Изображения страниц


perished in the waves, or died not long after. Of his dramatic works, six comedies alone are extant: the Adrian (acted at Rome, B. C. 167; the Eunuch (performed 161); Heautomtimoroumenos, or the Self-Tormentor (163); the Adelphi, his last piece, brought out in Rome the year before his death; Phormio, or the Parasite; and Hecyra, or the Step-Mother. The comedies of Terence were much admired by the cultivated Romans, and were likewise esteemed for their prudential maxims and moral sentences. If we compare him with his contemporaries, he will be found to have been much in advance of them in point of style. His language is pure; but, in originality of imagination, he is inferior to the Greeks, and his predecessor Plautus. Most of his plays are little more than translations from the Greek; but he is valuable to us on this very account, as giving us an idea of his model Menander. His characters have much truth of nature; but they are often superficial. His plots are usually simple: greedy courtesans, trickish slaves, miserly fathers, and prodigal sons, are the chief persons of his drama, and a marriage his ordinary denouement. The best editions of his works are those of Lindenbrog (Paris, 1602; Frankfort, 1623) and Westerhof (Hague, 1726): that of Bentley (London, 1726; Amsterdam, 1727, and Leipsic, 1791) is particularly valuable in regard to the metre, but is disfigured by rash conjectures. Other useful editions are those of Zeune (Leipsic, 1787, 2 vols.), Lenz (Jena, 1785), Schmieder (Halle, 1794), Bothe (Berlin, 1806), Bruns (Halle, 1811), and Perlet (Leipsic, 1820). We have an English translation by the elder Colman.

TEREus. (See Philomela.)

TERMAGAUNT, or TURMAGAUNT. The origin of this name is altogether uncertain. Various etymologies have been proposed, but none of them is at all satisfactory. The old English writers frequently speak of Termagaunt and Mahoun (Mohammed), and the NormanFrench writers couple Tervagan (of which the English form is a corruption) with .Mahum and Apollin (Apollyon). Ariosto and Tasso also speak of Macone e Trivigante (Mohammed and Termagaunt). Both of these personages were dramatic characters in the old mysteries, at a time when legends of the Saracens were the most popular subjects of poetry and the drama in Europe. (See Ritson's Metrical Romances, notes, * iii, p. 251 seq., or

1 #


Todd's Spencer, note to C. vii, st. 47.) The modern signification of the word, shrew, virago, is evidently derived from the turbulent and violent character of the old dramatic personage. TERMINALIA. (See o TERMINISM, in German philosophy, or DETERMINIsM ; the doctrine that all things happen through a necessary connexion of causes and effects extending through all nature. In theology, terminism is the doctrine that God has assigned to every one a term of repentance, during which his salvation must be worked out. * TERMINoLogy of a science or art; that branch which teaches the meaning of its technical terms; also the aggregate of these technical terms. In some sciences, it is of particular importance, as in botany, in which not even a leaf can be described without an agreement on certain technical terms. The terminology is generly derived in a great measure from the nation which has done most for a particular art or science, as the military terminology from France, the naval from Holland and England. TERMINUs; a divinity at Rome, who was supposed to preside over bounds and limits, and to punish all unlawful usurpation of land. His worship was first introduced at Rome by Numa, who persuaded his subjects that the limits of their lands and estates were under the immediate inspection of heaven. His altar was on the arpeian rock. He was represented with a human head, without feet or arms, to intimate that he never moved, wherever he was placed. (See Hermes.) The people of the country assembled once a year with their families, and crowned with garlands and flowers the stones which separated their different possessions, and offered, at first, cakes and fruits, at a later period, lambs and pigs, to the god who presided over their boundaries. It is said that, when Tarquin the Proud wished to build a temple on the Tarpeian rock to Jupiter, the god Terminus refused to give way, though the other gods resigned their seats with cheerfulness; and his altar therefore remained in the temple of Jupiter. But, as Terminus could be worshipped only in the open sky, a hole was left in the roof of the temple directly over the altar. The resistance of the god was considered an omen that the boundaries of Rome should never be encroached upon. The Terminalia were annual festivals at Rome, observed in honor of the god

