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cation and melody of diction, and man. James studied for several embodies his thoughts in the most years at the University of Edinmusical, condensed, and enduring burgh, removed to London in 1726, forms. He has at the same time and in 1730 published the whole of the art to conceal art. Few English his celebrated poem, parts of which poets have given to their verse so had previously appeared. It was much of that charm which seems remarkably successful. The style independent of the thought, and to is in some parts pompous and inlie in the grace and appropriateness flated, but the closeness with which of the structure. At Farringford in he has observed external nature has the Isle of Wight, Tennyson has seldom been surpassed; and the resided for many years, amid green poetic intuition with which he apundulating woodland, thick with prehends the features of a landapple-trees, and fringed with silver scape, and the moral associations sand and rocks, on which the light which clothe it with the finest part green summer sea and the black of its beauty, is keen and unerring. waves of winter flow with the Thomson wrote tragedies, but they changeful music of the seasons. are now forgotten. His “ Castle of Here in his quiet home he sees little Indolence,” however, is a noble society except that of a few chosen specimen of poetic art. It.is Thomfriends.

son's greatest poem, and on it he From the May Queen, p. 53. lavished the wealth of his ripened Bugle Song, p. 60.

genius. Living in a cottage at Kew, Welcome to Alexandra, p. 63. the poet caught cold in sailing up Ring out, wild Bells, p. 117.

the Thames, and died of fever in Charge of Light Brigade, p. 458. 1748. He was a friendly, shy, and

Independence on Fortune, p. 484. indolent man.
THACKERAY, WM. MAKEPEACE, nov Hymn of the Seasons, p. 331.

elist and essayist, was the son of a THRALLDOM or THRALDOM.
clergymnan, and born in Calcutta in | TI'ARA (ti-air'a).
1811. He studied at the university TIN'CHEL, a circle of sportsmen, who,
of Canıbridge, in England, but left by surrounding a great space, and
without taking a degree. His novel gradually narrowing, brought im-
of “ Vanity Fair," published in mense quantities of deer together.
1846, was the first work by which TINY (ti'ny or tỉn'y).
he rose to any great distinction, To (generally pronounced too, the oo
though he had previously written rather short).
a number of satirical works for the Tobin, John, an English dramatist,
Magazines. In 1855 he visited the born at Salisbury, England, 1770,
United States, and delivered in the died 1804. He wrote the “ Honey-
principal cities a series of lectures Moon," from which see an extract,
on the English humorists. One of
his best novels, “ The Newcomes," TÓCQUEVILLE, ALEXIS DE (tok’vil), a
appeared in 1855, after his return distinguished French statesman and
to England. During his editorship writer, author of “Democracy in
of the London“ Cornhill Magazine's America," was born at Verneuil in
he wrote a series of articles under France, July 29, 1805, died 1859.
the title of " Roundabout Papers," See an eloquent account of his life
which were deservedly popular. by his friend Beaumont, p. 132.
Thackeray had, during his life, his Quotations from De Tocqueville,
full share of abuse; but he man pp. 337, 338.
fully lived, or rather wrote it down. Democracy adverse to Socialism,
He died quite suddenly, in 1863.

p. 299. A Plea for Dunces, p. 74.

An American Wilderness, p. 358. Irving and Macaulay, p. 351. TORTOISE (tor'tiz or tor'tis). THEATRE or THEATER.

TOWARD or TOWARDS, prep. (to'urd THEREFORE (ther'fore or thare!-! or to'urdz).

fore ; the former is the preferred Toward, adj. (to'wurd). mode).

| Toulmain, Dr., an English scientific THOMSON, James, author of “ The writer; quoted, p. 469.

Seasons," a poem, was born in 1700, TRANSVERSE, adj. (trans-vers'), runat Ednam, in Roxburgshire, Eng- ning or passing in a cross direction. laud, where his father was a clergy- | TRANSITION (tran-sizh'un).

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executed in London, in 1305. See TRI'Ton, in mythology, a marine p. 166. demi-god, half man, half fish, the Wan (won, not wăn).

fabled trumpeter of Neptune. WAND (wond, not wănd, except somoTRO-CHEE (tro'ke), a certain metrical times in poetry).

foot; in English an accented and an WANDERING JEW, THE, an imaginary unaccented syllable.

personage, whose existence is deTROPHY (tro

rived from a legend, that when our Tully, the Anglicized name of Tul Savior was on his way to execution,

lius, and a name by which Cicero he rested on a stone before the house

(Marcus Tullius) is often called. of a Jew, nained Ahasuērus, who TYROL (tir'rol or te-rol).

drove him away with curses; whereUNION (yoon'yun). This word is upon Jesus replied, “Wander thou

from the Latin unio, oneness, which upon the earth till I return." The is from unus, one.

fable runs that the Jew, racked with UPPER BENJAMIN, the obsolete name remorse, has ever since been wanof a sort of overcoat.

