« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
“And Luke, the follower of Paul, Christ-crucified and raised from the gathered together in a book the Gos- dead ! In this idea, and in all its pel as preached by him (Paul)." further representations, definitions,
The fact that Luke differs in the and conclusions, the Pauline teaching arrangement of the historical mate- has its middle and its circumference, rial of the “Life of Christ” from It may be summed up in four Matthew, involves no contradiction. parts-1st, the teaching concerning When Matthew wrote his Gospel the the necessity of salvation ; 2nd, the first necessity was that of the con- teaching concerning a Saviour and verted Jaws, and we have already the act of salvation ; 3rd, the teachshown how well he met the want in ing of the extension of the work of his Gospel. But in Luke's time the salvation of Christ to all manChristianity had advanced to its kind; and 4th, the teaching of its second phase, that of converted consummation. heathendom, the apostle of which We shall now advance to our task was pre-eminently Paul, though Peter to endeavour to collect the various also shared in the work and endorsed portions of Luke's Gospel, and treatthe teaching of Paul with his apos- ment of the Gospel history which tolical authority, so that the Baurian correspond with this teaching of theory of a continued controversy be- Paul, and we shall find it advantatween the two apostles, which makes geous if we compare it with that of up one half of the New Testament, Matthew. The latter represents Christ is a baseless fable, conceivable only to equally truly as the Son of David and an enemy of Christianity, whilst the Abraham, the restorer of the Law: great fact remains in all its integrity the Messiah of Jewish expectation that the work of the heathen conver- sent to the lost sheep of Israel, “Go sion was pre-eminently the work of not into the way of the Gentiles, and Paul.
into any city of the Samaritans enter Perhaps it would help to a clearer ye not, but go rather to the lost appreciation of the peculiar character sheep of the house of Israel” (Matt. of Luke's Gospel, which proves be- x. 5, 6). Luke, though he does not conyond all question its genuineness, if tradict the statement of Matthew, we give in the words of one of the yet in his record of this scene where greatest writers on New Testament Christ charges his disciples (Luke ix. teaching, the few brief sentences in 3–5), he omits the passage we have which he delineates the great points quoted, which limits their work to of Paul's teaching as an introduction the Jews, though he agrees in what to his chapters on the “Doctrine of he states almost verbally with MatPaul.
thew, and we shall find that in Luke “Paul's teaching in his Epistles is (and also in Mark when we examine not so much Jesus as an individual it), that the conversion of the heathen man with his deeds teaching com- is brought out, and in this we repeat mands, &c., nor the Son as the Logos again there is no contradiction, but in his immediate relation to the the perfect unity of the Gospel is Father,t but it is Christ in his rela- maintained, though the work of tion to mankind universally im Christ is applied from a different Allgemeinen).” Starting from the con- point to the Jew and Gentile. There sciousness that the relation of inan can be no doubt that Christ comto God has been destroyed through manded that the Gospel should be sin, he raises the question, How can offered to the Jew first and then to man obtain justification, that is, res- the Gentile, and that is why we have toration of his proper relation to the two commands in the same GosGod ? and his reply is, In Jesus pel of Matthew from him to his dis
* Lutterbeck Neutestamentlichen Lehrbegriffe, 2 vols., Mainz, 1852. The very best work on the subject, written without the slightest trace of dogmatic prejudice, by one who is a Professor of Catholic Theology at the University of Giessen. See au admirablo criticism of the book by Thiersch in Stud. und Kritik, 1853, Heft iv.
+ There the writer is correct as a characteristic of Paul, yet he certainly foreshadows John's doyos in the Epis. to the Coloss. : 1, 15-18 (referred to hereafter), where he represents Christ as the image of the invisible God, “and by him all things in heaven and earth were created;" a passaye which prored a great stumbling block to Schleiermacher.
ciples, first not to go to the Gentiles, which appear to give Jesus a national but to the lost sheep of Israel, and peculiarity. afterwards, “Go ye therefore teach This is clear from his frequent reall nations, baptizing them in the presentations of Christ's kindness toname of the Father and of the Son wards the Samaritans, whom the and of the Holy Ghost” (Matt. xxviii. Jews hated : when they refused to 19), so that the perfect unity of the receive him into the Samaritan vilGospel is maintained even in the lage, because he was going towards Jewish version of Matthew; and we Jerusalem, and the disciples implored once more repeat, that though the him to bring down fire from heaven Gospels of Mark, Luke, and John to consume them he reproached them, are for heathens as well as Jews, they • Ye know not what manner of spirit all unite in representing Christ as ye are of,” ix. 55. the Saviour of every sinner, both Jew So, when asked by the quibbling and Gentile, in the whole world lawyer, “Who is my neighbour ?" he who believes on Him.