[ocr errors]

Terminus, in the month of February. It was then usual for peasants to assemble near the principal land-marks which separated their fields, and, after they had crowned them with garlands and iiowers, to make libations of milk and wine, to sacrifice a lamb or a young pig upon altars of turf, and to sing songs in honor of the god. Besides these private festivals, there were public Terminalia celebrated on the Roman frontiers in the earlier periods of the republic. These public festivities, however, went into disuse after the territories of Rome were extended by conquest. The Terminalia had also an allusion to the close of the year, as the , Roman year was considered to end on the 23d February, when they were solemnized, the remaining days being considered as intercalary. TERMITEs ; sometimes called white ants, from their mode of life. They belong, however, to a different order of insects—the neuroptera of Linnaeus. They live in societies, often prodigiously numerous, and composed of three sorts of individuals, as with the bee and ant. The most numerous are the workers, which have a rounded head, and the abdomen sessile and club-shaped. Among these may be discovered, occasionally, individuals of the second sort, called soldiers, which are easily distinguished by the larger size of the head and jaws. Each colony contains but a single perfect male and female. At a certain season, the termites acquire four large equal wings: the form of the body is then somewhat changed, and the color becomes darker. They now fill the air in countless numbers, and serve as food for various animals, and even for man in some parts of the globe. The few pairs which escape, if discovered by some wandering workers of their own species, are protected by them, and found new colonies. The termites are the greatest pest of tropical climates: they destroy all articles of furniture made of wood, cloths, &c.; they enter the foundations of houses, and eat out the whole interior of the timbers, so that they may appear perfectly sound externally, while they will crumble under the slightest blow. An African species is celebrated for the edifices it rears, in the form of a sugar-loaf, ten or twelve feet in height, and so solid that the wild cattle mount, upon them without breaking through. Internally they are divided into numerous apartments, and have subterranean galleries connected with them, from the extremities of which the insects


issue to commit depredations: when these structures are broken open, the soldiers fight with great fury, and bite every thing they meet with. Another species of the same country builds its nest among the branches of trees, sometimes at the height of sixty or eighty feet from the ground. We have one species in the U. States, which lives in small communities, chiefly in decayed trunks of trees. TERMs are those spaces of time wherein the courts of justice are open for all that complain of wrongs or injuries, and seek their rights by course of law or action, in order to their redress. During the English terms, the courts in Westminster hall sit and give judgments, &c.; but the high court of parliament, the chancery, and inferior courts, do not observe the terms; only the court of king's bench, common pleas, and exchequer, the highest courts at common law. Of these terms there are four in every year: viz. Hilary term, which begins the 23d of January, and ends the 12th of February, unless on Sundays, and the day after; aster term, which begins the Wednesday fortnight after Easter-day, and ends the Monday next after Ascension-day; Trinity term, which begins on the Friday after Trinity Sunday, and ends the Wednesday fortnight after; and Michaelmas term, which begins the 6th and ends the 28th of November. TERNATE. (See Moluccas.) TERNAux, William Louis, a woollen manufacturer at Paris, was born at Sedan, Oct. 8, 1763, and has acquired, by the versatility of his talents, and his public-spirited activity, a high place among the most distinguished patriots and philanthropists of his country. At the age of fourteen, he became a partner in his father's house, during whose absence he was for two years head of the establishment. He justified the confidence which had been reposed in him on this occasion; and perhaps no single individual in Europe has established so many and various manufactures. He has himself invented several valuable machines, and introduced imJortant improvements in the processes. }. was the first to set up spinning machines in France. He has improved the breed of sheep, and constructed corn magazines, &c. From 1789 to 1792, he was one of the members of the common council of Sedan, almost all of whom perished on the scaffold in 1793, for having arrested the conventional commissioners, who, after the 10th of August, were sent to suspend general Lafayette. It was by a kind of miracle that Ternaux escaped. By his conduct on this occasion, and by his conscientious discharge of his municipal duties, he acquired the warm esteem of his fellow-citizens. His extensive woollen manufactories are remarkable for the excellence of their products; and, at the yearly exhibitions of national industry, he has constantly obtained the prizes. To show the extensive commerce which he carries on, it will be sufficient to state that he had, at one period, manufactories at Sedan, Rheims, Aix-la-Chapelle, Liege, Ensival, Louviers and Elbeuf, and agents and warehouses at Paris, Bourdeaux, Genoa, Leghorn, Naples, and many other places, in which he employed about 6000 workmen, and from 120 to 150 clerks. Notwithstanding all this weight of business, he was an active inember of the legislature, gratuitous vice-president of the general council of manufacturers, a member of the general council of the department of the Seine, and of the commercial chamber of Paris. During the hundred days (1815), he adhered to the Bourbons, and, in 1819, was created baron by Louis XVIII. In the chamber of deputies he defended liberal principles with firmness; and his speeches on financial, commercial and manufacturing subjects were distinguished for extent of information and judicious views. Europe is indebted to #. for the introduction of the Cashmere goat. (q.v.). Ternaux makes the noblest use of his large fortune, and enjoys the respect and esteem of his countrymen. TERN1, a town in the States of the Church, delegation of Spoleto, in the fertile valley of the Nera, the birth-place of Tacitus, and of the emperors Tacitus and Florian, contains some interesting ruins of the old Latin colony of Interamna (lying between two arms of the Nera). Four miles east from Terni is the celebrated caduta del marmore, or fall of the Velino or Evelino, 300 feet in height, well known to the readers of Byron by his glowing description in Childe Harold (iv. 69–72). In the notes to this passage (37 and 38), he says, “It is worth all the cascades and torrents of Switzerland put together; which are rills in comparison. It is singular enough that two of the finest cascades in Europe should be artificial— this of the Velino and the one at Tivoli.” (See Cataract.) This “matchless cataract” is, in fact, the work of M. Curius Dentatus (B. C. 270), who caused the rock to be cut through for the purpose of draining the marshes, and making an outlet of the Welino. Clement VIII caused



