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limits of either of the states of the con TERRITORIAL SYSTEM. (See Church,
federacy, and which has not been admit- vol. iii, page 183, right hand column.)
ted into the Union on the footing of an TERROR, REIGN During the
independent state. The history of the French revolution, Marat and Robes-
policy of this republic in regard to the pierre, in the beginning of March, 1793,
public domain, and the manner in which introduced the system of terror, so called,
that domain was acquired, has been given under the pretext, that the condition of
in our article Public Lands. The basis France left no other means to save her. To
of the political organization of these ter- understand this phenomenon in the his-
ritories was laid by the ordinance for the tory of man, requires an accurate knowl-
government of the territory of the U. 'edge and a comprehensive view of the
States north-west of the river Ohio, July state of France, at that time convulsed by
13th, 1787. This ordinance provides for civil war, fighting single-handed against
the appointment of a governor by con- the greater part of Europe, and filled
gress, and for a representative assembly, with a population which the clergy had
chosen by the people of the territory, for done almost nothing to instruct, and the
conducting the government of the same, court and nobility every thing to corrupt.
making laws, appointing magistrates, &c. History affords many instances of blood-
The legislature is authorized to elect a thirsty individuals; but here we find a
delegate, to represent the territory in the large portion of a nation urging the
congress of the U. States, who enjoys a slaughter of persons of all sexes, ages
seat and the right of debating, but has no and conditions, while their mouths were
vote. It was likewise provided by this full of high-sounding phrases of liberty,
ordinance, that there should be neither equality, virtue and justice, perverting a
slavery nor involuntary servitude in this thousand innocent acts to crimes, and
territory. After the adoption of the pres- even inventing new crimes, e. g. négo-
ent constitution (1789), this ordinance was tiantism, in Bordeaux, to suit the occa-
so far modified as to give the president, sion. The reign of terror shows a more
by and with the consent of the senate, the general frenzy than any other period
appointment of the territorial officers, and of history. One of the main causes
some other powers which had been origin- of this gigantic madness must be sought
ally conferred on the congress (1789, ch.8). for in the disorganization of political so-
As the population in the region above des- ciety in all its branches, which began with
ignated gradually increased, new territo- Louis XIV, and frightfully increased
ries were successively created, and ad- during the reigns of his successors. The
mitted into the Union as independent ascribing of the mischief to the writings
states. Thus Ohio became a state in of the philosophers, so called, shows an
1802. Indiana received a separate terri- ignorance of the nature of man and of so-
torial government in 1800, and was ad- ciety. Such madness could result only
mitted into the Union in 1816. Illinois from deep-seated disease and depravity,
became a distinct territory in 1809, and a to which many stimulants were added.
state in 1818. Michigan territory was The revolutionary tribunal was the first
constituted in 1805. The territory south great instrument of the terrorists. This
of the river Ohio was, by act of con was established March 11, 1793, but did
gress (1790, ch. 41), declared to be sub- not receive its name until the 8th of Bru-
ject to the provisions of the ordinance of maire (October, 1793), when the Moun-
1787. This territory was received into

the tain party in the convention triumphed Union, as the state of Tennessee, in 1796. over the Girondists. (q. v.) The object In a similar manner, the territory of Lou- of the revolutionary tribunal was to punisiana has been divided into Orleans and ish all those who should oppose the progLouisiana territory, Missouri state and ress of the revolution, and incur the susterritory, and Arkansas territory. (See picion of adhering to the royal family. It Louisiana Territory.). Alabama terri- may easily be imagined what a field such a tory was constituted in 1817, and be- tribunal would afford to malignity, hatred, came a state in 1820; and Mississippi, and the spirit of persecution, as it was which received a territorial govern- bound by no rules, sentenced only to death, ment in 1798, was admitted into the never investigated the points of the acUnion in 1817. Florida, which was cusation, and, at last, hardly the names of acquired in 1821, was formed into a the accused. After the fall of the Girondgovernment under the name of the ter- ists in 1794, and the accession of Robesritory of Florida, in 1822. (See the sep- pierre and his accomplices to power, the arate articles.)

trial of individuals ceased. Fouquier

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Tinville and his comrades daily handed We find among the 18,613 victims
in lists of persons charged with treason. Noblemen
These were brought in crowds before the Noblewomen


750 tribunal, the accusation against them read, Females of the class of mechanand sentence of death immediately pro ics and peasants . nounced, without even examination being Nuns.


