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expedition. The weather was ex- death : but I entertain very dif. tremely tempestuous, and very cold, ferent sentiments. Death has no it being late in the year; and the terrors for me: it is an event I rain fell in torrents. In his im- always look to with cheerfulness, patience to set out, a conveyance if not with pleasure ; and be as. not being immediately ready, he sured, the subject of it is to me mounted an old dray-horse, used more grateful than any other. I in Admiral Mordvinof's family to am well aware that I have but a convey water, and thus proceeded short time to live; my mode of to visit his patient. Upon his life has rendered it impossible that arrival, he found the lady dying: I should recover from this fever. this, added to the fatigue of the If I had lived as you do, eating journey, affeoted him so much, heartily of animal food, and drinkthat it brought on a fever: hising wine, I might, perhaps, by clothes, at the same time, had altering my diet, be able to subdue been wet through. But he attri- it. But how can such an invalid buted his fever entirely to another as I am lower his diet? I have cause. Having administered some been accustomed, for years, to thing to his patient to excite per- exist upon vegetables and water; spiration, as soon as the symp. a little bread, and a little tea. I toms of it appeared, he put his have no method of lowering my hand beneath the bed-clothes, to nourishment, and consequently I feel her pulse, that she might not must die. It is such jolly fellows be chilled by his removing them; as you, Priestman, who get over and he believed that her fever was these fevers !" Then, turning the thus communicated to him. After subject, he spoke of his funeral; this painful journey, Mr. Howard and cheerfully gave directions conreturned to Cherson, and the lady cerning the manner of his burial. died.
“ There is a spot,” said he, “ near It had been almost his daily the village of Dauphigny: this custom, at a certain hour, to visit would suit me nicely: you know it Admiral Priestman; when, with well, for I have often said that I his usual attention to regularity, should like to be buried there; and he would place his watch upon the let me beg of you, as you value table, and pass exactly an hour your old friend, not to suffer any with him in conversation. The pomp to be used at my funeral; Admiral, observing that he failed nor any monument, normonuin his usual visits, went to see him, mental inscription whatsoever, to and found him weak and ill, sitting mark where I am laid: but lay me before a stove in his bed-room. quietly in the earth, place a sunHaving inquired after his health, dial over my grave, and let me be Mr. Howard replied, that his end" forgotten.” Having given these was approaching very fast; that directions, he was very earnest in he had several things to say to his soliciting that Admiral Priestman friend; and thanked him for having would lose no time in securing the called. The Admiral, finding him object of his wishes; but go ime in such a melancholy mond, en-mediately, and settle with the deavoured to turn the conversa owner of the land for the place of tiou, imagining the whole might be his interment, and prepare every the effect of his low spirits; but I thing for his burial. Mr. Howard soon assured him it The Admiral left him upon his was otherwise; and added,“ Priest- melancholy errand; fearing at the man, you style this a very dull con- same time, as he himself informed versation, and endeavour to divertus, that the people would believe my mind from dwelling upon him to be crazy, in soliciting a
burying-ground for a man then buried acccrding to the rites of living, and whom no person yet the Greek Church; and, begging knew to be indisposed. However, Admiral Priestman to prevent any he accomplished Mr. Howard's interference on the part of the wishes, and returned to him with Russian priests, made him also the intelligence: at this, his counte-promise, that he would read the nance brightened, a gleam of evi- Service of the Church of England dent satisfaction came over his over his grave, and bury him in all face, and he prepared to go to bed.) respects according to the forms of Soon afterwards he made his will ; 1 his country. Soon after this last leaving as his executor a trusty request, he ceased to speak. follower, who had lived with him Admiral Mordvinof came in, and more in the capacity of a friend found him dying very fast. They than of a servant, and whom he had in vain besought him to allow charged with the commission of a physician to be sent for; but bearing his will to England. It Admiral Mordvinof renewing this was not until he had finished this solicitation with great earnestness, will, that any symptoms of deli- Mr. Howard assented, by nodding rium appeared. Admiral Priest-his head. The physician came, man, who had left him for a short but was too late to be of any ser. time, returned and found him vice. A rattling in the throat had sitting up in his bed, adding what commenced: the physician adhe believed to be a codicil to his ministered what is called the musk will; but it consisted of several draught, a medicine used only in unconnected words, the chief part Russia, in the last extremity. It being illegible, and the whole with was given to the