the old canal of Dentatus to be reopened and enlarged. In the garden of the episcopal palace are the ruins of an amphitheatre, and in the church of St. Salvador (St. Savior) the remnants of a temple of the sun. The town has about 7000 inhabitants; and much oil and wine are produced in the neighborhood. Near Terni the Neapolitans were defeated by the French in 1798. Forty-five miles north of Rome. TERPANDER, a distinguished Greek poet and musician, flourished about B. C. 650, was born at Methymna or Antissa, on the island of Lesbos. When Lacedaemon was distracted by internal troubles, and the oracle was consulted respecting the means of quieting them, it commanded the Spartans to send for the Lesbian singer. He came, and restored peace and quiet, by the sweetness of his songs, which he accompanied on his lyre. His melodies were afterwards known as the Lesbian melodies; and, for a long time, they served as universal models. He did much to improve the art of music, and is said to have added three new strings to the lyre. Other accounts ascribe this improvement to Orpheus, Amphion, or even to Apollo. Terpander was probably the first to introduce the seven-stringed lyre into Sparta. The invention of the musical notation has also been attributed to him, and with some degree of probability, although some accounts refer it to Pythagoras, who lived a century later. The Lacedaemonians sang his songs at their festivals; and hence he has also been called the inventor of the scolia, or drinking songs, sung at the feasts of the ancient Greeks.-See Scolia, h. e.-Carmina convivalia Graecorum, by Ilgen (Jena, 1798). TERPodion ; one of the finest musical keyed instruments invented in modern times. The interior mechanism consists of wooden staves, which vibrate by the friction of a wooden cylinder, set in motion by a wheel, and thus produce the sweetest tones, susceptible of the finest swell and fall. The higher tones much resemble those of a flute, the lower those of the organ. It is particularly fine as an accompaniment of vocal music, but is less fit for compositions of a lively character. John David Buschmann of Friedrichsrode, near Gotha, is the inventor, and has exhibited his instruments in the large cities of Germany and o: TERPsichoke (she who loves dancing); one of the Muses, the inventress and patroness of the art of dancing and lyrical poetry. She is generally represent