350 bad, to ascertain whether the subjects of Priests the accusation were actually the persons Men not noble, of various classes 13,633

1,135 before the court; and, in fact, the confounding of persons of the same name

18,613 often brought individuals to the guillotine, Women who died in consequence who had never been accused. Similar

of premature delivery 3,400 revolutionary tribunals were established Women pregnant and in child-bed 348 in the large towns in the provinces, and Women killed in the Vendée . . . 15,000 the same tragedy was acted in Nantes, Children

22,000 Lyons, Arras, Strasburg, and many other Whole number who perished in places. As this mode of exterminating the Vendée

900,000 the pretended enemies of the republic was too slow to satisfy the party in power,

Victims under the proconsulate they shot and drowned the accused by

of Carrier, at Nantes

32,000 hundreds. The intrigues of the royalists Including must be admitted to have contributed 10

Children shot ...

500 these excesses; and the object of Robes

drowned 1,500 pierre was to give energy to

Women shot

264 government, and secure the country

drowned 500 from invasion.* Many of his associates,

Priests shot ..

300 however, were actuated by the love of


460 plunder. The system of terror at length

Noblemen drowned . 1,400 destroyed itself. A part of the terrorists

Mechanics drowned . 5,300 became victims to the very system which Victims in Lyons....

. 31,000 they had established, and the overthrow of the rest soon followed.t With the These numbers do not comprehend the revolution of Thermidor 9 (July 27, 1794), victims of the massacres at Versailles, or with the overthrow of Robespierre, Carmes, l'Abbaye, Avignon, the fusillades terrorism ceased to be the professed sys- at Toulon and Marseilles, after the sieges tem of government; but its consequences of those places, and the massacre of the remained. Prudhomme, a republican, entire population of the little town of Bénot unfriendly to the revolution, and whó doin, in Provence. More than 50,000 wrote during the period of excitement, revolutionary committees were estabhas left six volumes of details of this de- lished in France, to enforce the law plorable period. Two of the six volumes against the suspected (that of Sept. 21, contain an alphabetical list of all the per- 1793). Cambon, member of the convensons put to death by the revolutionary tri tion, calculates that they cost the country bunal, with their professions, domicils, 591,000,000 francs (in assignats) a year: the dates of their condemnations, the each member received three francs a day; place and day of their execution, &c. and there were 150,000 who had the

right to designate for death. Paris alone * Louvet, in his memoirs, expresses his con had sixty committees. It will be seen viction that both Robespierre and Marat were in

from the above, that the nobles, priests, the pay of the allies !

nuns, and monks, form but a small part | When Danton (9. v.) was thrown into the of those who died by the guillotine. The same dungeon in which Hébert had been confined, he said, C'est à pareille époque que j'ai

fait Girondist Riouffe, a prisoner with madinstituer le tribunal révolutionnaire. J'en demande

ame Roland and others at the Concier. pardon à Dieu et aux hommes, mais ce n'etait pas gerie, gives the most appalling details in pour qu'il fut le fléau de l'humanité. And when his Mémoires d'un Détenu. Among other he was sentenced by that tribunal, he exclaimed, things, he says, Déjà un aquéduc immense J'entraine Robespierre; Robespierre me (See Thier's History of the Revolution.)

qui devoit voiturer du sang avoit été creusé

à la place Saint-Antoine. Disons-le, de la Bussière, secretary of the committee of pubs quelque horrible qu'il soit de le dire

, tous les lic safety (q. v.), saved many persons, by de jours le sang humain se puisoit par seaux, stroying the papers containing the accusations et quatre hommes étoient occupés, au moagainst them.

ment de l'erécution à les vider dans cet




TERROR, REIGN OF-TESSIN. aquéduc. More horrid details may be tive, but harsh, unpolished, and obscure. found in the preface of Châteaubriand's His works have been frequently edited, Etudes ou Discours Historiques. A list both collectively and separately, particuof all the persons who perished by the larly his Apology. Of the entire works, guillotine in that period, is given in the editions of Rigakius (Paris, 1641), and the above-mentioned work of. Prud- of Semler (Halle, 6 vols., 1770), are homme.

