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doctrine of progressive sanctification. Cowan doubt whether he, as a beIt was a single act and perfected at liever in the Son of God, be under once by the shedding of the blood of any obligation to keep these precepts, Christ" the Lamb of God who or in other words, to make them the taketh away the sin of the world." rule of his life, we entreat him to take See Heb. x. 5-10. But the New any one of them for instance « Thou Testament writers also speak of sanc- shalt not kill-thou shalt not stealtification in a moral sense; agreeably thou shalt not commit adultery'-or to which, to be sanctified, signifies to any other he pleases to select, and be made holy by a renovation of the let him seriously ask his own conspirit of the mind, being created after science, whether he be at liberty to the moral image of God in righteous- violate it with impunity. The man ness and true holiness. Eph. iv. 23, who should answer in the affirmative, 24. This sanctification is produced whether believer or unbeliever, we by the Holy Spirit, and so is termed should think a fit object for the care " the sanctification of the Spirit.” of Dr. Munro! but if he answer in 2 Thess. ii. 13. 1 Pet. i. 2. but it is the negative and allow that it would by means of the truth that this is be sin in him to transgress it, he effected, and hence Christ prays plainly shows by such answer that his “ Sanctify them through thy truth, thy objection is a mere quibble-an idle word is truth.” John xvii. 17. It is strife of words. The truth is that through the knowledge and belief of the moral law is the eternal rule of that truth which testifies of redemp-righteousness, and consequently is tion from the curse of the law by the not like positive or temporary insti. blood of Christ, that men are not tutions, which depend entirely upon only justified, but also sanctified- the will and pleasure of the Instituthat they become dead unto sin, and tor-but is founded on the very naalive unto God. Rom. vi. 6, 7, 22. ch. ture of God, being a transcript of his vii. 4–7. Col. ii. 11-13. and from this holiness, justice and goodness-on inward sanctification proceeds holi- our relation to him as his creatures ness of life and conversation, for the and the subjects of his moral governsubjects of it are led to deny ungodli- ment-and on our relation to one ness and worldly lusts, and live sober- another as possessed of the same ly, righteously, and godly in this pre-common nature, and connected by sent world. Titus ii. 11-15. This various ties. It must consequently holiness or sanctification, which is remain the same, in substance, under essential to our happiness in the en- every dispensation, and nothing can joyment of a holy God, must, in the either relax or destroy its obligation very nature of the thing be progres upon the creatures of God. Christ sive and indeed it admits of as many has indeed fulfilled it in the room degrees in the saints on this side the and place of his people as their subgrave as there are degrees of know-stitute and representative, and deledge, faith, charity, and every other livered them from it as the condition Christian grace. It is perfect in none of life, or the terms of their acceptance of them while in this world; for the with God but still he has delivered most advanced of them, even those it unto his redeemed people, under who are termed fathers, in distinction the covert of his own blood, and from babes, in Christ, still carry about enforced it upon them by his redeemwith them a body of sin and death, ing love, and by the rewards and from which they groan for deliver- punishments of a future state. See ance, saying with the Psalmist, “I Matt. v. 19, 20. Rom. xiii. 8-11. shall be satisfied when I awake in James ii. 8–13. The spirit and subthy likeness.” Ps. xvii. 15.

stance of this law was imprinted on 2. Mr. Cowan also objects to the Adam's heart at his creation, and is Baptists of Bristol, their considering summed up by our Lord in two parthe moral law as the rule of life to ticulars, namely, perfect love to God believers an objection as old, we be- and our neighbour-duties which are lieve, as the days of Dr. Crisp, but of of eternal and immutable obligation which it has always confounded us to upon all the people of God. Matt. make out the grounds and reasons. xxii. 37-41. It would be easy to The moral law, as delivered to Israel enlarge on this subject, and expose in the Sinai covenant, comprises ten the utter absurdity of the contrary precepts. Soe Exod. xx. Now if Mr, 'sentiment, but we hope these few re

marks will be deemed sufficient to THE GREAT AND GOOD BISHOP TAYinduce Mr. Cowan to review his LOR lived at a time when the doctrine principles, if not to remove his ob- of Toleration was very imperfectly jections.

