Изображения страниц
PDF

TEMPLE.

Babylonish captivity (see Hebrews), a second temple, of the same form, but much inferior in ... was erected. Herod the Great rebuilt it of a larger size, surrounding it with four courts, rising above each other like terraces. The lower court was 500 cubits square, on three sides surrounded by a double, and on the fourth by a triple row of columns, and was called the court of the Gentiles, because individuals of all nations were admitted into it indiscriminately. A high wall separated the court of the women, 135 cubits square, in which the Jewish females assembled to perform their devotions, from the court of the Gentiles. From the court of the women fifteen steps led to the court of the temple, which was enclosed by a colonnade, and divided by trellis-work into the court of the Jewish men and the court of the priests. In the middle of this enclosure stood the temple of white marble, richly gilt, 100 cubits long and wide, and 60 cubits high, with a porch 100 cubits wide, and three galleries, like the first temple, which it resembled in the interior, except that the most holy was empty, and the height of Herod's temple was double the height of Solomon's. Rooms, appropriated for disferent purposes, filled the upper story above J. roof of the inner o The fame of this magnificent temple, which was destroyed by the Romans, and its religious significance with Jews and Christians, still render it more interesting to us than any other building of antiquity: To the Jew, it is even now a subject of sorrow and regret;" to the architect, a key to the history of the old Oriental architecture; to the free-mason, the most important symbol of his ritual. TEMPLE, sir William, an eminent statesman, the son of sir John Temple, was born in London, in 1628. At the ge of seventeen, he was entered of Emanuel college, Cambridge, under the tuition of Cudworth, and, in his twentyfifth year, commenced his travels, and passed six years in France, Holland, Flanders, and Germany. He returned in 1654, and, not choosing to accept any office under Cromwell, occupied himself in the study of history and philosophy. On the restoration, he was chosen a member of the Irish convention, when he acted with great independence; and, in 1661, he was returned representative for the county of Carlow. The following year, he was nominated one of the commissioners from the Irish parliament to the king, and removed to London. De

[ocr errors]

clining all employment out of the line of diplomacy, he was disregarded until the breaking out of the Dutch war, when he was employed in a secret mission to the bishop of Munster. This he executed so much to the satisfaction of the ministers, that, in the following year, he was appointed resident at Brussels, and received the patent of a baronetcy. In conjunction with DeWitt, he concluded the treaty between England, Holland, and Sweden |..."; 1668), with a view to oblige 'rance to restore her conquests in the Netherlands. He also attended, as ambassador extraordinary, and mediator, when peace was concluded between France and Spain, at Aix-la-Chapelle, and, subsequently residing at the Hague as anbassador, cultivated a close intimacy with De Witt, and became familiar with the prince of Orange, afterwards William III, then only in his eighteenth year. A change of politics at home led to the recall of Temple, in 1669, who,

refusing to assist in the intended breach with Holland, retired from public business to Sheen, and employed himself in

writing his Observations on the United Provinces, and part of his Miscellanies. In 1674, sir William Temple was again ambassador to the states-general, in order to o a general pacification. PreVious

Nimeguen (in 1678), he was instrumental in promoting the marriage of the prince of Orange with Mary, eldest daughter of the duke of York, which took place in 1677. In 1679, he was recalled from the Hague, and offered the post of secretary of state, which he declined. As a statesman, he was opposed to the exclusion of the duke of York. Disgusted by Charles's dissolution of the parliament in 1681, without the advice of his council, he declined the offer of being again returned for the university, and retired from public life altogether. In the reign of James II, he estranged himself entirely from politics; but when the revolution was concluded, he waited on the new monarch, to introduce his son, and was again requested to accept the office of secretary of state, which he once more declined. Hisson was afterwards appointed secretary at war, but, in a fit of melancholy, threw himself into the Thames, which only extorted from his father a maxim of the Stoic philosophy, that “a wise man might dispose of himself, and render life as short as he pleased.” About this time, sir William took Swift (q.v.) to live with him: he was likewise occasionally visited