patient by Admiral out any meaning. This strange Mordvinof, who prevailed with composition he desired Admiral him to swallow a little; but he Priestman to witness and to sign ; endeavoured to avoid the rest, and and, in order to please him, the gave evident signs of disapprobaAdmiral consented; but wrote his tion. He was then entirely given name, as he bluntly said, in Rus- over; and shortly after breathed sian characters, lest any of his his last. friends in England, reading his Mr. Howard had always refused signature to such a codicil, should to allow any portrait of himself to think he was also delirious. After be made : but after his death, Mr. Howard had made what he Admiral Mordvinof caused a plasconceived to be an addition to his ter mould to be formed upon his will, he became more composed. / face: this was sent to Mr. WhilA letter was brought to him from bread. A cast from the same England, containing intelligence mould was in the Admiral's posof the improved state of his son's session when we were in Cherson, health ; stating the nature of his presenting a very striking resemoccupations in the country, and blance of his features. giving reason to hope that he would He was buried near the village recover from the disorder with of Dauphigny, about five versts which he was afflicted.* His ser- from Cherson, by the road to vant read this letter aloud : and, Nichola ef, in the spot he had him. when he had concluded, Mr. self chosen; and his friend, Admi. Howard turned his head towards ral Priestman, read the English him, saying, “ Is not this comfort Burial-service, according to bis for a dying father ?" He express- desire. The rest of his wishes ed great repugnance against being were not exactly fulfilled: the col. * Mr. Heward's son laboured under and course of spectators was immense, attack of insanity.
and the order of his funeral was
more magnificent than would have them to him after our deparmet with his approbation.
ture, A monument was afterwards The distance from Cherson to erected over him : this, instead of Nicholaef is only sixty two versts, the sun-dial he had requested, or rather more than forty.one consisted of a brick pyramid or miles. At the distance of five obelisk, surrounded by stone posts versts from the former place, the with chains. The posts and chains road passes close to the Tomb of began to disappear before our Howard. It may be supposed we arrival; and when Mr. Heber made did not halt with indifference to the sketch from which the Vignette view the hallowed spot. " To to this Chapter was engraven, pot abstract the mind from all local a vestige of them was to be seen; emotion, would be impossible if it the obelisk alone remained, in the were endeavoured, and it would be midst of a bleak and desolate plain, 1 foolish if it were possible. Whatwhere dogs were gnawing the ever withdraws us from the power bones of a dead horse, whose of our senses; whatever makes the putrifying carcase added to the re- past, the distant, or the future, volting horror of the scene. A predominate over the present; circumstance came to our know- advances us in the dignity of ledge before we left Russia, con- thinking beings. Far be from me, cerning Howard's remains, which and from my friends, that frigid it is painful to relate; namely, that philosophy which might conduct Count Vincent Potocki, a Polish us indifferent or unmoved over nobleman of the highest taste and any ground that has been dignified talents, whose magnificent library by wisdom, bravery, or virtue.” and museum would do honour to So spake the Sage, in words never any country, through a mistaken to be forgotten: unenvied be the design of testifying his respect for man who has not felt their force : the memory of Howard, had sig- / lamented he who does not know nified his intention of taking up the their author. body, that it might be conveyed to his country-seat, where a sump- ON THE SUPPOSED PRE-EXIS. tuous monument had been pre- TENCE OF CHRIST'S HUMAN pared for its reception, upon a
SOUL.. small island in the midst of a lake. It is an important admonition His Countess, being a romantic which the apostle gives the belady, wishes to have an annual lieving Hebrews in ch. xiii. 9. of fete, consecrated to Benevolence; his epistle to them, when he says, at this the nymphs of the country " Be not carried about with divers are to attend, and to strew the and strange doctrines," In oppoplace with flowers. This design sition to which unstable conduct, is so contrary to the earnest re- so perplexing to themselves and quest of Mr. Howard, and at the inconsistent with their Christian same time such a violation of the profession, he recommends it to dignity due to his remains, that them to have their hearts“ estaevery friend to his memory will blished with grace;" that is, with join in wishing it may never be the free love and favour of God fulfilled. Count Potocki was ab- revealed in the gospel through the sent during the time we remained sacrifice of Christ, of which he in that part of the world, or we had treated so largely throughout should have ventured to remon- the whole of his letter to them. strate: we could only therefore Among the doctrines which entrust our petitions to a third mayjustly be denominated strange, person, who promised to convey | or foreign to, and inconsistent VOL. III.
