, to correct themselves, and become good readers and speakers without recognizing, perhaps, the principles here laid down, although they unconsciously follow them. how shall he find out or preserve his way, who searches for right without knowing what is wrong; and who copies both the faults and merits of an individual example, instead of marching forth under the direction of well-devised precepts, to gather excellence by discriminative selections. It is to such persons that a development of the accidents of speech becomes indispensable."

9. By some peculiar power of inflection, the Chinese make the same word give different meanings, simply by

different intonations. Ya, for instance, may mean sir or horse, and another word is used for stupid, wall, book, goose, God, &c. up to six or seven different significations. From the significant character of the wave, it may be presumed that its use among this nation "is carried to a perfection that it might be gratifying to the connoisseur and amateur of delicate sounds" to investigate.

EXAMPLES.

10.-Direct and Inverted Waves of the Second.

Be wise to-day, 'tis madness to defer.

Let the word day, in this example, be uttered with long quantity, with a downward inflection at the close, and without any other emphasis, and the movement of the voice will display the equal wave of the second. The word hail, in the following, will illustrate the same :

Hail, holy light!

I come to bury Cæsar, not to praise him.

Read this sentence with quantity on praise, and it will exhibit the inverted wave of the second.

11.-Direct and Inverted Wave of the Third.

He is my friend, not yours.

Let this example be read with extended quantity on my and yours, and it will exhibit the direct wave of the third on my and the inverted on yours. 12.-Direct and Inverted Wave of the Fifth and Eighth.

If the same sentence is repeated with great positiveness and more intense emphasis, and with more quantity on my and yours, it will give the direct and inverted wave of the 5th and 8th.

13.-Direct and Inverted Wave of the Semitone.
Oh, sailor boy, sailor boy, peace to thy soul.

This example furnishes the wave inverted on boy, and direct on soul.

14.-Unequal Direct Wave.

But, Sir, we are told we should discuss this question with calmness and composure. I am called upon to surrender my birthright and my honor, and I am told I should be calm and composed. National pride! Independence of our country! These, we are told by the ministers, are only vulgar topics, fitted for the meridian of the mob, but unwor thy to be mentioned in such an enlightened assembly as this. They are trinkets and gewgans, fitted to catch the fancy of childish and un

thinking people, but utterly unworthy the consideration of this house, or of the matured understanding of the noble lord who condescends to instruct it.

15. Unequal Inverted Wave.
EXAMPLE 1.

They tell us to be moderate; but they, they are to revel in profusion.

EXAMPLE 2.

We are very weak and foolish, but they, forsooth, are wise and learned.

The words we and they are inverted, while weak, foolish, wise and learned are direct.

16.-Promiscuous Examples.

How dared he cross that river? Oh! but he paused upon the brink. Yet Brutus says he was ambitious, and Brutus is an honorable man. Ges. Take it as it is.

Thy skill will be the greater if thou hit'st it.

Tell.-True-I did not think of that-I wonder

I did not think of that.

They tell us, sir, we are weak, unable to cope with so formidable an adversary.

""

But if a man were present now at a field of slaughter, and were to inquire for what they were fighting-"Fighting!" would be the answer; they are not fighting, they are pausing." Why is that man expiring? why is that other writhing with agony? what means this implacable fury? the answer must be

You are quite wrong, sir, you deceive yourself; they are not fighting; do not disturb them; they are merely pausing! This man is not expiring with agony; that man is not dead; he is only pausing! Lord help you, sir, they are not angry with one another! They have now no cause of quarrel, but their country thinks there should be a pause. All that you see, sir, is nothing like fighting; there is no harm, nor cruelty, nor bloodshed in it whatever; it is nothing more than a political pause! It is merely to try an experiment; to see whether Bonaparte will not behave himself better than heretofore; and in the meantime we have agreed to pause in pure friendship.

The above sarcastic rejoinder of Fox, requires an application of the unequal wave throughout.

AVV

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SECTION 6.-FORCE OF VOICE.

1. Force of Voice is a generic term, and is more gener

ally displayed under the various stresses. Force may be heard on words or sentences; in the one case it would constitute emphasis, and in the other "drift." The stresses we are about to consider have their peculiar significations; they, as with all other functions we have enumerated, cannot be used indiscriminately. Nature has her own appropriate language. Anger, revenge, ferocity, hate, secrecy, joy, terror and melancholy all have their different forms of expression. The object of Elocution is to hold the mirror up to nature, and in every instance to give the natural language of passion.

2. Rush enumerates six stresses; for practical purposes it will be only necessary to notice four: the Radical, the Median, the Vanishing and the Compound.

3. 1st. Stress may be exhibited on the beginning of a syllable by an abrupt explosion or smart percussion. 2d. It may commence with a natural key, swell as it advances toward the middle, and then diminish to a delicate vanish. 3d. It may also commence gradually, expand as it swells onward, and terminate with a marked and sudden explosion. 4th. The radical and vanish may be supposed to be joined, the two stresses being at opposite extremities, and they will display the fourth function. In the order they have been described, we have-1. the Radical: 2. the Median: 3. the Vanishing and 4. the Compound.

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SECTION 7.-RADICAL STRESS.

1. If a vowel is exploded with great energy, and made to burst suddenly on the ear like the report of a cannon or a blast from a trumpet, and is then extended, being suffered to decrease gradually, (as represented in the diagram,) until it terminates in silence, we shall have a display of this property of voice. It resembles Explosion, already described, although the latter function is destitute of the vanishing movement which marks the former.

2. This stress is characterized by a high degree of force, and is a symbol of great energy of feeling. Few public speakers or readers, without previous practice, are able to give it properly. Immediately prior to the effort, there seems to be a gathering of the breath in the larynx, and the accumulation bursts suddenly out without any previous effort. It can be executed most powerfully on the tonic or vowel sounds, and, for elementary practice, at first, such

should be chosen. After these are mastered, it would be well to practise on sub-tonics and atonics, as it contributes greatly to the brilliancy of articulation. In fact, the atonics, from their peculiar construction, admit but slightly of any other power, and this is the only method by which they can really be rendered emphatic.

It may be necessary to caution the student against throwing the stress on one element exclusively, as this is a very prevalent fault. Each constituent of the syllable should receive its appropriate part.

3. The Radical Stress can be exhibited on indefinites, mutable and immutable syllables; can be applied to the beginning of a wave, from a second up to an octave, and to rising and falling slides in any part of the scale. This stress is employed in expressing most of the higher passions, such as anger, wrath, rage, and their various modifications; it is also appropriate to positiveness, command, authority, courage, exultation, joy, &c. ; indeed, where there is great energy requisite, or violent expression of feeling, it will be found an efficient agent of speech.

EXAMPLE 1.-Command and Authority.

Arouse there! Ho! take spear and sword,
Attack the murderer of your lord.
Princes! Potentates! Warriors!
Awake! arise! or be forever fallen.

Strike till the last armed foe expires,
Strike for your altars and your fires,
Strike for the green graves of your sires,
God and your native land.

Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more,
Or close the wall up with our English dead.

In the last example, the words close, wall and dead re

quire extended quantity, with a downward slide.

EXAMPLE 2.-Anger.

Hence! home, you idle creatures, get you home,

You blocks, you stones, you worse than senseless things.

Begone and leave me! Begone, I say.

Back to thy punishment

False fugitive, and to thy speed add wings.

Away! wouldst thou corrupt me, me an old Castilian!

EXAMPLE 3.-Courage.

Charge, Chester, charge! on, Stanley, on!

Up, comrades, up! In Rokeby halls
Ne'er be it said our courage falls.

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