y to its termination in the treaty of by king William. He died at Moor park, Surrey, in January, 1700, in his seventysecond year. Sir William Temple merits a high rank both as a statesman and a patriot. His Memoirs are important as regards the history of the times, as are likewise his Letters, published by Swift, after his death. All his works, which have been published collectively (in 2 vols., 4to., and 4 vols., 8vo., 1814), display a great acquaintance both with men and books, conveyed in a style negligent and incorrect, but agreeable, and much resembling that of easy and polite conversation. TEMPLE, Lord. (See Junius.) TEMPLE. (See Inns of Court.) TEMPLE-BAR, between Fleet street and the Strand, London. This handsome gate is the only one of the city boundaries now remaining. It was built after the great fire, by sir C. Wren, and is composed of Portland stone, of rustic work below, and of the Corinthian order. Over the gateway, on the east side, are statues of queen Elizabeth and James I; and on the west side, of Charles I and II. The heads of persons executed for high treason were formerly exhibited on this gate. Here, also, on particular occasions, the corporation of London receives the royal family, the herald's proclamations, or any distinguished visitors. When the king comes in state, the lord mayor here delivers to him the sword of state, which is returned, and then rides, bareheaded, immediately before him. TEMPLE, PALAce of THE (palais du temple); an edifice in Paris, built in 1222, for a residence of the Templars,whence its name. On the suppression of the order in 1312), it was given to the knights of salta; and, after the destruction of the Bastile, the tower was converted into a rison of state. (See Templars.) Louis XVI (q.v.) was confined here, with his family, previous to his execution. The palece of the grand prior is now convertedinto a Benedictine convent, instituted by the princess of Bourbon-Condé, in 1816. TEMPo (Italian for time) signifies, in music, the degree of quickness with which a musical piece is to be executed. This depends, of course, chiefly upon the character of the piece. Generally speaking, there are five principal degrees, designated by the following terms: largo, adagio, andante, allegro and presto ; and the intermediate degrees are described by additions. But it may be better to divide the tempo into three chief movements— slow, moderate, and quick—which again have several gradations, designated by

188 TEMPLE–TENARUs.

the following Italian words: 1. in the slow movements—largo, lento, ave, adagio, larghetto ; 2. in the moderate movement—andante, andantino, moderato, tempo giusto, allegretto, &c.; 3. in the quick movement—allegro (sometimes, also, allabreve), vivace, presto, prestissimo. If the degrees thus designated are to be modified still more, the following words are added to increase the rapidity—assai, molto, or di molto più ; and to lessen it, the words poco, or un poco, non tanto, non troppo meno, &c.; for instance, largo, or gio assai, or di molto, signifies very slow, as slow as possible ; allegro, or vivace assai, or molto, is quicker than the mere allegro or vivace ; presto assai, very quick; further, adagio non troppo, or poco adagio, is somewhat slower; wn poco allegro, somewhat less quick; vivace non tanto, not too lively, &c. Often, the predominating time is interrupted, in some passages slackening (rallentando, ri...} or quickening (accelerando, stringendo, più stretto), or it is left to the performer's pleasure (a piacere), in which case, those who accompany often have to guide themselves by the leading performer, which is called colla parte. If a more distinct time or the former time is to be resumed, the phrase a tempo, or tempo imo, is used. Several machines have en invented, by which the time of a piece or a passage can be accurately determined. (See Time.) The best measures of time, however, are taste, correct feeling, experience and judgment. Tempo Rubato (Italian, robbed time), delayed time, signifiés a species of expressive performance, particularly of slow pieces, in which something is taken from the duration of some notes of the principal voice, and the time, therefore, is not strictly observed; but in the general performance, and in the lower voices, the time is accurately observed. The tempo rubato accelerates some passages and retards others; but the unity of the whole does not suffer. The tempo rubato requires much practice and fine taste, and should not occur too frequently. TEN JURisdictions, LEAGUE of The. (See Grisons.) TENAILLE. (See Outworks.) TENARus; a town of the Peloponnesus, on the promontory of Taenarum (see .Matapan), near which was a cavern which was considered as the entrance to the habitation of Pluto. Through this cavern Hercules, dragged up Cerberus from the infernal regions, and Orpheus led his wife Eurydice back to earth. This fable gave rise to the practice of evoking spirits from the world of shades, and of restoring spectres to their resting places, by the performance of certain mystic ceremonies at the mouth of the cave. Hence the infernal regions are sometimes called Tenarus. There was a temple of Neptune on the promontory, which had the character of an asylum. The green marble of Tenarus (verd antique; see Marble) was much prized by the ancients; and the purple snail, which yielded the Lacedaemonian purple, the best produced in Europe, was found here. TENch (cyprinus tinca); a European fresh water fish, belonging to the carp family. It is distinguished by the diminutive size of the scales. The body is short and thick, the head large, and the lips thick; the length is generally less than a foot, but individuals are sometimes taken weighing five or six pounds. It is fond of still and muddy waters, and is taken both with net and line. The flesh is white, soft, insipid, and difficult of digestion. #.s. (See Muscle.) TENEDos ; a small island near the coast of Asia, not far from the Dardanelles; lon. 26° E.; lat. 39° 53' N.; population, 7000, about two thirds Turks, and one third Greeks; square miles, 35. The Greeks, when they feigned to abandon the siege of Troy, lay concealed behind this island. Tenedos is rocky, but fertile, and produces the finest wine in the Archi