dering over the earth. VAL'or. This word is from the Latin WARE, HENRY, an American clergyva'le-o, to be strong.

man and writer, was born in HingVANE, SIR HENRY, was born in Had ham, Massachusetts, 1794; died

low, in Kent, England, in 1612. 1843. He became pastor of the After the restoration of that royal Second Church in Boston in 1816. profligate, Charles II., Vane was Some thirteen years afterward he condemned for treason, and behead accepted the professorship of pulpit ed on Tower Hill, June 14, 1662. eloquence in the Divinity School of He had been governor of Massachu Harvard University. His poetica! setts in 1635. He was a zealous writings are at once vigorous and republican, a man of sincere relig graceful in their style. ious convictions, and courageously WARRIOR (wór/re-ur). opposed to the usurpations of Crom WASHINGTON, GEORGE, the “ first in well. Honor to his memory !

war," as well as “ in peace,” among VAUNT (vawnt or vänt).

the Americans, was born February VEHEMENT (ve'he-ment).

22, 1732, near the banks of the PoVERMEIL (ver'mil).

tomac, in the county of WestmoreVERRES (věr'rēz). See Cicero's land, Virginia. That he was dilispeech, p. 456.

gent and studious in his youth his VINCENT, CHARLES, a French song writings in mature years abunwriter, was born at Fontainebleau, dantly testified. He entered the April 15, 1826. He has published military service of the colony in numerous poems and songs, which 1751; was in Braddock's expedition

have been popular. See p. 95. in 1755, and had two horses shot VIRGIL (Publius Virgilius Maro), the under him; was appointed com

great epic poet of the Romans, was mander-in-chief of the American born near Mantua, in Italy, B. C. army in 1775; was elected Presi70, and died B. C. 19. The Æneid dent of the Convention for forming is the work by which he won his the Constitution in 1787; was electprincipal fame.

ed President of the United States Virginia, the beautiful daughter of in 1789, again in 1793, and died in

Lucius Virginius, a brave centurion 1799. For a further sketch of his of ancient Rome, was seized as a career, see p. 107; also Webster's slave, and awarded by Appius Clau remarks, p. 197. dius to his freedman Marcus. To Counsels of Washington, p. 87. save his daughter from dishonor, WEARY (wēar'y). Virginius stabbed her, exclaiming, WEBSTER, DANIEL, the great Ameri" There is no way but this to keep can lawyer, orator, and statesman, thee free." See Macaulay's ballad, was born in Salisbury, New Hampp. 442.

shire, January 18, 1782; died at his Visor (viz'or).

residence in Marshfield, MassachuWALLACE, SIR WILLIAM, the national | setts, October 24, 1852. His parents

hero of Scotland, is supposed to were poor; but he was enabled to have been born about the year enter Dartmouth College in 1797. 1270. He gained several battles He first practiced law in his native over the English,but was inhumanly | State, and was in Congress in 1812. He removed to Boston in 1816, was | Wilson, John, a poet and magazine sent to Congress from that city in | writer, was born in Paisley, Scots 1822, and from that time up to the land, 1785. Educated at Oxford, period of his death was in public he put forth, in 1812, the “ Isle of Iife, distinguishing himself by many Palms," and soon afterward the remarkable efforts of eloquence, “ City of the Plague,” and “Uniwhich pláce him in the front rank more," the principal contributions of great orators, with Demosthenes, of his fanciful and capricious muse. Chatham, Mirabeau, Grattan, and There is a soft, liquid flow of musiPatrick He

cal expression in these poems, with Webster's style is distinguished a vague, dreamy wildness and paat once for elegance, simplicity, thos, in combination with an exand strength; rising at fitting times uberant fancy. It is as a proseinto the highest region of eloquence writer, however, that Wilson takes and beauty. Singularly clear and rank among the literary Titans of impressive as he is in argument, his his native land. In 1820 he became sparing use of rhetorical embellish connected with Blackwood's Edinments render them all the more burgh Magazine, where he wrote, effective whenever they are intro under the name of Christopher duced into his diction. Appealing North, a series of political and litgenerally to the reason only, he erary papers which attracted great can also rouse the passions as by attention. He died 1854. a thunder-peal when he would rise Address to a Wild Deer, p. 162. to the height of a great occasion, Wilson, HENRY, Senator of the United by enlisting the moral and emotion States, was born in Farmnington, N. al nature in sympathy with his H., 1812, of poor parents. He was cause. Of his political course it ! elected to the U.S. Senate from Mashas been truly said, that the key to sachusetts, as successor of Edward it is “the belief that when the Everett, in 1855. Union is dissolved, the internal WILSON, ALEXANDER, the celebrated peace, the vigorous growth and ornithologist, was born at Paisley, prosperity of the States, and the Scotland, and came to Delaware in welfare of their inhabitants, are 1794. Removing to Philadelphia, blighted forever, and that, while the he devoted hiinself to natural his. Union endures, all else of trial and tory. He possessed considerable calamity which can befall a nation taste for literature, and wrote some may be remedied or borne."

poems of merit. He died in 1813.
Declaration of Independence,p.96. WOEFUL or WoFUL.
Washington and Union, p. 197. | WORDSWORTH, WILLIAM, born at
The Constitution, p. 342.