ed with the tambourine (tympanum), crowned with flowers, and in a mirthful attitude. TERRA, the Earth, was a cosmological divinity of the ancients. After the chaos, says Hesiod, the extended earth was the abiding place of all the immortals, who inhabit the tops of snowy Olympus. By her own power she brought forth the starry heaven (Uranos), the lofty mountains, and the sea (Pontus). By Uranos she became the mother of the Titans (q.v.), Thea, Rhea, Mnemosyne, Themis, Phoebe, Tethys, the Cyclops, and the hundredhanded giants (Centimani). Uranos imprisoned these children, immediately af. ter their birth, in a dungeon. Terra, meditating revenge, prepared a sickle of adamant, and persuaded her sons to castrate their father. Saturn perpetrated the deed. Terra received the drops of blood which issued from the wound, by which being impregnated, she brought forth the Furies, Giants, and the Melian nymphs. By her son Pontus, she afterwards had Nereus, Thaumas, Phorcys, Ceto and Eurybia. Dissatisfied also with Saturn, she promised her daughter Rhea to bring up the new-born Jupiter, and carried him to Crete. When he had grown up, she aided him in obtaining the throne, advising him to free the imprisoned Centimans and Cyclops. TERRA Cotta (Italian) is the common name for a very large class of remains of antiquity, which have not, till recent times, been treated with the attention which they deserve. The mythical history of the Greek art celebrated Dibutades, Rhoecus, Theodos, as masters in works of clay, without, however, stating whether these works were baked, or merely dried in the sun. The Greeks may, at a later period, have given up the use of clay for large works, after they had become accustomed to marble and bronze; but clay was still used for fine pottery, and for lamps, of which so admirable specimens have come down to us. In Tuscany and Rome, however, works of sculpture, both entire figures and reliefs, in terra cotta, have been found in abundance. These are not generally of large size, though whole friezes and images on pediments were made of terra cotta in antiquity (fastigia templorum fictilia), but manifest the great skill of the #. gulinae, which were common in ome and Italy. The works of Damophilus, Arcesilaus and Pasiteles may have come down to us in copies, among the remains which, since the time of count


