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true. Mr. Richards has given a very instructive account of the political career of Governor Briggs, and an affecting narrative (pp. 396-411) of his death. The volume deserves a place in every Christian family. Why should not such a biography be as interesting as the majority of religious novels? What fictitious scene is more thrilling to a rational observer than that indicated on page 432 of this narrative?

THE HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY from the Birth of Christ to the Abolition of Paganism in the Roman Empire. By Henry Hart Milman, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. 3 Vols. New York: W. I. Widdleton; Boston: W. H. Piper and Co.

This is a new and revised edition of a work first published more than twenty years ago. Like all the writings of Dean Milman, it is temperate, moderate in tone, popular in character, and at the same time sufficiently learned, written in a style occasionally somewhat formal but clear, easy, and often picturesque, and affording to the common reader an excellent and safe introduction to the early history of the religion which we believe. The form of this edition is much to be preferred to that of the first. It is convenient for reading, and the disposition of the notes and appendices is such as to bring the subjects easily under the eye.

HISTORY OF ENGLAND, from the Fall of Wolsey to the Death of Elizabeth. By James Anthony Froude, M.A. Vols. V. and VI. New York: Charles Scribner and Co.; Boston: W. H. Piper and Co.

These two volumes well sustain the fresh interest of this important history. They embrace the period from January 1547, when the Earl of Hartford was made protector of the realm, to the death of Queen Mary, in November 1558. This period, though less brilliant and imposing than many others in the annals of England, is among the most important, because covering the last nearly successful struggle of the Papacy for supremacy in that country. We have portrayed here the protectorate, the administration and execution of Somerset, the conspiracy of Northumberland, the intrigues by which one of the most beautiful, accomplished, unambitious, and devoutly good women of England, Lady Jane Grey, was placed upon the throne for a few brief days, on her way to the scaffold, which she consecrated by her blood, the cruel reign of Mary, the reconciliation with Rome, the martyrdom of the Protestants, and the downfall of the Papal power in England. A new interest is thrown over these events by the free use of original materials, often ipsissimis verbis, and by a style of narrative singularly clear and forcible. The author finds no occasion to impugn the general judgment of history, as in the case of Henry VIII., but he evidently aims to be just, and to separate private character from political action. The following is his brief judgment of Mary: "No English sovereign ever ascended the throne with larger popu

larity than Mary Tudor. ..... She reigned little more than five years, and she descended into the grave amidst curses deeper than the acclamations which had welcomed her accession. In that brief time she had swathed her name in the horrid epithet which will cling to it forever; and yet from the passions which in general tempt sovereigns into crime she was entirely free; to the time of her accession she had lived a blameless, and in many respects a noble life; and few men and women have lived less capable of doing knowingly a wrong thing." Four more volumes we believe, will complete the reign of Elizabeth. We congratulate the enterprising publisher on the beautiful style in which the book is printed, leaving so little to be desired for the gratification of the eye and taste in general.

THE SCIENCE OF WEALTH: A Manual of Political Economy, embracing the Laws of Trade, Currency, and Finance. By Amasa Walker, Lecturer on Political Economy in Amherst College. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company. 1866.

This work is the product of patient study. The author was for many years a merchant in Boston, and was led by his occupation to reflect upon the nature and laws of wealth. For more than twenty years, since his retirement from the city, he has been a lecturer on Political Economy, in several of our public institutions, mostly in Amherst College. We have therefore in the work before us the result of forty years observation and reflection.

The treatise is restricted to Political Economy in the narrow sense of the term-to "the laws by which the production and consumption of wealth are governed." As a designation of the subject, "Science of Wealth" is preferred to "Political Economy," because the latter may include the expediencies of politics or the moral interests of civilization, matters which can here claim consideration only as they aid in the production of wealth or regulate its proper consumption.