with, the true doctrine of the gos- establish, and illustrates those Pro. pel, I am decidedly of opinion, positions at considerable length, may be reckoned that of the pre-For instance, Proposition I. “ It is existence of Christ's human soul. evident from many places of scripNo advocate of this strange senti- ture, that Christ had an existence ment will be bold enough to affirin before he came into this world." that it is expressly taught in either In proof of this he quotes John i. the Old or New Testament, and a 1, 3, 14. ch. xii. 41. with Is. vi. sentiment or doctrine which can-1-4. John viii. 48. ch. iii. 30, 31. not be found in the inspired writ. and vi. 33. cum multis aliis. Now ings, can have little claim upon the no consistent Trinitarian denies attention of Christians.
the thing contended for in this One of the most strenuous ad- first proposition. The simple testivocates for this doctrine was the mony of scripture, that“ God was pious Dr. Watts, who, in his manifest in flesh"—that Jesus was WORKS, VOL. VI. Octavo edition, “ Immanuel God with us"-that Leeds, 1813. has an elaborate the “Child born, and the Son Discourse, the design of which is given," Is. ix. 6. was the “ Mighty to “ trace out the early existence God,” necessarily implies all that of Christ's human nature as the is contended for in this primary first-born of God, or as the first of proposition ; but not one of the all creatures, before the formation texts quoted by the Doctor conof the world.” p. 581. The Doc- tains the smallest allusion to the tor has furnished his readers with principle for which he is contendthe names of thirteen other divines ing. of modern times who have also His second and third Proposi. “professed this doctrine publicly, tions merely go to shew that the among whom are Dr. Henry More scriptures contain evidence that -- Bishop Fowler - Mr. Robert Jesus was a divine person, or truly Fleming - Joseph Hussey - Dr. God. The fourth and fifth are Gastrell - Dr. Burnett, &c. &c. intended to show that those texts and as Dr. Watts appears to have which refer to Christ's divine naread all their Treatises on this sub-ture, seem to refer to his possessing ject, it is not unfair to presume some intelligent, nature inferior to that he has carefully gleaned the Godhead, prior to his incarnatiou strength of all their arguments, but (mark the Doctor's dexterity) and presented his readers with having merely hinted at the sentiwhatever can fairly be said on ment he wishes to establish, he that side of the question. His declines producing any evidence, work now lies before me; but but proceeds to PROP. V. that upon an impartial examination of “ Whatever scriptures represent it, I do not find one single argu. Christ as existent before his incarment adduced in behalf of the nation in a nature inferior to Godpre-existence of Christ's human head, (the very point to be proved!) soul that merits attention-nor a do most naturally lead us to the single text of scripture brought belief of the pre-existence of the forward which necessarily implies human soul.” that sentiment, or which does not Thus the reader will perceive admit of an easy and natural solu- how adroitly the learned Doctor tion on the Trinitarian hypothesis, has shaped his course, step by without having recourse to this, step, to the thing which is to be strange doctrine. Dr. Watts lays proved. Let us now attend him down a series of Propositions, such | in his progress, and examine his as he thinks lead to the Proof of proofs. In the 3rd SECTION of the doctrine wbich he proposes to his Discourse, he adduces “ Argu
