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WANADIUM-VANDALS.

heated to redness, the alloyed parts are covered with a layer of fused vanadic acid, which preserves them from further oxidation.—Salts of vanadium. The salts which contain oxide of vanadium as a base, are, with few exceptions, of a superb azure-blue color, when in solution. In the solid state, and when combined with water, they are either of a deep or light-blue color, and sometimes greenish. Without water, they are generally brown, and sometimes also green. Both the brown and green salts give blue solutions. Their taste is astringent, and rather sweetish, like those of iron. The greater number of them are soluble in water. The caustic alkalies occasion a precipitate, which is at first of a grayishwhite color, and which afterwards becomes of a liver-brown : an excess of alkali dissolves the precipitate, producing a solution of a brown color. Ammonia, added in excess, gives a brown precipitate, and the liquid becomes colorless. The carbonates occasion grayish-white precipitates: sulphureted hydrogen does not render them turbid; but the hydro...]". occasion a black precipitate, and, when added in excess, they redissolve it, occasioning a fine purple colo ferro-cyanite of potash occasions a lemonyellow precipitate, which becomes green in the air. Infusion of galls gives a precipitate of so deep a blue color that it appears black. WANBRUGH, sir John, a dramatist and architect, descended from a Flemish family, was born in England, about 1672, and entered into the army. But early in life he became a writer for the stage. In 1697, his comedy, the Relapse, was represented; and, in the following year, he produced the Provoked Wife, and AEsop, afterwards altered by Garrick. When Betterton and Congreve obtained a patent for erecting a theatre in the Haymarket, which was opened in 1707, they were joined by Vanbrugh, who wrote for this house his comedy the Confederacy, the most witty as well as the most licentious of his productions, which long kept possession of the stage. The Provoked Husband, or the Journey to London, which he left in perfect at his death, was completed by Colley Cibber. As an architect, Vanbrugh was selected to build the monument to the duke of Marlborough, Blenheim-house; and that structure, as well as castle Howard, affords proof of skill and genius. He obtained, in 1704, the office of Clarencieux king-at-arms; and, in 1714, he received the honor of knighthood. He was also appointed

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comptroller of the board of works and surveyor of Greenwich hospital. His death occurred March 26, 1726. WANcouver, George; a modern ciro and captain in the British navy. He served as a midshipman under captain Cook; and a voyage of discovery, to ascertain the existence of any navigable communication between the North acific and North Atlantic oceans being determined on, he was appointed to command it. Of this voyage captain Wancouver compiled an account, under the title of Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean, and round the World, in the Year 1790–5 (3 vols., 4to.), which was nearly ready for the press when the author died, in 1798. VANDALIA, a post-town of Fayette county, Illinois, is the seat of government for the county and the state. It is pleasantly situated on a high bank of the Kaskaskia, in the centre of a rich and thriving country. Although it has been founded but a very few, years, respectable buildings for the accommodation of the government and courts have arisen. A weekly gazette is issued, and the town will soon become a place of extensive business. Lat. 38° 50' N.; lon. 89° 2' W. VANDALs; according to some, a Scla-' vonic tribe, there being a remnant of an ancient race in Hungary, in the county of Eisenburg, still bearing this name, and consisting of 40,000 souls, who speak a very ancient Sclavonic dialect. According to others, the Vandals are considered to be a Germanic tribe, one of those whose migration caused the fall of the Roman empire. Their original country was probably in the north of Germany, between the Elbe and Vistula: the early Roman writers mention them very indistinctly. After the third century of the Christian era, they carried on wars, in connexion with the Burgundians, against the Romans on the Rhine. Under the emperor Aurelian (272), they settled in the western parts of Dacia, or Transylvania, and in part of the present Hungary. When they were driven from these reions by the Goths, Constantine the É. permitted them to settle in Pannonia, on condition that they would assist the Romans in their wars. It was a great mistake of the emperors, when the Roman troops had degenerated, to admit foreigners into their legions, and even to grant them the highest honors. The weakness of the Romans thus became more known to the barbarians; and, in consequence, the latter were more disposed to undertake frequent incursions into the Roman em

pire. That there were men of talent among the Wandals, is evident from the instance of Stilicho. (q.v.) In the year 406, the Vandals quitted Pannonia, and roceeded, together with the Alans and uevi, to Gaul, where they committed t devastations: thence they invaded pain, passing over the Pyrenees, divided with the Suevi the possession of Galicia and Old Castile, and established there an empire, to which the Alans, who had previously settled in Lusitania, but could not withstand the attacks of the Visigoths, submitted (420). Jealousy often gave rise to wars between the Wandals and the Suevi: the former, however, retained their power until they were compelled by the Romans to leave Galicia, and take refuge in Baetica, the coast of the present kingdom of Grenada. The Romans made war against them even here, but were defeated (423); and the Vandals were now emboldened to undertake new enterprises, for which they soon found opportunities. Their king, at that time, was Genseric (Geiserich), a brave, enterrising prince, one of the greatest men of is age, who, however, as he was the cause of devastating wars, and had quitted the Catholic church to join the Arian É. has not been justly represented by istorians. Northern Africa was, at that time, subject to the Romans. The governor of this province, Boniface, who thought himself wronged by the emperor Valentinian III, invited the Vandals to Africa, promising to divide the province with them. Genseric embarked with all his people (427), in the ports of Andalusia, and went over to Africa. In the mean time, Boniface, having become reconciled to the emperor, would not perform his promise, and at last attempted to drive away the Wandals by force of arms. But he was conquered. Genseric gradually possessed himself of all that art of Africa which belonged to the estern empire, and there founded a powerful empire, to which he soon added the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Majorca and Minorca. His corsairs were masters of the whole of the Mediterranean, and spread terror on the coasts of Italy. The empress Eudoxia, widow of Valentinian III, who had been compelled by Maximus, the murderer of her husband and usurper of the imperial throne, to marry him, was supposed to have invited the Vandals into Italy from the desire of revenge; but the conduct of Genseric disproves this supposition; for he took the empress and her daughters

WANDALS-VANDAMME.

risoners. Genseric made his invasion

in 455, actuated by love of plunder, and

at the head of a powerful fleet. In Rome, no preparation had been made for defence: all fled, and the emperor Maximus was killed in the first confusion. The Vandals plundered Rome during fourteen days, and took possession of all the treasures and works of art which had been left by the Goths. (q.v.) A number of monuments and statues were shipped by them for Africa, together with several thousand of the most distinguished prisoners. On the passage, a ship laden with the finest works of art was lost. Pope Leo met king Genseric at the head of a solemn procession, but could only prevail on him to spare the city from slaughter and conflagration. The savage fury with which the Vandals despoiled the most beautiful works of art, and destroyed the greater part, has given origin to the name of Vandalism. Disputes among the descendants of Genseric, in regard to the succession, caused the fall of the Vandal empire. Gelimer, a bold and ambitious general, dethroned the rightful king, Hilderic, a good prince, and had him murdered. Hilderic had been on friendly terms with the emperor Justinian. The latter declared war against Gelimer, under pretence of revenging Hilderic's death, !. in fact, for the purpose of subduing Africa. Justinian's great general, Belisarius, arrived in Africa with only 15,000 men (534), but was victorious over Gelimer in two battles, and forced him to surrender. Gelimer was carried to Constantinople in triumph; and with him the kingdom of the Vandals in Africa was destroyed, after having lasted 106 years. VANDAMME, Dominique, count of Unebourg, born at Cassel, in 1771, was the son of an apothecary. Having entered the service at the beginning of the revolution, he owed a most rapid advancement to an almost unexampled courage. He was at once placed at the head of a light troop, which received the name of the chasseurs of Mont-Cassel, and, in 1792, was with the army of the north, in the quality of general of brigade. In the three succeeding campaigns, he distinguished himself greatly. In 1799, he was appointed general of division, and received the command of the left wing of the army of the Danube. He afterwards passed into Holland, under the orders of general Brune, and contributed much to the happy results of that short campaign. He peculiarly distinguished himself at the passage of the Rhine, and in various memorable days of the campaign of 1800; received £everal marks of distinction from the first consul, and was named grand officer of the legion of honor. He obtained the decoration of the grand cross of Würtemberg, and commanded the Würtemberg troops in the campaign of 1809, against Austria, distinguishing himself on many occasions. Misunderstandings with Jerome Bonaparte prevented his having any command in the expedition against Russia, in 1812, and he was disgraced, and received an order to retire to Cassel. In February, 1813, however, he was called to the command of a corps of troops. On the 29th of August, he passed the great chain of the mountains of Bohemia, and marched upon Culm, where he found 10,000 Russians, commanded by general Ostermann, lost his artillery, and 6000 of his troops, and was himself taken prisoner. (See Culm.) He was marched to Moscow and Wiatka, within twenty leagues of Siberia, and was treated with ungenerous severity. In 1814, he finally placed his foot again on the French territory. In Paris, he received personal insults from various quarters, and, from the minister of war, an order to quit Paris within twenty-four hours, and to retire to Cassel. On the first news of Napoleon's landing, general Wandamme offered his services to the king. They were not accepted, and, after Louis had left Paris, he presented himself before the emperor, who made him a peer of France, and commandant of the second division. He afterwards com