A marked trait of this work is the author's unflinching confidence in the laws of which he treats. To his view they maintain an unbending steadfastness in peace and war, regardless alike of aid and opposition. For example, he says: "The great principle of value is, demand creates supply; supply satisfies demand. They are measured against each other and found equal. There is no supply which demand does not call for; there is no supply which is not enough for demand. And the reason for this perfect equality is, that value cannot exist without labor” (p. 155).

He would be ready at once, and in advance, to condemn all forms of credit currency on the principle here stated. They have no value, therefore do not obey the laws of value, therefore are not trustworthy. His remarks upon usury laws, and upon the futility of philanthropic efforts to increase the wages of females, are other illustrations of the trust which he reposes in the laws of wealth.

It would be more correct to say that this work is in advance of the age, than that it falls in with the tendency of the age. The most liberal sentiments in reference to international amity and commerce are inculcated. The old theory that national wealth consists in the possession of gold is summarily dismissed thus: "Let it be said to the shame of mankind that the mercantile theory was undoubted till the middle of the last century; proclaiming as truth and pursuing as policy, the world over, the double lie that the only wealth is gold and silver, and that what one people gains in wealth another must lose" (p. 54).

The present treatise favors the most perfect freedom of trade. The author considers foreign nations as neighbors who do us a favor if they furnish us a market, and not the less if they supply our own.

The subject to which Mr. Walker has given his most careful attention, studied most minutely, is the currency. He has devoted to it one hundred and seventeen pages in a work of four hundred and seventy, and has added numerous tables illustrative of the views which he adopts. His fundamental position is that money should have value-cost, in ordinary business, the same labor as the thing for which it is paid. A mixed currency he considers as having none of the virtues of a value currency; and as being, in case of panic, a most potent engine of evil, convertible only when no one needs the specie, a huge lever of oppression when the specie is withdrawn from the country, a false and variable standard of value, a temptation to speculators, a lure to adventurers, a fraud upon invested property, unsettling salaries and deranging prices, it is, as he argues, the chief source of our financial woes. With credit money an increase of circulation is a decrease of the incomes of laborers, capitalists, small tradesmen, and salaried men. It is therefore the interest of the vast majority of the people to banish a fluctuating currency. Agents, office-holders, pastors, teachers, all know that nothing is so variable as a fixed salary. Of the interests of the agriculturist the author reasons thus: "Unfavorable as the influence of mixed currency is upon all branches of industry, the agriculture of the United States is especially injured by it, because, as a people, we have a large surplus of agricultural products that must find sale in foreign markets. Whatever such surplus is worth for export determines the price of the whole crop; and the value or price is determined by the value or price of gold. The produce of the farmer, then, must be sold at a gold standard; but all he purchases for himself and family is bought at currency prices. How much difference this may make is seen at the present time, when commodities in general are one hundred and twenty per cent above par, while gold is but forty" (p. 205).

The book contains many other instances of acute observation and ingenious reasoning, but we have not space to notice them.

The work to which we have now called attention, is well adapted to the use of students in our institutions of learning. It is clear, full, without

being voluminous, and orderly in arrangement. Many will object to some of its theories, but a teacher may modify or refute, where he does not approve. A text-book should lay the proper subjects fairly before the mind of the pupil; this, we believe, "The Science of Wealth" will successfully accomplish.

AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL LAW: The Law of Religious Societies, Church Government, and Creeds, Disturbing Religious Meetings, and the Law of Burial Grounds in the United States, with Practical Forms. By R. H. Tyler, Counsellor-at-Law. 8vo. pp. 539. Albany: William Gould. 1866.