TENARUS—TENIERS.

pelago. Its position near the mouth of the Hellespont has always made it important. Wessels bound to Constantinople

find shelter in its ports, or safe anchorage in the road, during contrary winds, and in foul weather. The principal town is of the same name, and has a population of about 5000, with a harbor and citadel. The harbor has been enclosed in a mole, of which no part now appears above water; but loose stones are piled on the foundations to break the waves. TENERIFFE ; one of the Canary islands. (q. v.) The chief town is Santa Cruz. As a natural object, it is chiefly remarkable for its summit, called the Peak of Teneriffe, of the sloping sides of which the island consists. Its commercial importance depends chiefly on its wine, of which from 10,000 to 15,000 pipes are annually exported: though inferior to Madeira, yet it is in considerable demand. Teneriffe also exports orchilla weed, rose wood, &c. The climate, on the coast, is hot; but at the elevation of 2000 feet, it is cool and agreeable. The cultivated

the archipel

189

parts are fertile, and produce orange, myrtle, cypress, date, and chestnut trees, vines, wheat, cocoa, coffee, sugar-cane, &c. The elevation of the Peak is about 12,250 feet. In ascending it, the first eminence is called Monte Verde: beyond this is the Mountain of Pines ; after passing which, the traveller reaches a plain called, by the natives, Mouton de Trigo, on which the Peak stands. It is a mountainous platform, rising more than 7000 feet above the level of the plain. The Piton or sugar-loaf summit is very steep, and can be ascended only on the east and south-east sides. At the elevation of 9786 feet is a platform of pumice stones, bordered by two currents of lava: beyond it the acclivity is very steep, the currents of lava being covered with masses of scoriae. Towards the summit, nothing but pumice stone is to be seen. The crater is of an elliptical form, about 1200 feet in circuit, but has long since ceased to emit flames; and the summit may be considered as an extinguished volcano. From the sides of the mountain, several violent eruptions have taken place within the present century. The view from the top of the Peak is peculiarly beautiful. With the steep and naked declivities of the mountain is contrasted the smiling aspect of the country beneath, with the towns and villages, the sails of vessels in the harbors, and beyond a vast extent of ocean, studded with o of the Canary islands. TENIERs, David; the name of two of the most celebrated artists of the Flemish school of painting, father and son, both natives of Antwerp, in which city the elder was born in 1582. Having studied under Rubens, he went to Rome, and remained there six years. On his return to his native country, he occupied himself principally in the delineation of fairs, shops, rustic sports and drinking parties, which he exhibited with such truth, humor and originality, that he may be considered the founder of a style of painting, which his son afterwards brought to perfection. His pictures are mostly small. The elder Teniers died in 1649.-His son, born in 1610, imitated the style and expression of his father, whom he much excelled in correctness and finish. He confined himself principally to the same subjects of low humor in his original pieces. The wonderful exactness with which he copied the productions of others deceived even the best judges of the age, and acquired him the appellation of the ape of painting. Leopold, archduke of Austria, made him one of the gentlemen of his bed-chamber. He died in 1694.— Another son, named Abraham, was also a good painter. TENNEssee, one of the United States of America, is bounded on the north by Kentucky and Virginia; on the east by North Carolina; on the south by Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi; and on the west by Mississippi river; lat. 35° to 36° 36 N.; lon. 81° 26' to 90° 16' W. It was originally included in North Carolina, from which it was separated, and admitted into the Union in 1796. Population in 1830, 684,822 (142,382 slaves); square miles, 40,000. The state is divided into two distinct sections by the Cumberland mountains, called East Tennessee and West Tenmessee. Mountains and hills occupy a great proportion of the state. In East Tennessee, the Alleghanies branch out into the Laurel and Cumberland ridges, and many of their o: are high. The valleys and the alluvions of the large and numerous rivers are very rich, and even the summits of some of the mountains have extensive plateaur, which are traversed by roads, are inhabited, and made to yield in abundance the productions of the Northern States. “There can be nothing,” says Mr. Flint, “of grand and imposing in scenery, nothing striking and picturesque in cascades and precipitous sides of mountains covered with woods, nothing romantic and delightful in deep and sheltered valleys, through which wind still and clear streams, which is not found in this state.” There is more land in Tennessee that is unfit for cultivation than in some of the neighboring states; but as great a proportion of what is cultivated is of the first quality. In East Tennessee, the soil contains an uncommon quantity of dissolved lime and nitrate of lime, which renders it very fertile. The descending strata, in West Tennessee, are arranged in the following order:-first, loamy soil, or a mixture of clay and sand; second, yellow clay; third, a mixture of red sand and red clay; fourth, white sand. White, red and gray marble, inexhaustible quarries of gypsum, burr millstones, rock crystals, lead, iron ore in abundance, are the minerals and fossils that are known. Salt springs are common, and nitrous earth is found in caves, sufficient to supply the whole country. These caves themselves are among the most remarkable curiosities in America. One of them was descended, not long since, 400 feet below the surface, and on the smooth limestone at the bottom was found a