| understood in this country; and, by Were it not that we have already the two great contending factions, devoted so many of our columns to the Episcopal and Presbyterian, perMr. Cowan's pamphlet, there are haps, still less relished. He was several other subjects on which we unquestionably a man of great genius could have wished to offer a few ob- and very extensive learning; intiservations, particularly the intima- mately acquainted with the Holy tion at p. 46. of his using a printed Scriptures, and well read in the Liturgy in public worship! This is a Fathers and Ecclesiastical writers, pretty plain indication that though both of the Greek and Latin church. the clamours of conscience have com He was also tolerably versed in the pelled him to withdraw from the civil and canon Law, together with all establishment, he still fondly clings the various branches of polite litera, to the skirts of the “ Mother of Har- ture. He had thoroughly digested lots,” or, at least to those of her un- all the ancient moralists, with the chaste daughter! These half-hearted Greek and Roman Poets and Orators, dissenters, of whom we have several and was conversant with the best among the ministers in the Metro- French and Italian writers. These polis, are a perfect non-descript in the acquisitions rendered him one of the kingdom of Christ. Was it thus greatest divines of the age in which that Owen and Charnock and Bates he lived, and, combined with his and Howe and “the noble army” of amiable personal qualities, they conthe Puritans in general acted, when stituted him, one of the brightest driven out from the church of Eng- ornaments of the Episcopal church. land? Far otherwise. But it is mani- | His piety was steady, rational, and fest that Mr. Cowan is hitherto very fervent; and his practice of the partially enlightened into the import several duties of Christianity truly of Christ's good confession, which he exemplary. He was remarkable for witnessed before Pontius Pilate, his humility, being always courteous, when he declared his kingdom to be affable, and easy of access, even to not of this world. When his other persons of the lowest ranks. He never avocations shall allow time for it, we considered arrogance and pride neceswith all deference beg leave to re-sary to keep up the dignity of the commend to his perusal, “ Towgood's Episcopal character ; but was disDissent from the Church of England tinguished as much by the meekness, fully justified"---- Theological Dis- gentleness, and loveliness of his dissertations, by the late Dr. John position, as he was by his superior Erskine, of Edinburgh"---“ An Essay | attainments. His cotemporaries deson the Kingdom of Christ, by the cribe him to have been extremely late Mr. Abraham Booth”---“ An il- handsome in person; possessing & lustration of Christ's Commission to voice uncommonly harmonious : so his Apostles, by Mr. M'Lean"---and that as an orator, he excelled; while though last, not least deserving of his sweet and obliging disposition, his regard, Mr. Glas's “ Testimony and the urbanity of his manners, of the King of Martyrs"---though the joined to the acuteness of his wit, and volume we believe is now rather the extent of his knowledge, rendered scarce and difficult to be met with his private conversation equally de

| lightful and instructive. Nor was he A Discourse on the Liberty of Prophe. less distinguished for his benevolence

sying, with its just limits and temper, and humanity: for he is said to have showing the unreasonableness of pre- expended nearly all his income in scribing to other mens faith, and the acts of beneficence and liberality to iniquity of persecuting different opi the poor. nions. By JEREMY TAYLOR, D.D. | He has bequeathed to posterity the Chaplain in ordinary to King | fruits of his genius in his writings, Charles I. and Lord Bishop of which are numerous, and which, Down, Conner and Dromore. Although the style may want something New Edition. London. Gale and of the ease and polish of modern Fenner, 1817. pp. 434. Octavo. pr. times, will ever remain an exhauste 12s. boards.

less mine of rich information. In

hili LOLITALIA

the Volume now before us, he pleads | All the Elect children of God contempwith great eloquence and force of lated as members of one body; gatherreasoning, the noble cause of religi-1 ed together under one head, and actuous liberty---or the rights of con ated by one spirit: in a few familiar science. It is unquestionably an thoughts, on John xvii. 21-24. BY excellent treatise, and has deservedly ROBERT HARKNESS CARNE, A. B. obtained high applause from the most Exeter, Gresswell; Button and enlightened friends of religious free Son; and T. Hamilton, London, dom and the common rights of man 1817. p.p. 290. royal 24mo. pr. 2s. kind---though, as might naturally be 6d. boards. expected, it has, in the same proportion, extorted an effusion of spleen

| WHOEVER has attentively considered from bigotted zealots, and been as

the style of the Evangelists and Aposliberally censured by the advocates of

tles, must have remarked the sinecclesiastical tyranny. Such a work,

gular simplicity which uniformly cha

racterizes it. They appear to have however, should never be allowed to be out of print; and the publishers of

been so 'profoundly penetrated, with the present handsome edition, will,

the ineffable grandeur and importance we trust, not only be liberally remu

of the subjects on which they treat, nerated but encouraged to similar

as to think that, by applying to them undertakings by the suffrages of the

the flowers of rhetoric, they should friends of frecdom.

only have eclipsed their glory-even The publishers have given, at the

as the painting of a diamond would close of the Work, the Bishop's

answer no other purpose than to obStatement of the litigated Question

scure its lustre. Now, to us, there of Infant Baptism, which will of

is something in Mr. Carne's style of course furnish an additional recom

writing, in the small volume before mendation of it to the advocates of

ús, so very different from what we that practice. We cannot indeed say

have just mentioned, that we regret

it exceedingly. We had no sooner that we think the learned writer's reasoning is quite so clear and de

entered upon the perusal of his Preinonstrative on this point, as it is on

face, than the following sentence pre

sented itself to us. the subject of toleration and the rights of conscience. He finds it

“ The gentle breathings of the Spirit of necessary, we perceive, to go back to

truth, are not like (the irregular blasts of the Covenant made with Abraham,

the prince of darkness they ever blow

n, in one direction, sweetly wafting the ves. for an authority to baptize infants ! sels of mercy, through the same channel but surely there is something very of scripture doctrine, to the fair havens unaceountable in the fact, that a in the kingdom of Immanuel. Having New Testament ordinance inust go Jesus for our pilot, and his word for our a begging for its evidence to Old chart and compass, it is good to spread Testament types. We are, however, I our sails before such heaven-born gales, obliged to the good natured bisbon | and to have no other desire, than for our for supplying us with an apology for

| barks, throughout the voyage of life, to not altogether agreeing with him on

| be under the immediate influence of that

celestial wind, which, while it bloweth this disputed point. He seems to

where it listeth, is sure to bear us onward have been somehow, aware that his

to our desired haven, in the pacific ocean arguments are not perfectly indispu of eternal rest." Pref. p. vi.. table, and he candidly anticipates a Alas ! how unsuitable is this phrademur from his opponents. “To all

seology to the subject on which it is this” says he, p. 325. “ the Anabap

employed. The proper epithet by tist gives a soft and gentle answer, which to describe it is that of fustiu that it is a goodly harangue, which

Again: In reading the New Tesupon strict examination will come to

tament, we are not only struck with nothing: that it pretends fairly, and

the simplicity and plainness of the signifies little; that some of these

style which the Holy Spirit has seen allegations are false, some impertinent, and all the rest insufficient !"

fit to employ in communicating divine

revelation to us; but the strictest Were we questioned upon oath, as to our opinion, we really think we should

regard is uniformly paid to coherency not be found to differ very widely

we should in the sentiment. We can trace to froin the same judgment.

concatenation of ideas in the writer, mind, and are never perplexed or be wildered by having extraneous matter

jumbled together, which have little cope towards the heavens, he disor no affinity to each other. We are covered unheard of wonders. On the sorry to say that the case is often very surface of the moon he saw lofty different in the little volume before mountains and deep valleys. The us. The author indulges in a dashing milky way he discovered to be a style of writing, which may indeed crowded assemblage of fixed stars, tickle the ear, but is necessarily a invisible to the naked eye. Venus hé source of great pain to the judgment, found to vary, in its phases, like the which, if exercised at all, must be moon. The figure of Saturn, he obdone in the way of marking the rela- served to be oblong, consisting of tion that one idea has to another, and three distinct parts. Jupiter he saw consequently is always shocked at in- surrounded with four moons, which congruity.

he named Medicean stars, after the The great defect in Mr. Carne's family of the Grand Duke of Tuscany: 6 Familiar Thoughts” is,' their want of And on the sun's disk hè perceived discrimination, or distinguishing the spots, from the motion of which he things that differ. For instance, the inferred, that the sun revolves about subject on which they treat is that of its axis. These “ great marvels” (as CHRISTIAN UNITY-Christ prays for our excellent church would express his people that they all may be one, it) Galileo had the temerity to pubas the Father and he are one---that

lish for the information of others, the world may be persuaded of his

for which he was cited before the divine mission. Now instead of dis

Court of Inquisition, accused of hetinguishing between visible and invi- | resy, and thrown into prison ! A sible unity, as he ought to have done, I great revolution indeed has taken and keeping in view that the words place in the public sentiment on this of his text were a vraver for a future subject, since the days of the unforblessing in behalf of his people, Mr. | tunate Galileo, By means of the Carne's discourse is almost wholly | labours of Newton and Herschel, the occupied in considering the eternal

discoveries of Galileo are now so well union that subsists between Christ established and the science of Astroand his mystical body, with the pri

nomy so familiarised to persons of vileges resulting to them from that / ordinary capacity that, except a few union! Really, all this is little to individuals of the Hutchinsonian the purpose, and betrays great want class, a person who intimates a doubt of attention to the meaning of Scrip- of the orthodoxy of the Newtonian ture. We wish Mr. Carne, at his system, is rarely met with, and would leisure, would take the trouble of be looked upon by his cotemporaries reading a discourse on the same as a rara avis. Yet such an individual words, which he will find in a posthu- is the author of the volume before mous volume of Sermons, by the late

us. The notion of a plurality of Mr. Archibald M-Lean, of Edinburgh,

world fills him with dread alarm for recently published; we think he cer

| the fate of divine revelation, which, tainly might profit by it. .

he thinks, teaches a different doctrine, and his benevolent concern for the

salvation of his fellow creatures, conPlurality of Worlds : or Letters, Notes nected with a deep feeling of distress

and Memoranda, Philosophical and at witnessing the apathy of others, Critical, occasioned by A Series of has determined him to buckle on his Discourses on the Christian Revela-armour, and arrest the progress of the tion, viewed in connection with the growing evil. We may further add, Modern Astronomy. By Thomas that the extraordinary celebrity which Chalmers, D. D. London. Max Dr. Chalmers's Astronomical Diswell. Pp. 212, price 5s. 1817. courses have met with, seems to It is now just two hundred years have nearly compleated his discomfisince the celebrated Galileo, a native ture, and rendered every vestige of of Florence began to broach, what hopeful success to his labours aborwere then termed, very heretical doc- tive. “Is all this farce" he asks, “ to trines, in the science of Astronomy.goonencreasing and gathering He constructed an optical instrument strength, merely because the great by means of which, as he himself mass of mankind have neither time. says, objects appeared magnified a opportunity, nor taste to examine for thousand times. Turning his Teles- themselves, and to exercise the prin

VOL. III.

2

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ciple of common serise? Has no one! That the author of these letters courage enough to lift up his hand, I should approve of Parkhurst's gloss that the plague may be stayed ?Poor on this text is easily accounted for; man ! this is sufficiently indicative of but we will venture to affirm that his disturbed state of mind. We sin- | nothing short of the baneful influence cerely hope that no greater inischief of hypothesis could ever induce a will ensue: but really we have our sound mind to adopt.such an interfears, for we find that as he proceeds, pretation. To perceive its manifest enthusiastic ardour in what he absurdity we need only to quote the imagines the cause of truth, gradu- remainder of text---having spoken of ally accumulates, and in the next page the worlds (plural) as " framed by the he tells his friend that “ half mea- word of God” the apostle immediately sures will never stop the roaring of adds, “ so that things which are seen the cannon, or the ravages of the were not made of things which do enemy. The fortress must be assail-appcar." Now this last clause of the ed, the rampart destroyed, the strong verse demonstrably determines its hold taken, ere the Christian church signification, as Dr. Macknight well be permitted to enjoy peace and safety, observes, to the material fabric of or the contest subside between the the worlds, .comprehending the sun, astronomical infidel, and the humble moon, stars, and earth (called by disciple of the Christian faith. To Moses the heaven and the earth, attempt this is the design of the fol- Gen: i. 1.) These are what the same lowing letters.":

apostle in Rom. i. 20. denominates We are not all disposed to question the things that are made," and the the good intentions of the author of creation of which demonstrates “ the these letters, but we much doubt the eternal power and Godhead" of the successful termination of his labours; great first cause. But this is not all not because we are of the number of that we have to complain of in the those who ever despair of the progress author's conduet. He would have of truth in the world, but solely be- his readers to imagine that Heb. xi. cause we verily believe him to be 3. is the only text in the Bible that wrong upon the point in debate. The speaks of a plurality of worlds, general 'doctrine of the Newtonian whereas the very same thing is exsystem of Astronomy appears to us pressly taught in Heb. i. 2. God hath to be too firmly established ever to be in these last days spoken unto us by shaken by the cavils of the Sciolist. his Son---" by whom also he made the And we are far from thinking it so I worlds." We are not now to be inrepugnant to the tenour of divine re- formed of the various glosses that velation as he would represent it. have been put upon this text, and of Now, to give the reader a specimen of the pains taken by the Socinians to this and of his unfairness in meeting deprive us of the evidence thence the question.--

| arising, for the proper and essential His ninth Letter is entitled “ On Deity of Jesus Christ---by convertthe plurality of Worlds.” He tells ing the creation of the worlds into his friend that “ the authors who the constitution of the ages : but adopt the opinion, of what is called these laboured criticisms affect us the immensity of creation, are com- not. The whole context shews that pelled to seek refuge in speculations the Son of God created the worlds at rather novel and romantic, and sup- first, and that he “ upholds them by positions are thus framed without any the word of his power," ver. 3. That regard to the authority of Scripture," " in the beginning he laid the founp. 145. He seems; however, to have dation of the earth and the heavens been aware that this was going a step | (those worlds on high) are the works too far, and therefore he has sub of his hands"---for by Him were all joined a note upon the words marked things created that are in heaven and in Italics, which we shall here quote. that are in earth, visible and invisi

ble---all things were created by him “ That the scripture is not altogether (as their cause) and for him, (as their silent upon this subject, Heb. xi. 3.

ultimate end). Coloss. i. 16. may be introduced. But Parkhurst, by the word Arwuas understands, and I can Thoge worlds on high, and worlds below not but think rightly, all the various re All witness his unwearied care : Yolutions and general occurrences which The Victim here of gen'ral woe: have happened to this created system.” The Captain of Salvation there.

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