esteemed the best. The best edition of TERRORISM. (See Terror, Reign of.) the Apology is that by Havercamp (LeyTERTIARIANS. (See Orders, Religious.) den, 1718, 8vo.). _He is not to be conTERTIARY FORMATIONS. (See Geolo- founded with St. Tertullian, who suffered

martyrdom in 360. TERTULLIAN, Quintus Septimius Flo TESCHEN; a town of Austrian Silesia, rens, considered the most early Latin which gives name to a circle; 30 miles father extant, was born at Carthage, about east of Troppau; lon.

18° 41' E.; lat. 49° the middle of the second century. His 43' N.; population, 5379. The inhabfather was a centurion under the procon- itants carry on some commerce in leather, sul of Africa; and Tertullian was at first wood, and wine. Here is a manufacture a pagan, although when or where he em- of fire-arms, of a particular kind, called, braced the Christian religion does not from the town, teschine. In the year appear. He received a liberal education, 1779 (May 13), a treaty of peace was and was well versed in Greek and Ro- concluded here between the emperor man literature, and learned in the Roman Joseph II (9. v.) and the king of Prussia, law. He flourished chiefly under the Frederic II (q. v.), which put an end to reigns of the emperors Severus and Cara- the war for the Bavarian succession. calla; and Jerome mentions a report that (See Bavaria, Maria Theresa, and Conhe lived to a very advanced age. He federation of the Princes.) employed himself vigorously in the cause TESSELLATED PAVEMENT (Lat. tessella, of Christianity, but, towards the latter diminutive of tessera); a pavement of rich part of his life, quitted the Catholic church mosaic work, made of curious square to join the Montanists, out of which he marbles, bricks, or tiles, in shape and disformed a sect of his own, named Tertulli- position resembling dice.

Various ananists. (See Montanus.) The ground cient specimens of these have been from of his separation related rather to disci- time to time exhumed in Italy and other pline than doctrine, being favorable to countries of Europe. the austerities inculcated by Montanus. Tessin, or Ticino; one of the Swiss of the personal history of Tertullian, little cantons, bounded north by Uri, north-east is known. Of his writings, the most by Grisons, south-east and south by Ausnoted is his Apology for the Christian trian Italy, south-west by Sardinian MiReligion, which contains much informa- lanese, and west by Valais. (See Switztion on the manners and conduct of the erland.) The inhabitants are mostly early Christians, and asserts the falsehood Italians and Catholics. It is composed of the calumnies by which they were of what were formerly called the Italian assailed, and the injustice of persecuting bailiwicks, which, though long subject to theni. Connected with this work are bis Switzerland, were not formed into a cantwo books Ad Nationes, in which, with ton till 1815. Bellinzona is the capital. his characteristic vehemence, he carries It is extremely mountainous, the ramifihis attack into the quarters of his oppo- cations of the Alps dividing it into more

He also wrote against various than twenty distinct valleys. It has a heresies, and several tracts on baptism, on mild climate; is well watered and fertile ; idolatry, &c. In one of these, upon Pub- and no country is more remarkable for lic Spectacles, he dissuades Christians from scenery, at one time rich and beautiful, at attending shows and festivals, as partaking another awful and sublime. The govof idolatry, and he luxuriates in the an ernment has heretofore been unfavorable, ticipation of the transport with which he the inhabitants ignorant and indolent, and shall survey the torments of persecutors, agriculture and manufactures in a backphilosophers, poets and tragedians in ward state. The first demands of reform another world. This father was a man in the cantonal administrations (in 1830) of lively parts, but he displays little judg- proceeded from Tessin, in which there ment in his reasoning; and, while led by had been many abuses in the government. his temper to violence and exaggeration, Tessin, Charles Gustavus, count of, he was at the same time credulous and was born at Stockholm, in 1695, and austere. His style is concise and figura- travelled, from 1714 to 1719, in Germany,