VANDAMME–WANDYCK. - 509

... manded the third corps d’armée under

general Grouchy, and obtained signal success at the attack of Wavres, after the battle of Fleurus. His troops were in the actual pursuit of the enemy, when he learnt the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo. In danger of being crushed by superior numbers, he made good his retreat in perfect order, with his corps almost untouched. General Vandamme occupied Mont-rouge, Meudon, Vanvres and Issy, and a party of the generals made him the offer of the command of the army, which he declined. IIe afterwards retired behind the Loire. There he mounted the white cockade, and exhorted his troops to submission. The ordonnance of the 17th of January, 1816, having obliged him to quit France, he retired to Ghent, but af. terwards resided on his estate at Cassel. He died in 1830. VANDERwehr. (See Werf.) WANDyck, Anthony, the most celebrated of all portrait painters, was born at Antwerp, in 1598 or lo, ..His father was a

painter on glass, and his mother was skilled in embroidering landscapes and figures. Henry van Palen was his first instructer. This artist had studied long in

Italy, and united good drawing with lively

coloring, so that Vandyck acquired from the beginning a good manner, and soon excelled his fellow pupils. Rubens now received him into his school, and intrusted to his execution several large pictures from his own sketches. A battle of the Amazons, and the cartoons for the tapestry containing the history of Decius Mus, obtained him the full confidence and esteem of his master; and he soon became his assistant rather than his scholar. His own inclination, and the jealousy of Rubens, determined him to devote himself exclusively to portrait painting. It has been said that Rubens, from mere jealousy, wished to remove his rival scholar, and advised him to go to Italy; but it is well known that he gave this advice to his most promising pupils in general. He first painted three more K. an Ecce Homo, a Christ on the Mount of Olives, and the wife of Rubens, for his instructer; for which Rubens gave him a fine white horse, and sent him to Italy with letters of recommendation. A few miles from Brussels, in the village of Savelthem, the young artist became enamored of a peasant's daughter, so that he remained there a long time, and executed two altar-pieces for the village church. In one of them the object of his love was represented as a Madonna, and in the other, he himself appeared as St. Martin on the horse of Rubens. His residence there becoming known, Rubens used every inducement, by means of the Cav. Nanni, an accomplished Italian, to rekindle the flame of ambition in the bosom of the young man. He succeeded. Vandyck tore himself away, and, accompanied by Nanni, hastened to Italy. He first directed his course to Venice, made Titian and Paul Veronese his models, and acquired their splendor and richness of coloring. His money was spent, and he removed to Genoa, where he painted several portraits, and gained a large sum. He now undertook a journey to Rome, where he was patronised by the cardinal Guido Bentivoglio, whose portrait he painted with the most complete success. This, and the portraits of sir J. Shirley and his lady, residing there, excited so much admiration, that the envy of the other artists compelled him to return to Genoa, where he executed many portraits as well as historical pictures, and always adopted the brilliant