ments for the pre-existence of, were attributed to Jehovah, Exod. Christ's human soul, drawn from vii.---xiii. Ps. Ixxviii. 43–52. yet various considerations of some- | JEHOVAH is distinguished from thing inferior to Godhead ascribed the destroyer, Exod. xii. 23. and to him before and at his incarna- / we are told the Lord did those tion." The first consideration, is, things, by sending evil angels that it was Christ who appeared / among them. Ps. lxxviii. 49. The of old to the Patriarchs, and that redemption of Israel out of Egypt such appearances are likened to is almost every where ascribed to that of an Angel, or a man, a glo- | Jehovah's immediate hand, Ex. rious man distinct from God, and l xiii, 6. and this is asserted in the yet such an one in whom Jehovah very preface of their law, ch, xx. had a peculiar indwelling, or with 2. yet Moses ordered his Messenwhom the divine nature had a per-gers to say to the King of Edom sonal union.
" When we cried unto the Lord That it was the Son of God who he heard our voice, and sent an appeared of old unto the fathers, Angel, and hath brought us forth who is termed “ the angel of Jeho- out of Egypt.” Numb. xx. 16. In vah's presence." Is. Ixiii. 9.-who delivering the law, Jehovah is said appeared to Moses in the burning to speak with Moses, Exod. xix. bush, Exod. iii. 6. who brought 6. to speak all these words, ch. Israel out of Egypt, Exod. xx. 23. xx. 1. to talk with Israel from
and who went before the camp Heaven, ver. 22. yet, we are exof Israel, Exod. xiv. 19. &c. &c. is pressly told that the word was an opinion that has been held by spoken by angels, Heb. ii. 2. that many learned men, but it is a mere it was an Angel that spake to opinion, and, as I humbly con. Moses in Mount Sinai, and deliverceive, utterly incapable of any ed to him the lively oracles, Acts: proof-nay, unless I be greatly viii. 38, 53. How, now, shall we mistaken, it is an opinion quite at reconcile these things? We canvariance with what Paul teaches not say that a created angel was when he says Heb. ii. 5. that, | Jehovah, or that Jehovah was his « Unto the angels God hath not own angel: and to affirm that any put in subjection the world to of these angels was the Son of come” (or state of the gospel God, or the human soul of Jesus church) of which he was discours-Christ in his pre-existent state, is ing: as well as with several other to subvert the whole of the apostexts of the New Testament scriptle's reasoning in Heb. ii. 5. where tures, such as, Acts viii. 38, 53. his object manifestly is to contrast Gal. iii. 19. Heb, üi. 2. and others. the state of things under the gosCertain it is, that many things are pel with the former dispensation, ascribed to Jehovah in one place, and to shew that as the latter had which are in another said to be been subjected to the administradone by angels. Thus, he who tion of angels, so the former is now spake unto Hagar is called “ The wholly under the rule, government angel of the Lord ;" yet we are and direction of the Son of God told “ She called the name of all the holy angels being only his Jehovah that spake unto her, Thou servants, employed by him in God seest me.” Gen. xvi. 11, 13. ministering to the heirs of salva
The destruction of Sodom and tion. Thus the Doctor's grand Gomorrah is expressly ascribed to proof from the various appear. Jehovah, Gen. xix. 24. yet the ances of Christ's human soul angels say to Lot“ JEHOVAH under the Old Testament state of hath sent us to destroy it,” ver. 13. things turns out to be a mere graa The plagues inflicted upon Egypt | tuitous assumption. But to proceede