Mr. Tyler affirms in his preface: "No work of this kind has heretofore made its appearance," etc. With due deference to this authority we must reply that in the Bibliotheca Sacra, vol. xxiii. p. 352, is a notice of "Massachusetts Ecclesiastical Law, by Edward Buck, of the Suffolk Bar. 12mo. pp. 310." Mr. Buck's volume made its appearance some time before Mr. Tyler's, and treated of the same topics; namely, Religious Societies, Church Government, Creeds, Disturbing Religious Meetings, the Law of Burial-Grounds, Meeting-Houses, Pews, etc. Mr. Buck's volume states the ecclesiastical laws of Massachusetts, but contains frequent allusions to the statutes and usages of other States. It abounds with references and condensed statements of cases, no small part of which make their appearance in Mr. Tyler's volume; many novel features in the plan of Mr. Buck's work are also introduced into Mr. Tyler's. We have discovered a striking similarity between the train of thought adopted on some topics by Mr. Tyler, and the train of thought previously adopted on the same topics by Mr. Buck. We think we are not mistaken in affirming that the name of Mr. Buck or of his interesting treatise does not appear in Mr. Tyler's five hundred and thirty-nine pages; and it may be said of these pages, as of the creation itself, " that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear." But although the title of Mr. Buck's Ecclesiastical Law does not appear in Mr. Tyler's pages, the genius and suggestions of it are there; and the following columns contain only a few of the proofs that Mr. Tyler's pages have a mysterious agreement with a treatise which he himself could never have perused, for he takes especial pains to announce that "no work of this kind has heretofore made its appearance," although he confesses that the want of such a work has been long felt.

TYLER'S Ecclesiastical Law. "It may also be asserted, that this continent has been dedicated to the uses of religion. When discovered Columbus caused," etc. Here follows the substance of the quotation from "Select Letters of Columbus,” page not stated (p. 18).

BUCK's Ecclesiastical Law.

"At the discovery of our continent Columbus consecrated it to religious uses," etc. Here follows a quotation from "Select Letters of Columbus," page not stated (p. 15).

"Admirals of the established Church of England were no less elaborate in their rites and ceremonies in the countries which they discovered at the far north." After a storm, etc.,-quoted from Z. Hakluyt, 116 (pp. 15, 16).

"But all these questions as to modes of swearing, and the quantity of belief necessary to make a witness competent keenly discussed heretofore in civil and criminal cases, are much relieved by the General Statutes of 1860, by which every person,” etc (p. 202).

Mr. Buck, speaking of "the colonists of Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay, who came to found a 'plantation religious," quotes “an ordinance of 1679, requiring the council or county courts to appoint an able and discreet committee," etc.; here follows the ordinance (p. 17.)

"The burial-ground in Massachurells generally belongs to the town, and by statute towns are allowed the charge of it. It was commonly a part of the meeting-house lot.' There are instances where the burial-ground belongs to the parish or religious society, rather than the town, by reason of the original grant or deed being made to the parish or the precinct, which is the equivalent of a parish. To whomsoever this sacred enclosure,” etc. (p. 157.)

"It appears that the Admirals of the Church of England were also elaborate in their rites and ceremonies in the countries which they discovered at the north. "After a storm" etc. quoted from Z. Hakluyt, 116 (p. 19).

"But this question as to the religious belief necessary to render a witness competent, so much discussed heretofore by the Massachusetts courts, is now set at rest by the General Statutes of 1860, by which 'every person,” etc. Here follows the same quotation as that in the left hand column (p. 26).

Mr. Tyler, speaking of "the colonists of Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay," says: "In 1679 an ordinance was passed by the council or county courts to appoint an able and discreet committee," etc. Here follows the ordinance as quoted by Mr. Buck. These colonists came to New England" for the purpose of founding a 'plantation religious'" (p. 19).

"In the State of Massachusetts the burial-ground generally belongs to the town. At an early day it was a part of the meeting-house lot, laid out in the immediate vicinity of the house, and almost uniformly belonged to the town, and was subject to its exclusive care and control." "In some cases this sacred enclosure belongs to the parish or religious society, rather than the town, by reason of the original conveyance being made to the parish or the precinct, which is equivalent to the parish" (p. 454).

"And in most cases the General Court would appoint a committee with power to grant and lay out the whole of the lands of a township to such persons 6 as the committee in their wisdom think most likely to

"The General Court, in the year 1717, appoint a committee with power to grant and lay out the whole of the lands of the township to such persons 'as the committee in their wisdom think most likely to advance the set

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