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style of Titian. He visited Florence, Turin and Sicily, where he resided for some time. But the plague finally drove him out of Sicily; and he finished the celebrated altar-piece for Palermo in Genoa. After his reputation was thus spread throughout Italy, he returned to his own country. Here he painted many historical pictures and altar-pieces. Of the latter, the most renowned are the St. Augustine at Antwerp, and the Crucifixion at Courtray. Rubens is said to have offered him his eldest daughter in marriage; but Vandyck refused her, because his earlier love for her mother (Helena, the second wife of Rubens) was not yet wholly extinguished. He soon after accepted the invitation of the prince of Orange, Frederic of Nassau, to visit his court at the Hague. He painted portraits of this prince, his wife and children, with so much success, that all the principal personages of the court were eager to obtain his services. He then visited London and Paris, but soon returned to Antwerp. A Crucifixion and a Birth of Christ, which he painted for Dendermonde, are among his finest works. Charles I, having seen one of his portraits, immediately ordered him to be invited to return to England. This invitation the painter would have declined but for the urgency of his friend sir K. Digby. On his arrival, he was introduced by him to the king, who put upon his neck a gold chain, with his own miniature, richly set with diamonds, and bestowed upon him the honor of knighthood, a considerable annuity, and a summer and winter residence. Vandyck rewarded this generosity by unceasing diligence: he enriched England with his masterpieces, and executed, besides a multitude of portraits, several mythological and historical paintings. His love of splendor was dislayed in the magnificence of his house. !. table was frequented by the princes and ladies of the first rank, and his entertainments excelled all others in splendor and luxury. He had also a harem of beautiful women, who supplied him with figures for his historical paintings. In this way he consumed his property, his strength and his health. His lucrative occupation, however, might have repaired the loss of the first, if he had not engaged in the pursuit of the philosopher's stone. The duke of Buckingham endeavored to restore him again to activity, by uniting him in marriage with the beautiful, Maria Ruthven, daughter of the Scotch lord Gowry. Vandyck visited his native city with her, and went thence to Paris, where he hoped

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to be employed to paint the gallery of the Louvre; but, as the work had been already committed to Poussin, he soon returned to England. Though infirm and exhausted, he proposed to the king to paint the walls of the banqueting house with the history and procession of the order of the garter, promising to make the cartoons. Before the work was completed, he was surprised by death, in the forty-second year of his age (1641). He was buried in St. Paul's church. Cowley composed his epitaph. The principal galleries contain some of his pictures. Though Vandyck shone in historical composition, his strength lay in portrait; and no painter ever exceeded him in the knowledge of the chiaro oscuro. His choice of nature, when he painted portraits, was always the most agreeable: he gave an inexpressible grace to his heads, and his expression was inimitable. The extremities of his figures are designed in great perfection. i. draperies are in a grand style, broad and simple in the folds, easy in the disposition, and the coloring lovely. In some particulars, Vandyck has been acknowledged to be superior to Rubens: his touch is more delicate; his ideas are more graceful; and his expression is more true. During the first six or seven years after his arrival in London, his performances are accounted most excellent; but some of his latter works are painted in such a manner as shows the uncommon rapidity of his pencil, though touched with wonderful spirit: others are comparatively weak, and partake too much of the lead color; yet his penciling is always masterly, and even inimitable. Vandyck sometimes amused himself with engraving, and etched several plates, song mostly of portraits, in a spirited style. VANE, sir Henry, the younger, a conspicuous character in the time of Charles I and the commonwealth, was the son of sir Henry Vane of Hadlow in Kent, and Raby castle in Durham, secretary of state, and treasurer of the household to Charles I, until dismissed for taking part against the earl of Strafford. The subject of this article was born about 1612, and was educated at Westminster school, whence he was removed to Magdalen college, Oxford. He then proceeded to Geneva, from which he returned, much indisposed towards the English liturgy and church government. About this time (1635), several persons, who were uneasy at home on account of their religious opinions, migrated to New England; among whom was Vane. Notwithstanding his youth, he was elected governor of Massachusetts; but, becoming involved in religious disputes, he soon after retu, led to England, and, with his father's concurrence, married a lady of good fortune, and was appointed a joint treasurer of the navy. He was chosen to represent Hull in the next parliament, yet still kept on such terms with the royal party as to obtain knighthood. The spirit of the times, however, soon led him to take part against the court. He was instrumental in .."; the condemnation of lord Strafford, an