Caylus, have been more assiduously brought together in museums of antiquities. A collection, made on the spot, by Mr.Charles Townley, belongs at present to the treasures of the British museum (Description of the Collection of ancient Terracottas in the British Museum, with thirty-nine engravings, London, 1810, small folio); another, collected by Seroux d'Agincourt, was left by him to the museum of the Vatican (Recueil de Fragmens de Sculpture antique en Terre cuite, par M. Serour d'Agincourt, Paris, 1814, 4to.). Earlier than the appearance of these works, some relievi found at Welletri were described in the work Bassirilievi Volschi in Terra cotta (Rome, 1785, fol.). Accurate examination, particularly of the vessels, has shown a variety in the application of this material, which may lead to results of much advantage to modern art. The sorts of works distinguished are those dried in the air; those simply baked; those baked and colored, but not with fixed colors; those varnished, and having colors burnt in ; a mixed species, in which the colors are in part fixed, in part merely painted on the substance; and finally, the most costly of all, works with rich gilding. These different productions, as regards the material, are of the most various fineness. Much of what has come down to us may have been merely models and casts (typi, protypa, ectypa). The investigations of professor Busching into the history of this branch of the fine arts are important. He has traced it in the middle ages, and shown, by the monument of duke Henry IV (the Minnesinger) in the church of the cross at Breslau, that this art was successfully practised in Silesia in the thirteenth century (about 1290). Busching has illustrated this subject in a magnificent work. TERRA, or TIERRA DEL FUEgo; a group of islands lying to the south of the continent of South America, from which it is separated by the straits of Magellan (see Magalhaens), and extending from lat. 56° to 53' 30 S. The Southern extremity is cape Horn. (q.v.) It received its name, signifying Land of Fire, from the fires seen along its shores by the discoverer Magalhaens, who supposed them to be volcanic. The existence of volcanoes here has been doubted; but captain Hall saw one in activity in 1820, and captain Weddell found lava on the coast. The interior of these islands has never been explored. So far as they are known to us, they are rugged and unprolific. The climate is severe, and there are summits visible to mariners which appear to be covered with perpetual snow. Captain King states the mean temperature during the three winter months at 34.95, the maximum being 49.95, and the minimum 12°6. The inhabitants, at least those on the coasts, are in a very rude state; but they are friendly and ceable: they live by fishing. The seals are numerous on the coasts, and dogs, otters and guanacoes are also found here. The three principal islands of the group are King Charles's Southland, to the east, Santa Ines, or South Desolation, on the west, and Clarence island, lying between them. The latest information concerning this region is contained in Weddell's Voyage towards the South Pole (London, 1825), and the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society for 1831, art. xi, containing the results of the examination of the coasts by captain King. TERRA FIRMA (that is, firm land); mainland or continent, in opposition to insular territories. In Italy, the name of Terra firma, or il dominio Veneto, is given to the continental provinces of Venice, in contradistinction to the insular portions. By it is therefore signified the duchy of Venice (q.v.), Venetian Lombardy, the marquisate of Tarvis, the duchy of Friuli and Istria.-Under this name was formerly comprehended a vast extent of country in South America, forming a government under the authority of the crown of Spain, including several extensive provinces, and three audiences, which were fixed at Panama, Quito, and Santa Fé de Bogota. The large provinces were Terra Firma Proper, or Darien, Popayan, Quito and New Grenada, all of which were again subdivided into several smaller provinces or jurisdictions. These provinces afterwards formed the viceroyalty of New Grenada, and now constitute the republic of Colombia or New Grenada. (See Colombia, and Venezuela.) TERRA MAGELLAN1cA. (See Patagonia.) TERRA SIGILLATA (that is, sealed earth); called also Lemmian earth; a sort of bole (q.v.) found in the island of Lemnos, which was formerly much used in medicine, as a styptic, &c. It derives its name from the circumstance of its being impressed with the seal of the grand seignior, or the governor of the island. It is, however, found in other places in the East, as Armenia and Malta, and in Italy, France, &c. The Lemnian bole is detersive, like fuller's earth. (See Clay.) TERRAcINA; a town in the Campagna



di Roma, 47 miles south-east of Rome ; population, 9000. It is situated at the southern extremity of the Pontine marshes, in a picturesque situation, but rendered unhealthy by the surrounding marshes. It was anciently the capital of the Volsci, and named Anarur. The Greeks called it Trachyma, corrupted into Terracina. It had once a harbor; but that is now choked up. Near Terracina are considerable fragments of the Via Appia, made from Rome to Capua. TERRAIN ; a French word, used in military language for the natural condition of the ground on which any military operation takes place; and the expression embraces, therefore, all objects on the surface of the earth, which can affect the disposition to be made of troops. In English, the word ground is generally used. The Germans divide the doctrine of terrain into the general, which is much the same as that which others, call military geography (q.v.), and special, which is the accurate knowledge of a particular theatre of war. General conclusions may be drawn from experience, in which geology is often an assistant; but particular observation of the ground is always indispensable. TERRAs. (See Cements.) TERRAY, Joseph Marie, a notorious French minister of finance, born in 1715, entered the church, became an abbé, member of the spiritual bench of the parliament of Paris, insinuated himself into favor at court, and, during the last days of the reign of Louis XV, was minister of finance. Finding a great deficit in the treasury, he employed the most disceful means to cover it, and publicly eclared that he held his office only to rob, and because he excelled in that operation. He contrived new impositions, abolished the pensions which had been previously granted, and thus reduced many individuals to destitution. In addition to this, he treated with derision the unfortunate victims of his policy, who applied to him for relief. Louis XVI removed this monster (1775); and a horrible disease, the consequence of his excesses, put an end to his life in 1778. He was the subject of general execration ; and even his services in restoring order into the finances were overlooked, since he did not prevent the most shameless dissipation of the public money by the courtiers. TERRE NEUve ; the French for Newfoundland. (q.v.) TERRitory, in the U. States, a division of the country not included within the

« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »