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SECTION 4.-SLIDES OF SPEECH. 1. In colloquial language, where nature is generally untramelled, and her dictum, therefore, authority, the most superficial observer must have detected the different modifications of the voice, as regards the slides or inflections of speech. These slides may be upward, downward or circumflex. The latter we shall treat of under the head of Waves, and confine ourselves for the present to the rising and falling inflections. These slides may pass concretely through the scale, from a semitone to an octave, according to the intensity of the emotion to be expressed. The student has been previously referred to the radical and vanishing movement, and the concrete character of the ascent or descent of the voice ; the principles there laid down are involved in the concrete Slides. The following scale, from Barber, will show the intervals of the different slides. The intervals of a second, third, fifth and octave, are all that are requisite in treating of the speaking voice, and we shall therefore confine ourselves to these in the following scale.

2. Rising Concrete Second." When I arrived, they were there."

This sentence, read in simple melody, without any stress on I except a slight quantity, will exhibit the rising slide of the Second. 3. Rising Concrete Third.—Did he

say it was I did it?" Let this example be read without any emotion whatever, with the expectation of a simple negative, and it will constitute the rising slide of the Third.

4. Rising Concrete Fifth.—But should the answer above be "yes, he said it was you," the question might be repeated with strong surprize and interrogative emphasis, “ Did he say it was I ?" The voice would then pass through four notes, and constitute the rising slide of the Fifth.

5. Rising Concrete Eighth.-Let the same question be repeated, “ Did he say it was 1,” with very marked surprize and astonishment, at the same time giving I extended quantity, and it will move through the slide of the Eighth.

6. Falling Concrete Second.—“He said it was you.Let this example be uttered without any emotion, and the you will exhibit the downward slide of the Second.

7. Falling Concrete Third.-Let the same example be read with the intention of conveying the antithetic meaning, “Yes, he said it was you, not I,” and it will display the downward slide of the Third.

8. Falling Concrete of the Fifth and Eighth.---Let the denial be made with the greatest degree of energy and positiveness—“Yes, you,and it will display the downward slide of the Fifth and Eighth.

9. The Rise and Fall of the Semitone. - The smallest interval of the scale is the semitone. The word fire, as when given in alarm, will illustrate this slide ; after uttering fi-, pause an instant, and then give yer with quantity, and the voice will be heard to rise half a note with a plaintive expression. Let the word farewell be uttered with a sorrowful intonation, and it will display the fall of the semitone.

10. All the rising and falling slides have their appropriate expression. The rising 8th is the widest interval of speech, and indicates great vehemence and earnestness of feeling. It expresses sneering, earnest interrogation, contempt, mirth, raillery, &c. The following selections will serve to illustrate its use.

EXAMPLE 1. Some have sneeringly asked, are the Americans too poor to pay a few pounds on stamped paper ?

Shylock.—Monies is your suit.
What should I say to you? Should I not say
Hath a dog money? Is it possible
A CUR can lend three thousand ducats ?

Rush also gives the following as a discrete rising octave.
The voice skips from a second to an octave on all italicised
words, except tear, which admits the concrete.

Zounds, show me what thou’lt do!
Woot weep? woot fight? woot fast? woot tear thyself?

Am I a dog, that thou comest against me with staves ?

And breathest defiance here and scorn,
Where I reign king.-Milton.
You a king's son? you prince of Wales !Shakspeare.

11. Rising Concrete Fifth is used in interrogation, not so marked and piercing as the 8th, nor so tame as the 3d. It expresses more dignity than the former and more spirit than the latter.

EXAMPLE 1. Hath not a Jew eyes ? hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions ? If you prick us do we not bleed? if you tickle us do we not laugh ? if you poison us do we not die ? and if you wrong us, shall we not revenge ?

Hamlet.-Saw whom?
Horatio.—My lord, the king, your father.

Hamlet.The king my father?
Did you not speak to it ?

Horatio.—My lord I did.
Hamlet.-Armed say you ?
Horatio.Armed my lord.
Hamlet.-From top to toe ?

12. Rising Concrete Second and Third are used for enphasis and simple interrogation. The following will illustrate both the rising and falling

EXAMPLE 1. What would content you, Talent ? No! Enterprize ? No! Courage? No! Virtue ? No!

Would Revelation make worse parents, children, husbands or wives, masters or servants, friends or neighbors ?

EXAMPLE 2. Canst thou draw out the leviathan with a hook? Canst thou fill his skin with barbed iron ?

13. The Downward Octave is used to express amazement, positiveness and surprize. The downward fifth expresses positiveness with more dignity. The latter, when joined with the radical stress, is one of the most powerful and impressive intonations that the whole nomenclature affords.


Fly thither whence thou fled'st; if from this hour
Within these hallowed limits thou appear'st,

Back to the infernal pit I drag thee chained. The last example should be read with a combination of the radical stress and downward 5th.

Seems, Madam! nay, it is : I know not seems.

Ces.—'Tis well if ye dare act upon these words.

Cit.- We dare.
To terms like these she has but one reply-defiance.

14. The passionate exclamation of the vengeful Zanga, after having accomplished his “capable and wide revenge, demands on the italicised words the same combination as above.

Know, then, 'twas I.
I urged Don Carlos to resign his mistress,
I forged the letter, I disposed the picture;
I hated, I despised, and I destroy !

15. We give below a table for elementary exercise. If the student would become master of that emphatic power possessed by few, a command over the downward slides, let him practise diligently on these elements, as indicated by the scale.



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art 16. I am aware that some writers on this subject have given a multiplicity of rules to regulate the application of inflections, but they frequently admit of numerous exceptions. If the pupil possesses discrimination sufficient to enable him to become a good reader, he will learn to analyze for himself, and he cannot fail to see where the rising and falling slides are generally appropriate. Where they admit of doubt, or are regulated merely by taste, rules will not aid him.

17. The following embraces the substance of these canons. 1-When words are used in contrast, the first demands the rising and the last the falling slide. 2-Words used as pauses, denoting the sense unfinished, require the rising. 3—Questions that can be answered by yes or no end with the rising. 4-Exclamation, command, entreaty, denunciation, and like sentiments, generally have the falling. The falling is also used in succession and repetition. 5—The last pause but one in a sentence usually has the rising inflection.

SECTION 5.-WAVES OF THE VOICE. 1. When the voice rises and falls, or falls and rises, at one effort, it constitutes what is called the Single Wave.

2. If the voice rise and fall, and rise again, or vice-versa, on the same syllable, it exhibits the Double Wave. If there are more than three constituents or parts, it is designated by the Continued Wave.

3. These three waves are subdivided into equal, unequal, direct and inverted, direct unequal, and inverted unequal. If the voice rise and fall through the same interval, the movement is termed an Equal Wave. When it rises first, and then falls equally, it is the Direct Equal Wave. When it falls first, and then rises equally, it is the Inverted Equal Wave.

4. When the upward and downward movement are unequal, it is called an Unequal Wave. If it rises first, and

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