VANE–WANGUARD.

he also carried up to the lords the articles of impeachment against archbishop Laud. He likewise acted as one of the parliamentary commissioners at the treaty of Uxbridge, in 1645; and at the negotiations in the isle of Wight, in 1648, was an opposer of the terms of peace. He had, however, no immediate concern in the king's trial or death, but was one of the council of state appointed to supreme power after that event. In 1651, he was appointed a commissioner to be sent into

Scotland, in order to introduce the Eng

lish government there. He continued a strenuous adversary to Cromwell during the whole progress of that leader to sovereignty; on which account the latter found means to imprison him in Carisbrook castle. He even sought to intimidate him by questioning his title to the Raby estate, notwithstanding which, Vane continued inflexible during the whole of the protectorate. After the restoration of the long parliament, he was nominated one of the committee of safety, when he strenuously exerted himself to establish a republican government, until the restoration put an end to all further contest. On this event he had considered himself in no danger; but he was, notwithstanding, arrested and committed to the Tower, as a person whom it was dangerous to allow to be at large. The convention parliament petitioned in favor of him and Lambert, and the kin promised that his life should be s Charles II violated his word, and sir Henry was brought to trial for high treason. Although accused only for transactions that occurred after the king's death, he was found guilty, notwithstanding a defence of great vigor and ability, in which he pleaded that, if complying with the existing government was a crime, all the nation had been equally criminal. He further observed, that he had, in every change, adhered to the commons as the root of all lawful authority. His trial took place in June, 1662; and on the 14th

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of the same month, he was beheaded on Tower hill, when he behaved with great composure and resolution. He began to address the people at the scaffold in justification of his conduct, but was interrupted by drums and trumpets. Sir Henry Vane mingled much fanatical speculation with an extraordinary degree of acuteness and general good sense. His enemies scarcely charged him with mercenary views, and his friends regarded him as a mistaken lover of his country. Mackintosh declared him to be one of the most profound minds, not inferior perhaps to Bacon. Sagacious and acute as a statesman, and possessed of almost all the knowledge of his age, he fell a victim to a miserable sophism, and to royal perfidy. The beautiful sonnet addressed to him by his fellow sufferer Milton, is familiar to all. His theological writings display an astonishing power, but are in a high degree mystical, and often unintelligible. Among them are the Retired Man's Meditations (1655); the Face of the Times (1662); and his Meditations on Life, Government, Friendship, Enemies, Death (1662). It must not be forgotten that his history has been written by his enemies.

VANE, or WEATHERcock; a plate placed on a spindle at the top of a spire, showing, by the way in which it turns, the direction of the wind. In ships, a piece of bunting serves the same purpose.—Dogvane; a small, light vane, formed of thin slips of cork, stuck round with feathers, and strung upon a piece of twine. It is usually fastened to the top of a half-pike, and placed on the weather side of the quarter deck, in order to show the helmsman the direction of the wind, particularly in a dark night, or when the wind is weak.

WANGUARD; that |. of the army which precedes the main body on the march, as a security against surprise. The strength of the vanguard is in proportion to the strength of the main body; and in a large army, it may be composed of different sorts of troops. The distance of the vanguard from the main body depends partly on the vicinity of the enemy, and partly on the nature of the country. This rule is always to be observed:—The vanguard must remove all little obstructions to the march of the main body, and keep in check the forces of the enemy till the main body is in readiness to meet them. Hence it is the chief duty of the vanguard to discover the enemy in season, and detect them under every concealment. As great activity, both bodily and mental, is

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