190 TENIERs—TENNESSEE.

stream of pure water, sufficient to turn a mill. A cave on the Cumberland mountain has a perpendicular descent, the bottom of which has not yet been sounded. Some of these caves have been explored for ten or twelve miles. They have vaulted roofs of limestone, are frequently divided into spacious apartments, and abound with nitrous earth. They are so common that little attention is paid to them. Caves, in comparison with which the one so celebrated at Antiparos is but a slight excavation, are too common, in Tennessee, to be noticed. The climate of this state is generally delightful. In West Tennessee,

at quantities of cotton are produced. #.”. Tennessee, the climate is well adapted to grazing, and produces all kinds of grain and fruit which grow in the more northern states. The outlets of commerce are the noble rivers Cumberland and Tennessee; and along these the boats carry cotton, indigo, corn, whiskey, hogs, horses, cattle, flour, gunpowder, saltpetre, poultry, bacon, lard, butter, apples, pork, coarse linen, tobacco, and many other articles, which are principally designed for the market of New Orleans. The southern parts of the state, adjoining Alabama, will doubtless be connected by canals with the rivers of Alabama, and thus save a great extent of transportation. The principal rivers, the Cumberland and Tennessee, are described in separate articles. There are numerous others, which flow into these or into the Mississippi. Nashville and Knoxville are separately noticed. There are numerous villages which contain from 600 to 1800 inhabitants. A good description of the curiosities of Tennessee would make a very interesting and useful volume. “On some spurs of the Cumberland mountains,” says Mr. Flint, “are marked, in solid limestone, the footsteps of men, horses and other animals, as fresh as if recently made, and as distinct as if impressed upon clay mortar.” Similar tracks were found in a block of solid limestone, quarried on the margin of the Mississippi. Near the southern boundary of the state are three trees entirely petrified. One is a cypress, four feet in diameter; one a sycamore ; and the third a hickory. Prodigious claws, teeth and bones of animals are found near the salines. Some of these bones are perfect, and indicate an animal twenty feet high. A nest of eggs of the wild turkey have been dug up in a state of petrifaction. Walls of faced stone, and even walled wells, have been found in many places, which are undoubtedly the work of a remote generation. In this state, as well as in Missouri, are ancient burying grounds, where the skeletons seem all to have been pigmies. Even the graves in which the bodies are deposited are seldom more than two, or two and a half feet long; and the teeth show that these are skeletons of adults. Jugs, vases, idols of o: logs and coal, are dug from great depths. Beautiful cascades, falling from 200 to 400 feet, are seen in many places. On some high and apparently inaccessible rocks are numerous paintings, the work of remote ages. They consist of figures of the sun, moon, and various animals. Some of the delineations are good, and the colors are as fresh as if recently applied. The navigable streams pass, for many miles, through chasms of limestone, with perpendicular sides 300 or 400 feet high. There are three institutions in Tennessee that are called colleges—at Nashville, Marysville and Knoxville. Only the first is flourishing, and of great importance to the state. Academies and common schools are increasing, but education is not yet in an advanced state. The first permanent settlements of whites were made in East Tennessee, in 1768 and 1769. The settlers came from Virginia and North Carolina. Most of the