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France, and Italy. In the political dis- completion of them. The Mosaic discussions which arose in Sweden after the pensation was, therefore, in conformity death of Charles XII, he declared for the io the divine will, represented as a league party of the Hats, of which his influence or covenant between God and the Hecaused the decided triumph. He was brew nation; a league which solemnly nominated president of the assembly of engaged the Hebrews to worship Jeho nobility in the diet of 1738. From 1739 vah alone as the only true God, and to to 1742, he resided as ambassador at obey bis commandments faithfully, while, Paris. From 1747 to 1752, the count in return, they received the divine promhad the direction of foreign affairs as ise that they should be regarded as a president of the chancery; and, at the chosen people, while they continued same time, he was appointed governor faithful and obedient. (See Erodus, ch. of the prince royal, afterwards Gustavus xxiv, and Jeremiah xxxi, 22.) The intiIII. He addressed to his pupil a series of mate connexion which exists between the letters relative to morals, politics, and ad- Hebrew revelation and the more perfect ministration, which have been translated dispensation announced by Christ, for into English and other languages. The which, in the course of divine Providence, English version is entitled Letters to a the former was but a preparation, would Young Prince (London, 1755, 8vo.). In naturally lead Jesus and his apostles to 1761, he resigned all his employments, designate the new religion as

new and and settled at his estate of Akeroe, in Su- more perfect covenant, made, through the dermania, where he died in 1770. He mediation of Christ, between God and promoted the establishment of the acade- the whole human race, without distincmy of sciences at Stockholm; and be- tion or exclusion. The sacred and sides his Letters, he wrote a number of elevated idea of such a covenant corrediscourses and essays. A description of sponds with the whole spirit and chara cabinet of natural history which he acter of Christianity, considered as a had formed, was published in 1753, under positive, revealed religion. Whilst God the title of Museum Tessinianum.

proclaims, through Christ, forgiveness of Test Act. (See Corporation and sins and eternal happiness to all men who Test Acts.)

evince a firm, living, active faith in Jesus, Testacea. (See Conchology.) men are bound, through Christ, to com

TESTAMENT, Old and New. The ply with these couditions of salvation. In practice of calling the Hebrew and Chris- this serse, the Christian Scriptures often tian sacred writings the books of the Old speak of an old and a new, the first and the and New Testament, arose from the lan- second covenant (see the Gospel of St. guage of the old Latin translation of these Matthew, xxvi, 28; St. Mark, xiv, 24; books (the versio vulgata or vulgate). Hebr., viii, 8, ix, 15; Galatians, iv, 24); The Latin word testamentum (will) was and the Hebrew Scriptures themselves considered to correspond to the Greek are called the old covenant (2 Cor. iii

, 14) duabnan, which often occurs both in the The language of the Bible itself suffiAlexandrian version of the Hebrew Scrip- ciently explains, therefore, why the early tures, and in the sacred books of the Christian church called its sacred writings Christian revelation, and which, properly, the “books of the new covenant” (raivn signifies a covenant, a league. As early diaOn«n): The Latin vulgate, then, having, as the patriarchal age, the divine revela- as we have before observed, used this extions and instructions with which the pression testamentum (as in Gen. ix, 9, 12; Hebrews were blessed, were considered xiii, 15), it became common to designate in the elc: ated light of a covenant between the Scriptures as the books of the old God and the patriarchs, and afterwards and New Testament, in the sense of old between God and the whole Hebrew and new covenant (see, for instance, Ternation. See the fifteenth chapter of tullian's treatises against Marcion, b. iv, Genesis, in which God confirms to Abra- ch. 1, and against Praxeas), and not in ham the promise of the birth of Isaac and the common sense of the word, last will. of the possession of Palestine by his de TESTAMENT. (See Will.) scendants, by a solemn covenant. The Testudo, in zoology. (See Tortoise.) law given on mount Sinai, and the whole TESTUDO, in the military art of the anMosaic system of religious doctrines and cients, was a kind of cover or screen ceremonies, were closely connected with which the soldiers (e. g., a whole compar these divine promises to the patriarchs ny), made themselves of their bucklers, and their race, and, in fact, were but a by holding them up over their heads, and further developement, or the perfect standing close to each other. This exVOL. XII.