replied with the significant parable In Matthew we have the intuition of the “Good Samaritan,” a contraof Christ as we have said in his affir- diction to a Jewish mind-a Samarimative relation to the law, he does tan good, in opposition to a Jewish not intend to abrogate it but to pre- priest and a Levite! He finds greater serve it (Matt. v. 17, 18). What he faith in the Gentile centurion than in condemns is the arbitrary amplifica- all Israel, vii. 9. The narrative of tion, contractions, and spurious per- Jesus and the Canaanitish woman versions of the law by the Pharisees, fails in Matthew. The chosen people but even as regards them in their invited to the marriage supper made veneration for the law he supports excuses to the lord of the supper who them by the words “Whatsoever they sent his servant out into the streets bid you observe, that observe and do ; and lanes of the city to call in the but do ye not after their works.” An poor, the maimed, the halt, and the accurate distinction between the blind, who were despised by the pharisaic teaching to the people and chosen people. the pharisaic fulfilment in their own There is a distinction drawn in persons.
Luke between the strict legal rightBut in Luke we find no such defi- eousness which we find in Matthew, nite confirmation of the law, and in and that which is based subjectively his account of the Sermon on the upon the principles of ChristianityMount, the portion in Matthew to between the high confidence of the which we have alluded (v. 17, 18) is righteous Jew and his full expectadiscarded, and we hear Christ say- tion of a just reward, and the humble, ing, “The law and the prophets were meek faith of the self-abased Chrisuntil John; since that time the king- tian. dom of God is preached," which, In Matthew (v. 48) we read, “Be though no abrogation, still places the ye, therefore, perfect, even as your law in the relation as laid down by Father which is in heaven is perfect ;'' Paul as a
“schoolmaster to bring us but, in a parallel passage in Luke (vi. unto Christ."
36) the same idea is rendered, “Be We must not omit to notice that ye, therefore, merciful, as your Father Luke also has passages which agree also is merciful.” with Matthew concerning this matter In the scene where Jesus draws a (v. 14. c. 25. xviii. 18); in these pas- comparison between the character of sages Christ confirms the law, but Mary and Martha, we trace the tenthey are only exceptions to the main dency of Luke to represent the meekpeculiarity of Luke, who represents ness of faith against the pride of Christ and his work from the stand- works. In Mary, who sat at Christ's point of Paul.
feet, in her humility and simple lovIn Luke we find many incidents ing faith, and "heard his word,” we which do not appear in Matthew, have, symbolized by Luke, the Pauwhich agree with the Pauline view line view of Christianity, in contraof free grace and mercy ; also passages distinction to the self-cumbering with which represent Jesus as not avoid service and the jealousy of her sister's ing the heathen, aud an exclusion of want of works on the part of Martha, such incidents which are in Matthew which is clear from the decision of Christ, as to which of the two sisters from their first becoming Jews, had chosen the better part.
and from their first putting on the The parable of the Publican and garment of Jewish legal justificaPharisee (xviii. 10), is introduced tion, a stipulation which the third by Luke as addressed to those who Evangelist could not acknowledge, trusted in themselves that they and therefore he passed over that were righteous, and despised others; concluding paragraph, and moulds this reminds us also of the repetition the parable in a more Pauline form.” of this inconsistency of Jewish opinion In the parable of the healing of the with Christianity as in later times it ten lepers there is another incident is reiterated in the Epistle of James pointedly brought out about the Saii. 1-6, which agrees with the Pauline maritans again, who were hated by the principle of faith and the concluding Jews with more bitter hatred than
they sentence, “ For everyone that exalteth had for pagans. The only one of the himself shall be abased, and he that ten lepers who were healed, who humbleth himself shall be exalted,” manifested any sign of gratitude, was is justification like that which Paul, a Samaritan, who fell down on his 2 Cor. xi. 7, points out in opposition face at the feet of Christ, and with a to the false teachers in Corinth. loud voice glorified God, and Christ
So in the parable of the rich man said, “Where are the nine? There and Lazarus (xvi. 19) we have the are not found that returned to give same principle prominent and its glory to God save this foreigner result brought out in the different (axloyevns ) : finally there is in Luke fate of the two in the other world. the sending out of the seventy disThis is no element of Ebionism, as ciples, two by two, into the world, some have thought, but it is the which is significant of the transition distinction so often dwelt upon by of Christianity, beyond the limits of Paul, and brought out again by James, Judaism. The instructions given to who declares that God has chosen the them (x. 7) agree with the teachpoor of this world, who are rich in ing of Paul, I Corinth, ix. 7, and the faith, to be heirs of the kingdom, a words “ dodiete ta zapatiléjeva juiv," principle which has still higher au- are in literal agreement with I Cor. x. thority, that of him who, in the Mount 27. It fails altogether in the parallel began his marvellous sermon with passage in Matthew, because the eatthis very principle, "Blessed are the ing customs of the Jews form the dispoor in spirit, for theirs is the king- tinction between the Jewish and dom of heaven." No Ebionite Pauline Christianity (see also Acts poverty, but a Christian, spiritual xi. 3, Galat. ii. 12). poverty, in opposition to Jewish spiri- One more point of coincidence with tual pride.