Cockermouth, in Cumberland, Eng. WELLINGTON, ARTHUR WELLESLEY, | land, April 7, 1770, was sent to St.

duke of Wellington, was born in John's college, Cambridge, in 1787. Ireland, May 1, 1769, died 1852. He took his degree in 1791, without He is regarded as the greatest of any great distinction as a scholar. English generals. In 1815 he won | For several years after the outbreak the battle of Waterloo against Na of the French revolution he was an poleon. After retiring from active ardent republican; but the excesses military service, he exercised great of the extreme party in France

political influence in the cabinet. altered his political views. His WILLFUL OF WILFUL.

friends wished him to enter the Wirt, WM., an eminent American Church. Without attaching himself advocate and writer, was born in to any profession, he wandered Bladensburg, Md., 1772, and was about, gradually satisfying himself admitted to the bar in 1792. The that he was justified in regarding part he took in the famous trial of poetry as his true vocation. Aaron Burr gave him his greatest In 1797 he had conceived a plan distinction as an eloquent pleader. for the regeneration of English His “ Letters of a British Spy," the poetry. In 1798 he published, in 66 Old Bachelor," and a “ Life of conjunction with Coleridge, a colPatrick Henry," enjoyed great pop lection of “ Lyrical Ballads.” Most ularity in their day. He died 1835. of these were from his own pen; but

Burr and Blennerhassett, p. 321. | the book, so far from making conOratory of Patrick Henry, p. 401.1 verts to his way of thinking, was

very generally abused and ridiculed really the greatest English poet of by the critics. Still, many of his his time, but was regarded with a readers sympathized with his views, reverence due to him as one of the and through their encouragement, purest and most blameless of the he was induced to publish, in 1807, poets who have enriched and entwo other volumes of poetry. In larged the domain of English liter1814 was published his great work, ature. In his poetry the soul of “ The Excursion." On its appear man is made to animate nature, as, ance, Jeffrey, the great Edinburgh in the Platonic philosophy, the critic, wrote of it, " This will never Deity was the innate spirit of the do.” And yet it has been doing universe. Nature inhabits him, and ever since, more and more every he inhabits nature, with a reci. year. Coleridge describes it as procity of life-giving influence. He being characterized by “an austere has widened the glance of faith, and purity of language, both gramınati hope, and charity, and has given to cally and logically."

the “huinblest daisy on the mounIn 1813 Wordsworth removed to tain-side" a voice " to bid the Rydal Mount, among the lakes of doubting sons of men be still." Cumberland, which was his home In 1843, on the death of Southey, for the rest of his life. From him Wordsworth became poet-laureate. and his companions, Southey and He died on the 23d of April, 1850, Coleridge, who resided near him for a few days after the completion of a time, the Lake School of poetry his 80th year. derived its name. Originally ap From the Ode to Immortality, pp. plied in contempt, it gradually grew 61, 62, 77. to be the recognized title of Words The Sonnet, p. 122. worth and his disciples. Choosing | The Happy Warrior, p. 170. the simplest forms of speech as the Ode to Duty, p. 405. vehicle of their thoughts, the poets | Wound (woond or wownd). of this school took their subjects WRACK, synonymous with wreck, and often from among the commonest an ancient form of that word; also, things.

a kind of sea-weed. The chief remaining works of this Y-CLEPED (1-klept'). great writer are “ The White Doel YEA (yā or yē). of Rylstone”; “Ode on Immortali-YEARN (yern).' ty"; " Memorials of a Tour on the Young, EDWARD, a poet and clergyContinent”; “Yarrow Revisited, man, was born near Winchester, and other Poems"; and “ The Pre England, in 1684; died 1765. His lude," a fragment of autobiography, poem of the “ Night Thoughts,” by describing the growth of a poet's which he is now chiefly known, was mind, and which was not published not completed till 1746, when he till the author was dead. In the was 62 years old. It has many composition of sonnets, a poetic beauties and many defects. In its form of which he was remarkably epigrammatic style, its frequent fond, he has not been excelled by antitheses, and its perpetual ingethe finest of the old masters.

nuity of strained analogies, it often Before his death, Wordsworth, invites criticism; but no one can who on his appearance as a poet dispute the compressed power of had been laughed at and abused by the language, and the appropriatethe leading critics, was not only ness and elevation of much of the acknowledged, and justly, to be! thought.

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