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pedient served to shelter them from darts, south-east of Tangiers; lon. 5° 27' W : stones, &c., thrown upon them, especial- lat. 35° 20 N.; population, 14,000. It is ly those thrown from above, when they about half a mile from the Mediterranewent to the assauli.—Testudo was also a an, inhabited by Moors (chiefly Andalukind of large wooden tower, which sians) and Jews, who most of them speak moved on several wheels, and was cover- Spanish. They are commercial, gentle ed with bullocks' hides, serving to shelter in manners, and polite. The environs of the sold irs when they approached the this ciiy are planted with vineyards and walls to mine them, or to batter them gardens, kept in good order, and the fruits with rams.

here are better and more carefully nurTetanus (from raw, I stretch); a tured than in the other parts of the enispasmodic rigidity of the whole body. 'pire. Tetuan was formerly the residence The body becomes stiff, the breathing of the European consuls; but in 1770, heavy, but the senses remain uninjured. an Englishman having killed a Moor, If the lower jaw is drawn to the upper the reigning emperor declared that with such force that they cannot be sepa- no European should again enter the rated, the disorder is called locked jaw town. (trismus).

TETZEL, John, a nutorious vender of Tethys ; the greatest of the sea deities, indulgences, was born at Leipsic, where wife of Oceanus, and daughter of Uranus he studied theology, entered, in 1489, the and Terra. She was mother of the chief order of the Dominicans, and received perrivers of the universe, such as the Nile, mission to go into the world and preach. the Alpheus, the Mæander, Simois, Pe- In 1502, he was appcinted by the Roman neus, &c., and about 3000 daughters, call- see a preacher of indulgences, and cared Oceanides. Tethys is confounded, by ried on, for fifteen years, a very lucrative some mythologists, with her grand- trade in themi, practising the most shamedaughter Thetis, the wife of Peleus and ful delusions upon the people. His life the mother of Achilles. Her name sig- was so corrupt that, at Innspruck, he nifies nurse, and seems to contain an was sentenced to be drowned in a sack allusion to the old notion, that water was for adultery. In consequence of pownecessary for the generation and nourish- erful intercession, the sentence was mitiment of all things. The word Tethys is gated to perpetual imprisonment. But poetically used to express the sea. being released also from this, he travelled

TETRACHORD, with the ancient Greeks; to Rome, was absolved by pope Leo X, a scale of four tones. The ancients di- and even appointed apostolic commissary; vided their musical system into tetra- and the archbishop of Mentz made him chords, as we divide ours into octaves. inquisitor. He now carried on the sale

Therefore they only required, in their of indulgences with still greater effrontesinging schools, four syllables for solmi- ry, and travelled through Saxony in a zation, whilst, in modern times, six sylla- wagon, provided with two large boxes, bles were introduced by Aretino. The one of which contained the letters of intetrachords were originally only diatonic; dulgence, while the other was destined at a later period, also, chromatic and en- for the money obtained for them. The harmonic.

latter bad the following inscription : TETRAEDRON, or TETRAHEDRON, in geometry, is one of the five Platonic or

Sobald das Geld im Kasten klingt,

Sobald die Seel gen Himmel springt. regular bodies or solids, comprehended

When in the chest the money rings, under four equilateral and equal trian

The soul straight up to heaven s, rings. gles ; or it is a triangular pyramid of four equal and equilateral faces.

He is said to have bad ninety gold guilTETRAGON, in geometry ; a quadrangle, ders a month, besides his expenses. In or a figure with four angles.

many towns he was received with the Tetralogy. (See Trilogy.)

ringing of bells, and every where levied TETRANDRIA ; the fourth class in Lin- large contributions, as he offered absolunæus's sexual system.

tion for every crime, murder, perjury, TETRAPLA ; à Bible disposed, by Ori- adultery, not excepted. He carried on ger, under four columns, in each of this infamous trade unchecked, until Luwbich was a different Greek version, ther came out, in 1517, with his theses namely, that of Symmachus, of Aquila, against the crying abuse. These were of the Seventy, and of Theodotion. answered by Tetzel ; and the students of

TETUAN; a town of Morocco, on the Wittenberg“ burned the answers in the orthern coast of Africa, thirty miles market-place. Tetzel himself received a

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