Pauline teaching, a significant one, There is another point in connexion we must remark, before we pass on with the account of the marriage to notice the treatment of the person feast, which brings out the tendency and character of Peter, by Luke. We of Luke, in the way he discards allude to his account of the institufrom the corresponding version of tion of the Lord's Supper (comp. Luke the parable in Matthew, the signi- xxii. 19, 20, with I Cor. xi. 23–26). The ficant point of the expulsion of the comparison will prove that Luke must guest who had not on the wedding certainly have had the account he garment.
gives in his Gospel from Paul. As I take this incident from We now proceed to examine the Schwegler, * I will give it in his passages in which this Pauline Luke own language — "The original con- treats of Peter: and by referring to cipient of the parable is that the hea. Matthew, the difference of his reprethen is invited to the kingdom of God, sentation from the purely Jewish but only through the circumstance Evangelist, is suggestive. that the Jews declined the invitation, In Matthew, Peter is represented and only upon the condition that the as first chosen (iv. 18-20) and has heathen should enter into the king the distinctive appellative "Apwros? dom of God, not as being such, but (x. 2) and in his relation to the
Nachapostolische Zeitalter in den Hauptmomente seiner Entwickelung Tubingen; 1845, 6 II. p. 62.
Church as a means of salvation, is supernatural power over poisonous addressed by our Lord with the reptiles to tread on serpents and famous words. "Thou art Peter, scorpions-a promise afterwards fuland upon this rock I build my Church, filled in Paul when he shook the viper and the gates of hell shall not prevail from his hand, and the barbarians against it. And I will give unto thee declared he was a god (Acts xxviii. 6). the keys of the kingdom of heaven; It is quite in keeping with what and whatsoever thou shalt bind on we know of the great value set by earth shall be bound in heaven, and the early community upon any perwhatsoever thou shalt loose on earth son who was known to have had pershall be loosed in heaven :" words sonal communion with Jesus, and that have been perverted into an who was therefore styled an Apostle authority for sinners to absolve sin- (Acts i. 22), a feeling Paul himself ners: in the language of that time shared when he styled Peter, James, to bind and to loose could only be and John “pillars” of the Church understood by a Jew in the way of (Galat. ii. 9), and we know also solving difficult questions of the law. from the heresies which sprung up The disputes which raged between from the Ebionite hatred of Paul, rival Rabbis on these points, plenty and their bitter words against which may be gleaned from the him, how difficult it was for him to Talmuds, were upon contradictory maintain his apostolical call amongst binding and loosing of the leaders of the strictly Jewish Christians; and different schools. There can, there- this accounts for the phenomena we fore, be in those words, not the notice in the Gospel of Luke when slightest allusion to any imparting of compared with that of Matthew. power to forgive sin, by Christ to In the 9th chapter, after the sevd
sinful Peter." All the passages ing out and the return of the Twelve, which in Matthew are founded upon several passages occur which appear the exclusive possession by the Twelve to disparage their capacity for the of the apostolical dignity, fail in Luke; work in comparison with thetriumphso also does the address made by ant success of the Seventy who returnJesus personally to his disciples, who ed with joy, saying, “Lord, even the had gathered round him on the devils ar subject unto us through Mount, when he delivered his ser- thy name;" and received the gratifymon, Matt. v. 2, more especially v. ing reply from Christ, “I beheld 13, “Ye are the salt of the earth Satan as lightning fall from heaven;"
ye are the light of the and further on, "rejoice, because your world:"the promise that they should names are written in heaven” (x. judge the Twelve Tribes of Israel, 17-20). xix. 28, sitting on twelve thrones : ali But at the Transfiguration, while these are sought in vain in Luke. In Christ was in communion with the the place of this he has a more ex- heavenly messengers, Luke tells us tended account of the Seventy disciples Peter and those that were with him who, in a long address, are given the were heavy with sleep (BeBapnuevo
( most minute directions, and honoured úrvų), and they only woke up in with divine protection and authority, time to see the glorification of their “he that heareth you heareth me, master; and Peter spoke as one who and he that despiseth you despiseth knew not what he was saying (unètdws me, and he that despiseth me de- o deyer ix. 32, 33). The disciples, too, spiseth him that sent me." Divine were unable to heal the youth, of the vengeance would follow any ill-treat- demon the day after the Transfigurment of one of the Seventy.
ation, when Christ had come down These were endowed also with from the hill, and much people met
* Ritschl Das Evangelium Marcions, und das Kanonische Evangelium Lukas Tubingen, 1846. I am indebted to Ritschl for this and some of the other peculiarities in Luke's Gospel. His work is characterized by much vigour, but is a fruitless effort to prove that the Gospel of Luke, as we have it, is Marcion's Gospel, an effort similar to that of Hilgenfeld in the current year's numbers of his “Journal for Scientific Theology," to prove that our Matthew is a compilation of the original Hebrew version (which, according to him, contained no miracles)! and the interpolations of some unknown translator. This is the latest contribution to “Scientifie Theology."
him, amongst whom a man cried out nymous,* this polemic against Peter
master, I beseech thee look upon appears to the author of this work my son, for he is mine only child;" to be the leading idea which prevails then followed the attack of the de- throughout the whole Gospel, and mon before their eyes; and the man the object of its compilation. He continues, "and I besought thy dis- says also that this difference in the ciples to cast him out and they could representation of the relation of Jesus not" (ix. 39, 40), and then comes the to his disciples by different writers is reproof of Christ, which can only refer the result of party spirit to the exto the disciples; "0, faithless and clusion of all historical probability. . perverse generation, how long shall I He says, “the mouth of Jesus has be with you and suffer you ?” been made a servant of Pauline
So, also, the prediction by Christ doctrine," and that the disciples in of his death was wholly misunder the 3rd Gospel were treated by Jesus stood by them (v. 45), and they were like pharisees and hypocrites. He now afraid to confess their ignorance appears to see nothing but irony and ask him for an explanation. against the first Apostle (Peter) in
Then Luke proceeds to inform us the discourses of Christ as recorded that a vain struggle arose amongst by Luke. them as to who should be greatest,
That there can be no reason for and Jesus rebuked them by that such an assumption is best proved by beautiful incident which forms one of the fact that Luke does not really the wonders of his teaching," he took deprive him of any honour; for, aca child and set him by him, and said cording to Luke's account (xxii. 32), unto them, whosoever shall receive although it is intimated that Peter this child in my name receiveth me, would not resist temptation, yet when and whosoever shall receive me re- that is over he is to support his breceiveth him that sent me ; for he that thren. is least among you all the same shall Two more points must be noticed be great." The vain strife of the before we sum up into a general form disciples and the pain it caused to the Christology of Luke. Jesus are redeemed in the beautiful The Pauline sympathy for the lesson of humility to which it gave heathen manifests itself in the account rise.
of our Lord's trial, in comparison with After this John exclaims against Matthew, as regards the influence one who had been seen casting out exerted by Pilate on the fate of Jesus. devils in the name of Christ who was In Matthew we find that both Jews not one of them, and received a re- and heathen are equally involved in proof from Jesus.
the guilt of the execution. Upon this follows the incident Instead of hearing the case as a already alluded to of the disciples' judge, and properly investigating the desire for vengeance upon the hated charge, he proposed in favour of Jesus Samaritans (v. 54), and after this the useless expedient of offering to chapter of characteristic traits so un- release Jesus or Barabbas, and as soon favourable to the early. Twelve as the people had cried out for BarabApostles, Luke records in his Gospel bas he tried arguments and at last the selection and consecration of the gave way and ordered the execution. Seventy, who, in his opinion, ap- But with Luke the charge brought pear to have been regarded as babes against Jesus is that he had made in opposition to the wise and prud- himself king and rebelled against ent(s. 21).
Cæsar. Pilate replied, after questionThese facts though they appear as ing Jesus, that he found no fault in a polemic against Peter and his com- him, and this he repeats and pleads panions are in no way such. In a the opinion of Herod in support of well known work on the Gospels, his innocence (xxiii. 14, 15), and for characterized by very keen and pene- a third time he asked them why he trating criticism known under the should be executed; but they cried title of “Die Evangelien ihr Geist the more loudly, and the chief priests und ihre Verfasser," by Saxon Ano- joined them, when Pilate at length
* The Gospels, their Spirit and Authors, cited by Ritschl in his “ Das Evangelium Alarcions."