territory was then occupied by Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws and Shawnees; and for many years the settlers were greatly annoyed by them. The first permanent settlements in West Tennessee were made in 1779. Here also the Indians made a formidable resistance to the encroachments of the whites, and continued to annoy them for many years. Very few, except of the Chickasaws, remain in Tennessee; and their numbers have so diminished that they have ceased to be formidable. The people of Tennessee are a hardy, intelligent and enterprising race, considering the unsettled state in which their civil interests were kept until the last fifteen years. Though a few scattering settlements preceded that eriod, the building of fort Loudon, in ast Tennessee (1757), commenced the real colonization of the country—a colonization made in blood. A war with the Cherokees broke out in 1759, and, in the ensuing year, fort Loudon was taken, and the garrison and inhabitants massacred. In 1761, colonel Grant forced the Indians to a peace, and settlers gradually entered Upper Tennessee. No real peace could be maintained with the savages; nor were the frontiers of Tennessee really safe until the close of the revolutionary war.

TENNESSEE-TENNIS.

191

West Tennessee began to be settled about the same period with East Tennessee; and the same causes of suffering and retardation operated on both settlements. The battle of King's mountain, Oct. 7, 1780, gained, in great part, by the hardy riflemen of Tennessee and Kentucky, was the expiring struggle of the British, and gave them security against the savages. Intestine violence, however, distracted the country for several years. Between 1784 and 1789, attempts were made to form East Tennessee into a separate state by the name of Frankland. In 1790, North Carolina ceded the whole of what is now Tennessee to the U. States; and the same year, in May, it was made the territory south-west of the Ohio. The territorial government continued until June, 1795, when, the inhabitants of both Tennessees being found to amount to . 77,262, a convention was called, which met at Knoxville, Jan. 11, 1796, and, on Feb. 9, reported a constitution for the new state, which, on June 1 of the same year, was formally received into the confederacy as an independent member. TENNEss EE River rises in the Alleghany mountains, traverses East Tennessee, crosses nearly the whole northern part of Alabama, then turns to the northward, and crosses Tennessee and Kentucky, and unites with the Ohio, thirteen imiles below the mouth of the Cumberland, and fifty-seven above the mouth of the Ohio. Its length by its meanders is about 1200 miles, which is considerably greater than that of the Ohio from Pittsburg to the Mississippi, and about as great as that of the Ohio including either of its head branches. Many suppose that the Tennessee contributes as much water as the Ohio. The Tennessee is susceptible of navigation for at least 1000 miles, and has no considerable obstructions. Its head branches are Holston, Nolachucky, French Broad, Tellico, Richland and Clinch. In its whole course, it is continually receiving rivers that have courses in the mountains. The principal of these are Powell's, Sequalchee, Elk and Duck. The country through which it flows is remarkable for its fertility, and a great part of it is healthy. TENNIs ; a pastime, or game at ball, which seems to have been introduced into England in the beginning of the thirteenth century, by persons of rank, who erected courts, or oblong edifices, for the performance of it. The origin of the name is uncertain.—The celebrated oath of the tennis court (jeu de paume) was

« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »